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Muthumanickam, P., Nordman, A., Meyer, L., Boonsong, S., Lundberg, J. & Cooper, M. (2019). Analysis of Long Duration Eye-Tracking Experiments in a Remote Tower Environment. In: : . Paper presented at Thirteenth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2019), Vienna, Austria, June 17-21, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Long Duration Eye-Tracking Experiments in a Remote Tower Environment
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Eye-Tracking experiments have proven to be of great assistance in understanding human computer interaction across many fields. Most eye-tracking experiments are non-intrusive and so do not affect the behaviour of the subject. Such experiments usually last for just a few minutes and so the spatio- temporal data generated by the eye-tracker is quite easy to analyze using simple visualization techniques such as heat maps and animation. Eye tracking experiments in air traffic control, or maritime or driving simulators can, however, last for several hours and the analysis of such long duration data becomes much more complex. We have developed an analysis pipeline, where we identify visual spatial areas of attention over a user interface using clustering and hierarchical cluster merging techniques. We have tested this technique on eye tracking datasets generated by air traffic controllers working with Swedish air navigation services, where each eye tracking experiment lasted for ∼90 minutes. We found that our method is interactive and effective in identification of interesting patterns of visual attention that would have been very difficult to locate using manual analysis.

Keywords
Remote tower, Eye tracking, Spatio-temporal clustering
National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160959 (URN)
Conference
Thirteenth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2019), Vienna, Austria, June 17-21, 2019
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationSwedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-10-16 Created: 2019-10-16 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
Westin, C., Lundin Palmerius, K., Lundberg, J. & Johansson, J. (2019). Concept of Reskilling for Automation Collaboration in Maritime Piloting. In: Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Human – Machine Systems: . Paper presented at The 14th IFAC/IFIP/IFORS/IEA symposium on Analysis Design and Evaluation of Human – Machine Systems (HMS 2019), Tallin, Estonia, September 16-19 (pp. 365-370).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concept of Reskilling for Automation Collaboration in Maritime Piloting
2019 (English)In: Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Human – Machine Systems, 2019, p. 365-370Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Advanced automation has been highlighted as contributory to several accidents involving modern bridge support systems and automation aiding maritime pilots for maneuvering and navigation. This paper argues for reskilling for automation collaboration, that operators need training that provides an understanding of what data the automation uses and how, and to transfer this skill to their working environment and be able to make full use of the automation even under influence of inaccurate data. As a case, this paper explores the predictor automation, which is an advanced navigation aid that visualizes an estimation of the ship’s future trajectory on an electronic chart display. Field studies and a literature review of maritime accidents were carried out to determine difficulties maritime pilots have with understanding the predictor. This research provides valuable guidance for how automation transparency can be an important part of reskilling and how to achieve it.

