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Lundberg, J., Nylin, M., Praetorius, G., Jansson, A. A. & Bång, M. (2024). Modelling operator control work across traffic management domains: implications for interaction design. Cognition, Technology & Work
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling operator control work across traffic management domains: implications for interaction design
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2024 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Traffic management in aviation, shipping, and rail transport shows similarities and dissimilarities in the work process. For example, they share the temporal aspect, but different levels of urgency in the control work set different requirements on monitoring, decisions, and actions. However, few studies have been presented that model and compare the different domains in terms of temporal decision-making. The Joint Control Framework (JCF) is an approach to analyse and temporally model operators’ control processes from a cognitive systems engineering perspective. In this study, we have used JCF to map, and compare, cognitive joints, such as perceptions, decisions, and actions, in temporally challenging control situations in air traffic control, maritime vessel traffic service, and train traffic management. Data was collected collaboratively with traffic operators, focusing on (1) identifying challenging traffic situations and (2) jointly modelling the temporal decision-making patterns of these situations using simplified JCF. Post-analysis was done by breaking down the results into different processes and comparing domains to ascertain how operators maintain control. An intermediate level of activity—between general monitoring and work with specific vehicles—was identified: processes-in-focus. A shared problem arises in the shift between general monitoring and the processes-in-focus. All processes-in-focus comprise cognitive joint cycles of perceptions, decisions, and actions. However, depending on the framing of processes-in-focus, the patterns of joints, such as temporal extension and complexity, differ. In the remainder of the article, implications for the interaction design, in particular the potential for human–AI/automation teaming with higher levels of automation and cognitive autonomy, are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2024
Keywords
Interaction design; Temporal modelling; Traffic management; Cognitive systems engineering; Human–AI/ automation teaming
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-201766 (URN)10.1007/s10111-024-00754-w (DOI)001183431000001 ()
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2018/41347Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2018/41347Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2018/41347Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2018/41347Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2018/41347
Note

Funding: Swedish Transport Administration;  [F-AUTO (TRV 2018/41347)];  [TRV 2020/138317]

Available from: 2024-03-20 Created: 2024-03-20 Last updated: 2024-04-12
Hammarbäck, J., Johansson, B. J. E., Alfredson, J. & Lundberg, J. (2024). Modelling situated intent for human-autonomy teaming: a human-centric approach. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 1-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling situated intent for human-autonomy teaming: a human-centric approach
2024 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

entering an era where humans and synthetic agents are supposed to collaborate and cooperate, adequate models of human intent are cru-cial for coordinated teamwork. Unfortunately, although there is a need for such models, the concept of intent is ambiguous and approaches to model intent from a human-centric perspective are scarce. Building upon theoretical and methodological foundations, this study aims to address these gaps by presenting a conceptualisation of intent along-side an approach. specifically, leveraging the six levels of cognitive control outlined in the Joint control Framework, a provisional model of human intent alongside a defined and operationalised concept is presented. Building on these foundations, a novel approach is pro-posed. Utilising seven scenario-based interviews, the value of these contributions is demonstrated through an example case in the context of Manned-Unmanned teaming. it is concluded that intent should be understood as a multi-faceted concept shaped by situated constraints, where intent is formed through a commitment to choices by context-sit-uation and means-end reasoning. it is also concluded that the approach is useful, particularly since it can glean insights from choices considered and committed, both being essential in the design of synthetic team-mates’ capability to adapt to their human partner’s agency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2024
Keywords
ntent; model; cognitive work analysis; cognitive task analysis; human-autonomy teaming
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-202421 (URN)10.1080/1463922x.2024.2337683 (DOI)001200008100001 ()
Funder
Vinnova, 2017-04884, 2023-01191
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Defence Material Administration; NFFP (National Aviation Research Programme) - VINNOVA (Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems) [2017-04884, 2023-01191]; Swedish Armed Forces; Linkoping University

Available from: 2024-04-10 Created: 2024-04-10 Last updated: 2024-04-23
Zohrevandi, E., Brorsson, E., Darnell, A., Bång, M., Lundberg, J. & Ynnerman, A. (2023). Design of an Ecological Visual Analytics Interface for Operators of Time-Constant Processes. In: 2023 IEEE Visualization and Visual Analytics (VIS): . Paper presented at 2023 IEEE Visualization Conference, Melbourne, Australia (Hybrid), 22-27 October 2023 (pp. 131-135). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of an Ecological Visual Analytics Interface for Operators of Time-Constant Processes
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2023 (English)In: 2023 IEEE Visualization and Visual Analytics (VIS), IEEE, 2023, p. 131-135Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In industrial applications where the physical parameters are highly interconnected, keeping the process flow steady is a major concern for the operators. This is caused by the sensitivity of system to the process dynamics. As a result, a slight adjustment to a control parameter can significantly affect the efficiency of the system and thus impact the financial gain. Paper pulp production is an example of such a process, where operators continuously investigate the potential of changes in the process and predict the consequences of an adjustment before making a decision. Process parameter adjustments prescribed by simulated control models cannot be fully trusted as the external disturbances and the process inherent variabilities cannot be fully incorporated into the simulations. Therefore, to assess the viability of a strategy, operators often compare the situation with the historical records and trends during which the processes in the plant ran steadily. While previous research has mostly focused on developing advanced control models to simulate complex pulp production process, this work aims to support operators analytical reasoning by provision of effective data visualization. The contributions of our design study include a domain problem characterization and a linked-view visual encoding design, which aims to enhance operator's mental models independent of particular users or scenarios. Finally, by reflecting on the advantages of our choice of task abstraction technique, inherited from the ecological interface design framework [5], we reason for the generalizability of our approach to similar industrial applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2023
Series
IEEE Visualization Conference, ISSN 2771-9537, E-ISSN 2771-9553
Keywords
Visual analytics interfaces; Design study; Focus+context techniques; Linked-view interfaces; Time-constant processes
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-199828 (URN)10.1109/VIS54172.2023.00035 (DOI)001137142800027 ()9798350325577 (ISBN)9798350325584 (ISBN)
Conference
2023 IEEE Visualization Conference, Melbourne, Australia (Hybrid), 22-27 October 2023
Note

