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Lindström, Sivert
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Zeng, J., Xie, K., Jiang, C., Mo, J. & Lindström, S. (2012). Bladder mechanoreceptor changes after artificial bladder outlet obstruction in the anesthetized rat. Neurourology and Urodynamics, 31(1), 178-184
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bladder mechanoreceptor changes after artificial bladder outlet obstruction in the anesthetized rat
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2012 (English)In: Neurourology and Urodynamics, ISSN 0733-2467, E-ISSN 1520-6777, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 178-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims Experimental animal models of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) have reproduced several features of BOO in man, i.e., detrusor hypertrophy, instability, frequency, and residual urine. This study was focused on the mechanisms underlying the development of residual urine in patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by examining changes in tension sensitivity of bladder mechanoreceptors in rat model. Methods: Female adult Sprague-Dawley rats including 12 BOO and 17 sham operated rats were used in this study. Cystometrograms together with the bladder afferent activity were recorded. Tension sensitivity of the afferents was determined by plotting the normalized afferent response against the contraction evoked bladder pressure at different volumes. Degree of obstruction was assessed by the wet weight of the bladder at the end of the experiment. Results: The bladder weight, maximal bladder capacity, micturition threshold volume, peak contraction force, and volume at peak contraction force were all significantly increased in obstructed animals. The threshold volume for afferent activation was increased ( mean 0.60 ml compared to 0.15 ml in controls; P andlt; 0.001), positively correlated with the bladder weight ( r 0.74). The tension sensitivity of the bladder mechanoreceptors and the slope of their normalized pressure-response functions were significantly lower at the comparable volumes in the obstructed animals. Conclusions: Rats with BOO had bladder mechanoreceptors with higher threshold volumes and lower tension sensitivity. Such changes would result in a weaker afferent drive of the micturition reflex. Similar changes may contribute to the development of residual urine and retention in patients with BOO. Neurourol. Urodynam. 31: 178-184, 2012. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2012
Keywords
afferent, cystometry, obstruction, rat, receptor, reflex, residual urine
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75119 (URN)10.1002/nau.21219 (DOI)000299372300032 ()
Note
Funding Agencies|Swedish Medical Research Council|04767|Qingyuan City Peoples Hospital of Jinan University, China||Available from: 2012-02-21 Created: 2012-02-17 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Zeng, J., Pan, C., Jiang, C. & Lindström, S. (2012). Cause of Residual Urine in Bladder Outlet Obstruction: An Experimental Study in the Rat. Journal of Urology, 188(3), 1027-1032
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cause of Residual Urine in Bladder Outlet Obstruction: An Experimental Study in the Rat
2012 (English)In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, E-ISSN 1527-3792, Vol. 188, no 3, p. 1027-1032Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: We explored the role of bladder mechanoreceptors in post-void residual urine in rats with bladder outlet obstruction. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMaterials and Methods: Partial bladder outlet obstruction was induced by a urethral ligature in 11 adult female Sprague-Dawley (R) rats. Nine sham operated rats served as controls. The outcome was evaluated in acute experiments using alpha-chloralose anesthesia 6 weeks later. Bladders were catheterized for infusion, pressure recording and intravesical electrical stimulation. Bladder efferent activity was recorded from a thin pelvic nerve branch close to the bladder. Micturition contractions were triggered at different bladder volumes by a brief train of electrical stimulation of bladder afferents while monitoring post-stimulus efferent activity and reflex bladder contractions. The degree of obstruction was assessed by bladder wet weight at the end of the experiment. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Bladder weight, micturition threshold volume, anatomical bladder capacity and peak contraction force were significantly increased in obstructed rats. In sham operated controls a triggered micturition reflex was sustained by afferent feedback from the bladder until the bladder was empty. In contrast, reflex discharges failed with substantial volume remaining in the bladder in obstructed rats. The minimal micturition reflex volume correlated positively with bladder weight, micturition threshold volume and maximal bladder capacity (r andgt;= 0.74). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: In rats with partial bladder outlet obstruction the micturition reflex failed before the bladder was empty due to a decreased afferent drive from bladder mechanoreceptors. Similar changes may contribute to post-void residual urine in humans with bladder outlet obstruction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
urinary bladder, urinary bladder neck obstruction, reflex, mechanoreceptors, rats, Sprague-Dawley
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84898 (URN)10.1016/j.juro.2012.04.101 (DOI)000307551200114 ()
Available from: 2012-10-26 Created: 2012-10-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Lindström, S. & Wrobel, A. (2011). Feedforward and recurrent inhibitory receptive fields of principal cells in the cats dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. PFLUGERS ARCHIV-EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY, 461(2), 277-294
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feedforward and recurrent inhibitory receptive fields of principal cells in the cats dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus
2011 (English)In: PFLUGERS ARCHIV-EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY, ISSN 0031-6768, Vol. 461, no 2, p. 277-294Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Principal cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus receive both feedforward and recurrent inhibition. Despite many years of study, the receptive field structure of these inhibitory mechanisms has not been determined. Here, we have used intracellular recordings in vivo to differentiate between the two types of inhibition and map their respective receptive fields. The feedforward inhibition of a principal cell originates from the same type of retinal ganglion cells as its excitation, while the recurrent inhibition is provided by both on- and off-centre cells. Both inhibitory effects are strongest at the centre of the excitatory receptive field. The diameter of the feedforward inhibitory field is two times larger, and the recurrent two to four times larger than the excitatory field centre. The inhibitory circuitry is similar for X and Y principal cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science Business Media, 2011
Keywords
Dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, Postsynaptic inhibition, Receptive fields
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66859 (URN)10.1007/s00424-010-0900-7 (DOI)000286393700007 ()
Available from: 2011-03-22 Created: 2011-03-21 Last updated: 2011-03-22
Jiang, C., Mazieres, L. & Lindström, S. (2009). Gating of the Micturition Reflex by Tonic Activation of Bladder Cold Receptors in the Cat. NEUROUROLOGY AND URODYNAMICS, 28(6), 555-560
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gating of the Micturition Reflex by Tonic Activation of Bladder Cold Receptors in the Cat
2009 (English)In: NEUROUROLOGY AND URODYNAMICS, ISSN 0733-2467, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 555-560Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: To determine whether C afferents can modify the gating of the A delta micturition reflex in order to identify the neuronal site of interaction of the two afferent systems. Methods: Adult female cats, anaesthetized with a.-chloralose, had their bladder and urethra catherized through a slit in the proximal urethra. Micturition threshold volume was assessed by cystometry and bladder efferent activity recorded simultaneously. The bladder was filled at a slow rate (1.2-3.5 ml/min) with either body-warm saline (control) or menthol solution (0.06 mM) or by cold saline (4 degrees C). Results: Of 14 trial sessions in 5 animals, the threshold volume of the A delta micturition reflex was consistently reduced by menthol infusions from a control median (md) value of 16.8 to 10.2 ml (P andlt; 0.01). The threshold pressure was also somewhat decreased from and 0.7 to 0.5 kPa (P andlt; 0.05), while the peak pressure or pressure slope did no differ in two situations. Similar results were obtained with slow cold infusions into the bladder (nine sessions in three animals). The threshold volume decreased from and 19.8 to 17.4 ml (P andlt; 0.05). The bladder reflex response to slow menthol or cold infusions had the typical features of an A delta micturition reflex in that the efferent activity was largely abolished by the bladder A delta mechanoreceptor unloading. Conclusions: Gradual tonic activation of bladder cold receptors lowers the threshold volume of the ordinary A delta micturition, pointing to a segmental spinal mechanism for the gating of the micturition reflex. Neurourol. Urodyrzam. 28:555-560, 2009.