Keywords
Automation, maritime, transparency, decision support, reskilling, trajectory prediction
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160365 (URN)
Conference
The 14th IFAC/IFIP/IFORS/IEA symposium on Analysis Design and Evaluation of Human – Machine Systems (HMS 2019), Tallin, Estonia, September 16-19
Projects
RESKILL
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, 151020
Available from: 2019-09-20 Created: 2019-09-20 Last updated: 2019-10-03Bibliographically approved
Svensson, Å., Ohlander, U. & Lundberg, J. (2019). Design implications for teamwork in ATC. Cognition, Technology & Work
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design implications for teamwork in ATC
2019 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In air traffic control (ATC), teamwork is a key component among air traffic control operators (ATCOs) to safely direct theaircraft through the sky and on the ground. To be able to design for future ATC systems, we must understand how ATCOswork together, their teamwork, and how they experience and perceive teamwork, in different ATC environments. We conductedinterviews with 16 ATCOs working in four different ATC environments (en-route control, terminal area control, towercontrol for a small airport and tower control for a large airport in Sweden) and analysed the results in the light of the “BigFive” model of teamwork. The main contributions of this paper are to show: (1) how eight teamwork factors are differentlymanifested by the ATCOs in the different ATC environments, (2) that teamwork in ATC is important during routine operations,during stressful work, and during abnormal situations, and (3) that the design of the organisation, the environment,and the tools, affects teamwork and the importance of different teamwork factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer London, 2019
Keywords
Air traffic control, Teamwork, Design, En-route, TMA, Air traffic control tower
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160958 (URN)10.1007/s10111-019-00579-y (DOI)2-s2.0-85068791806 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-16 Created: 2019-10-16 Last updated: 2020-03-16Bibliographically approved
Tran Luciani, D., Löwgren, J. & Lundberg, J. (2019). Designing fine-grained interactions for automation in air traffic control. Cognition, Technology & Work
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing fine-grained interactions for automation in air traffic control
2019 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Our work aims to explore novel approaches to the challenge of designing the interaction between people and automation. Through a case study within the domain of air traffic control, we focus on designing fine-grained human–automation interactions. We design a concept and develop an interactive lo-fi prototype of an assisted sketching system to enable air traffic controllers to interact with automation in a fine-grained manner and to externalize mental images. Assisted sketching seems to offer a possible way to communicate different degrees of predictive certainty using visual cues and interaction. Our insights further suggest that externalization through assisted sketching could encourage exploration of future scenarios, and support communication and collaboration between air traffic controllers and between air traffic controllers and pilots. The explorative benefits for the individual decision-making process might be more evident in situations where air traffic controllers have more time for reflection, for example during planning or debriefing and in educational settings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Springer London, 2019
National Category
Design Human Computer Interaction Interaction Technologies Media and Communication Technology Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160672 (URN)10.1007/s10111-019-00598-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-01 Created: 2019-10-01 Last updated: 2019-12-03Bibliographically approved
Lundin Palmerius, K. & Lundberg, J. (2019). Interaction Design for Selection and Manipulation on Immersive Touch Table Display Systems for 3D Geographic Visualization. In: : . Paper presented at IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (VR) (pp. 1064-1065).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interaction Design for Selection and Manipulation on Immersive Touch Table Display Systems for 3D Geographic Visualization
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Geographic visualizations are, due to the limited need for vertical navigation,  suitable for touch tables. In this poster we consider the design of interaction design for selection and manipulation through touch on the screen used for the display of 3D geographic visualization---in our case the visualization of and interaction with drone traffic over rural and urban areas---focusing on moving from a monoscopic to a more immersive, stereoscopic touch table, and how this move affects the interaction design. With a monoscopic display our stereoscopic vision uses the graphics to perceive the location of the surface, and touch interaction can naturally and intuitively be performed on top of 3D objects. Moving to stereocopic display, for increased sense of immersion, the graphics no longer provide visual cues about the location of the screen. We argue that this motivates modification of the design principles, with an alternative interaction design as a result.

National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160266 (URN)10.1109/VR.2019.8798126 (DOI)
Conference
IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (VR)
Available from: 2019-09-16 Created: 2019-09-16 Last updated: 2019-09-16
Westin, C., Vrotsou, K., Nordman, A., Lundberg, J. & Meyer, L. (2019). Visual Scan Patterns in Tower Control: Foundations for an Instructor Support Tool. In: Dirk Schaefer (Ed.), : . Paper presented at SESAR Innovation Days.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual Scan Patterns in Tower Control: Foundations for an Instructor Support Tool
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2019 (English)In: / [ed] Dirk Schaefer, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Although where to look, when, and in what order is crucial for situation awareness and task performance in tower control, instructors are lacking support systems that can help them understand operators’ visual scan behaviours. As a way forward, this paper investigates the existence and characteristics of visual scan patterns in tower control and explores a novel support tool that can help instructors in searching for and exploring these patterns. First, eye-tracking data from two controllers were collected in a high-fidelity tower simulator. Second, a workshop was conducted with three instructors to discuss specific scan patterns that can be expected in relation to the approach scenarios used in the eye-tracking data collection. Six template visual scan patterns were identified during the workshop. Finally, an interactive visual sequence mining tool was used to identify and explore instances of the template scan patterns in the recorded eye-tracking data. Four of these could be detected using the tool: runway scans, landing clearance, touchdown and landing roll, and phases of visual focus. The identification of template scan patterns provides additional insight for formalising controllers’ visual work in tower control. The ability to detect and explore visual scan patterns in the proposed tool shows promise for improving instructors’ understanding of controllers’ visual scan behaviours, and for improving training effectiveness.

Series
SESAR Innovation Days, ISSN 0770-1268 ; 9
Keywords
Automation, Training, Eye-tracking, Air Traffic Control, Sequence mining, Visual perception
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162712 (URN)
Conference
SESAR Innovation Days
Projects
RESKILL
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, TRV2017764269
Note

This study was part of the RESKILL project, funded by public research and innovation funds from the Swedish Air Navigation Service Provider LFV, the Swedish Maritime Administration, and the Swedish Transport Administration.