Keywords
C afferents, cold receptors, gating, micturition reflex, urinary bladder
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19794 (URN)10.1002/nau.20690 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-08-10 Created: 2009-08-10 Last updated: 2009-08-10
Jiang, C., Yang, H., Fu, X., Qu, S. & Lindström, S. (2008). Bladder cooling reflex and external urethral sphincter activity in the anesthetized and awake guinea pig. Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, 457(1), 61-66
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bladder cooling reflex and external urethral sphincter activity in the anesthetized and awake guinea pig
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2008 (English)In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 457, no 1, p. 61-66Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A spinal bladder cooling reflex, triggered by cold receptors of transient receptor potential melastatin type in the bladder wall, has been identified in several mammals, including man. This reflex and its influence on the external urethral sphincter were further characterized in the urethane anesthetized and awake guinea pigs. A total of 214 bladder infusions were performed in the 12 animals. Compared to controls, cold fluid induced a significant decrease in the threshold volume for reflex bladder contractions (median 82%, p<0.01). Menthol induced a further decrease (median 50%), signifying a bladder cooling reflex. Detrusor-sphincter activities were dyssynergic during voidings triggered by cold or menthol infusions but were coordinated during control infusions. The bladder cooling reflex was suppressed and the sphincter activity synergic following cold infusions in the awake state. Thus, the bladder cooling reflex is under the active descending inhibitory control in intact, awake animals. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.