Available from: 2019-12-17 Created: 2019-12-17 Last updated: 2020-01-24
Lundberg, J., Westin, C.-F., Arvola, M., Holmlid, S. & Josefsson, B. (2018). Cognitive work analysis and conceptual designing for unmanned air traffic management in cities. In: : . Paper presented at Proceedings of the 36th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE'19), Utrecht, Netherlands, September 5-7, 2018 (pp. 1-4). New York: ACM Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive work analysis and conceptual designing for unmanned air traffic management in cities
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) is an appropriate approach in high-stakes domains, such as Air Traffic Management (ATM). It provides focus on human expert performance in regular as well as contingency situations. However, CWA is not suitable for the design of a first-of-a-kind system, since there is nothing to analyze before the start of the design process. In 2017, unmanned traffic management (UTM) for intense drone traffic in cities was such a system. Making things worse, the UTM system has to be in place before the traffic, since it provides basic safety. In this paper we present conceptual designing as a bootstrapping approach to CWA for UTM as a first-of-a-kind system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: ACM Press, 2018
Keywords
cognitive work analysis, conceptual designing, work domain analysis, unmanned aircraft traffic management
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157104 (URN)10.1145/3232078.3232082 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055319921 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-6449-2 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings of the 36th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE'19), Utrecht, Netherlands, September 5-7, 2018
Projects
UTM50
Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2020-02-04Bibliographically approved
Johansson, B. & Lundberg, J. (2017). Resilience and the temporal dimension: the chimera of timely response. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 18(2), 110-127
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience and the temporal dimension: the chimera of timely response
2017 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 110-127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a framework for reasoning about ‘timely response’, and control versus the temporal organisation of a controlling system. By three empirical examples, we show how a controlling system can be described in terms of perception points, decision points and action points. Our conclusions are that (1) temporal expectancies shape our ability to exercise control at least as much our ability to understand relations and causality, but temporality is rarely part of approaches to modelling human or system performance, (2) temporal organisation of activities shape our ability to exercise control, (3) by utilising the temporal control framework, we can describe important properties of the temporal organisation of a socio-technical system, and (4) the capacity of modelling is limited to what can be known or imagined. Therefore, models describing resilience or stability should include temporality and be based on frameworks generic enough to be applied to a wide variety of situations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
Resilience engineering, time, temporal expectancies, temporal organisation, decision-making
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141762 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2016.1154231 (DOI)2-s2.0-84961215740 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-05 Created: 2017-10-05 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Lundberg, J. (2015). Situation Awareness Systems, States and Processes: A holistic framework. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 16(5), 447-473
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Situation Awareness Systems, States and Processes: A holistic framework
2015 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 447-473Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper argues that state, system, and process descriptions of situation awareness (SA) are interdependent. Based on SA research from the last 30 years, the paper proposes a holistic SA framework. SA states emerge from processes of exploring situations through SA systems. Reflecting research on safety II (resilience), in describing SA states, the framework distinguishes frames (what situations are considered) from implications (regarding the situations) of objects on and of an event horizon. The paper describes and discusses SA system and process dependencies on SA states. It also describes SA system components as mediators and catalysts for SA, SA system properties (e.g. buffering SA), and dynamic SA system formation. Based on an analysis of four enactments of Air Traffic Control situations, the paper argues that what is domain-characteristic may not characterise all situations in a domain. The SA field could thus benefit from incrementally refining a nuanced cross-domain framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2015
Keywords
situation awareness, framework, air traffic control, safety II, resilience
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115271 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2015.1008601 (DOI)2-s2.0-84938420936 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-03-11 Created: 2015-03-11 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Andersson Granberg, T., Lundberg, J., Ulander, A. & Rego, G. (2015). Supporting dispatch decisions for the fire and rescue services. In: 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems: . Paper presented at 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (pp. 2562-2567). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting dispatch decisions for the fire and rescue services
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 2562-2567Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Decision support tools for efficient dispatching of fire and rescue resources are developed and evaluated. The tools can give suggestions about which resources to dispatch to new accidents, and help the decision makers in evaluating the current preparedness for handling future accidents. The tools are evaluated using simulation game based experiments, with players from the fire and rescue services. The results indicate that the tools can help the fire and rescue services in identifying the closest resources to new accidents, and to select resources that preserve the preparedness in the area. However, the results also indicate that there is a risk that the tools increase the decision time. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2015
Series
IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems-ITSC, ISSN 2153-0009
Keywords
Emergency management; Fire and rescue services; Dispatch; Decision support system
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128628 (URN)10.1109/ITSC.2015.412 (DOI)000376668802102 ()978-1-4673-6595-6 (ISBN)
Conference
2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Projects
DYRK
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
Available from: 2016-05-25 Created: 2016-05-25 Last updated: 2019-07-15
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8862-7331

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