Keywords
Cooling reflex, EMG, Guinea pig, Urinary bladder, Wakefulness
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-50020 (URN)10.1007/s00424-008-0502-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12
Mazières, L., Jiang, C. & Lindström, S. (2006). Recurrent inhibition of the bladder C fibre reflex in the cat and its response to naloxone. Journal of Physiology, 575(2), 603-615
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recurrent inhibition of the bladder C fibre reflex in the cat and its response to naloxone
2006 (English)In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 575, no 2, p. 603-615Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recurrent inhibition of the bladder C fibre reflex was studied in adult female cats anaesthetized with α-chloralose. Test reflexes were evoked by electrical stimulation of bladder Aδ and C afferents in the right pelvic nerve and were recorded from the proximal end of a small ipsilateral pelvic nerve branch, transected close to the bladder. Such test reflexes were consistently depressed by repetitive electrical stimulation of the contralateral bladder pelvic nerve (20 Hz, 20 s) at intensities sufficient to recruit axons of bladder preganglionic neurones. The inhibition could be evoked after transection of the left dorsal roots S1-S4 and the sympathetic supply to the bladder but was abolished by transection of the pelvic nerve central to the site of stimulation. Hence, it most likely involved central recurrent collaterals of antidromically activated bladder preganglionic neurones. The reflex suppression was quite considerable -maximal C fibre reflexes were reduced to a group mean of 25% (± 9% confidence interval) of their control size. The effect had a slow onset, requiring a few seconds of conditioning stimulation to be revealed, and was very long lasting (minutes). Naloxone (0.01-0.5 mg kg-1 i.v.) abolished the recurrent inhibition of both the C fibre and Aδ bladder reflexes, while inhibition from afferents in the dorsal clitoris nerve remained unchanged. It is concluded that the segmental bladder C fibre reflex and the spino-ponto-spinal Aδ micturition reflex are both targets of recurrent inhibition from bladder parasympathetic preganglionic neurones and that the effect involves an enkephalinergic mechanism. 2006 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2006 The Physiological Society.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35689 (URN)10.1113/jphysiol.2006.112995 (DOI)28166 (Local ID)28166 (Archive number)28166 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Carlander, J., Johansson, K., Lindström, S., Keita, Å., Jiang, C. & Nordborg, C. (2005). Comparison of experimental nerve injury caused by ultrasonically activated scalpel and electrosurgery. British Journal of Surgery, 92(6), 772-777
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of experimental nerve injury caused by ultrasonically activated scalpel and electrosurgery
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2005 (English)In: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 772-777Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Iatrogenic nerve injury caused by heat from dissection instruments is a significant problem in many areas of surgery. The aim of the present study was to compare the risk of nerve injury for three different dissection instruments: monopolar and bipolar electrosurgery (ES) and an ultrasonically activated (US) instrument. Methods: The biceps femoris muscle was cut in a standard manner just adjacent to the sciatic nerve using monopolar ES, bipolar ES or US shears. A total of 73 functional experiments were conducted in which the nerve was isolated, divided proximally, and stimulated supramaximally in 37 anaesthetized rats. The electromyographic (EMG) potential was recorded distally before and after each experiment. Nerve dysfunction was defined as more than 10 per cent loss of the evoked EMG potential. Fifty-nine nerves were examined histologically after dissection with the different instruments. The extent of heat damage was determined in four nerves that were divided with ES bipolar scissors and five that were divided with US shears. Results: Reduction in the EMG potential was significantly more frequent in the monopolar ES group than in the US group. Morphological examination also showed significantly less nerve damage in the US group. Conclusion: US instruments may be safer than ES for dissection close to nerves. Copyright © 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-30498 (URN)10.1002/bjs.4948 (DOI)16075 (Local ID)16075 (Archive number)16075 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Granseth, B. & Lindström, S. (2004). Augmentation of corticogeniculate EPSCs in principal cells of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the rat investigated in vitro. Journal of Physiology, 556(1), 147-157
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Augmentation of corticogeniculate EPSCs in principal cells of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the rat investigated in vitro
2004 (English)In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 556, no 1, p. 147-157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Augmentation is a component of short-term synaptic plasticity with a gradual onset and duration in seconds. To investigate this component at the corticogeniculate synapse, whole cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained from principal cells in a slice preparation of the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. Trains with 10 stimuli at 25 Hz evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) that grew in amplitude, primarily from facilitation. Such trains also induced augmentation that decayed exponentially with a time constant τ= 4.6 ± 2.6 s (mean ± standard deviation). When the trains were repeated at 1–10 s intervals, augmentation markedly increased the size of the first EPSCs, leaving late EPSCs unaffected. The magnitude of augmentation was dependent on the number of pulses, pulse rate and intervals between trains. Augmented EPSCs changed proportionally to basal EPSC amplitudes following alterations in extracellular calcium ion concentration. The results indicate that augmentation is determined by residual calcium remaining in the presynaptic terminal after repetitive spikes, competing with fast facilitation. We propose that augmentation serves to maintain a high synaptic strength in the corticogeniculate positive feedback system during attentive visual exploration.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28785 (URN)10.1113/jphysiol.2003.053306 (DOI)13969 (Local ID)13969 (Archive number)13969 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
Lindström, S., Mazières, L. & Jiang, C. (2004). Inhibition of the bladder cooling reflex in the awake state: An experimental study in the cat. Journal of Urology, 172( 5 I), 2051-2053
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inhibition of the bladder cooling reflex in the awake state: An experimental study in the cat
2004 (English)In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, E-ISSN 1527-3792, Vol. 172, no 5 I, p. 2051-2053Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: We assessed the bladder cooling reflex in the awake cat. The bladder cooling reflex is consistently observed in anesthetized adult cats but not in awake, neurologically normal humans. This discrepancy could indicate a state dependant control of the reflex or a species difference. This study was designed to differentiate between these alternatives. Materials and Methods: Under ketamine-xylazine 5 animals had an indwelling catheter inserted into the bladder. The cooling reflex was tested by injections of cold saline into the bladder (4C to 8C), lowering its wall temperature to about 30C to 32C. The volume used (5 ml) was subthreshold for the Aδ micturition reflex, as confirmed by control injections of body warm saline. The procedure was repeated with the animals fully awake and it was well tolerated by all of them. Reflex responses were assessed by induced bladder pressures. Results: Typical bladder cooling reflexes with peak pressures greater than 3 kPa were evoked in all cats when in narcotic sleep (group mean ± CI 7.4 ± 3.1 kPa). No such reflexes were elicited when the animals were awake (2.0 ± 1.0 kPa). The difference was significant at the level of individual animals. Conclusions: The bladder cooling reflex is suppressed in adult cats during wakefulness, as in humans. This state dependent control of the bladder cooling reflex adds to its resemblance to the extensor plantar response (Babinski's sign).

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28786 (URN)10.1097/01.ju.0000134381.95274.a4 (DOI)13970 (Local ID)13970 (Archive number)13970 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Gladh, G., Mattsson, S. & Lindström, S. (2004). Outcome of the bladder cooling test in children with nonneurogenic bladder problems. Journal of Urology, 172(3), 1095-1098
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Outcome of the bladder cooling test in children with nonneurogenic bladder problems
2004 (English)In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, E-ISSN 1527-3792, Vol. 172, no 3, p. 1095-1098Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose:

The bladder cooling test (BCT) engages a primitive neonatal spinal reflex that becomes suppressed by descending signals in older children and may reappear with suprasacral lesions. We assessed the outcome of the BCT in a large group of children with nonneurogenic bladder problems.

Materials and Methods:

The BCT was evaluated in a consecutive series of 178 girls and 106 boys, 1 month to 18 years old with bladder problems without overt neurology. The test was performed at the end of routine cystometry by a rapid control infusion of body warm saline followed, after fluid evacuation, by the same volume of cold saline (3 to 10C). The test was considered positive if a detrusor contraction greater than 30 cm H2O was evoked by the cold but not the warm fluid.

Results:

Most children younger than 4 years had a history of pyelonephritis (29 of 34) and/or had vesicoureteral reflux (grade IV to V in 26 of 34). For those younger than 2 years 87% of the BCTs were positive while only 21% of the tests were positive in 2 to 3-year-old children. Most children older than 4 years had idiopathic urge incontinence, and greater than 50% of the BCTs were positive in the youngest (less than 6 years) with a gradual decline to 0% at age 13 years.

Conclusions:

Conversion of positive to negative BCTs at about age 2 years presumably represents normal maturation while positive tests in older incontinent children suggest delayed maturation of the central neuronal control of the bladder.

Keywords
bladder diseases, reflex, child
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24655 (URN)10.1097/01.ju.0000135617.02742.ad (DOI)6885 (Local ID)6885 (Archive number)6885 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
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