Funding agencies: The Sweden’s Innovation Agency (Vinnova) under the project EXPLAIN (2021-04336) and the Knutand Alice Wallenberg Foundation (grant KAW 2019.0024).

Available from: 2023-12-22 Created: 2023-12-22 Last updated: 2024-02-09
Hammarbäck, J., Alfredson, J., Johansson, B. & Lundberg, J. (2023). My synthetic wingman must understand me: modelling intent for future manned–unmanned teaming. Cognition, Technology & Work
Open this publication in new window or tab >>My synthetic wingman must understand me: modelling intent for future manned–unmanned teaming
2023 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

With advances in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and cognitive modelling, unmanned aircraft are expected to actas human-like wingmen in the near future. For fluent and effective manned–unmanned teaming, synthetic wingmen must beable to account for and adapt to their partners’ intent with little or no communication. To enable such abilities, it becomescrucial to identify the requirements that makes intent explainable to synthetic wingmen, necessitating approaches to describeand analyse intent from a human-centric perspective. To address this issue, this paper reports on findings from using WorkDomain Analysis to design and analyse models of situated intent with six levels of cognitive control (frames, effects, values,generic, implementations, and physical). Through a literature review and seven subject matter expert interviews, a synthesizedmodel was designed to represent fighter pilots’ intent in a manned–unmanned teaming scenario. Using the synthesized modelas the context, a transfer of control and a link loss situation were further described and analysed. Experiences show that WorkDomain Analysis can provide a practical and applicable means to model situated intent, particularly since designed modelscan be re-utilised to model intent in similar situations. Furthermore, the model analyses show the importance of accountingfor fighter pilots’ adopted frames since small variations of the framing of the situations can propagate throughout the modelresulting in conflicting or inconsistent intent. The paper concludes that synthetic wingmen must be able to reason about all six levels of cognitive control, requiring a more holistic approach to make intent explainable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Manned–unmanned teaming · Work domain analysis · Intent · Model
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-199405 (URN)10.1007/s10111-023-00745-3 (DOI)001110548100001 ()2-s2.0-85177815160 (Scopus ID)
Projects
The Swedish Defence Material Administration and NFFP (National Aviation Research Pro- gramme), which is funded by VINNOVA (Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems, 2017-04884,2017-04884,2017- 04884,2017-04884), the Swedish Armed Forces, and the Swedish Defence Material Administration.
Funder
Vinnova, 2017-04884Vinnova, 2017-04884Vinnova, 2017-04884Vinnova, 2017-04884Linköpings universitet
Note

Funding: VINNOVA; Swedish Defence Material Administration [2017-04884,2017-04884,2017-04884,2017-04884]; NFFP (National Aviation Research Programme) - VINNOVA (Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems); Swedish Armed Forces

Available from: 2023-11-30 Created: 2023-11-30 Last updated: 2023-12-21Bibliographically approved
Elmquist, E., Bock, A., Lundberg, J., Ynnerman, A. & Rönnberg, N. (2023). SonAir: the design of a sonification of radar data for air traffic control. Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces, 17(3), 137-149
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SonAir: the design of a sonification of radar data for air traffic control
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2023 (English)In: Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces, ISSN 1783-7677, E-ISSN 1783-8738, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Along with the increase of digitalization and automation, a new kind of working environment is emerging in the field of air traffic control. Instead of situating the control tower at the airport, it is now possible to remotely control the airport at any given location, i.e. in a remote tower center (RTC). However, by controlling the airport remotely, the situational awareness and sense of presence might be compromised. By using directional sound, a higher situational awareness could potentially be achieved while also offloading the visual perception which is heavily used in air traffic control. Suitable use cases for sonification in air traffic control were found through workshops with air traffic controllers. A sonification design named SonAir was developed based on the outcome of the workshops, and was integrated with an RTC simulator for evaluating to what degree SonAir could support air traffic controllers in their work. The results suggest that certain aspects of SonAir could be useful for air traffic controllers. A continuous sonification where the spatial positioning of aircraft were conveyed was experienced to be partially useful, but the intrusiveness of SonAir should be further considered to fit the air traffic controllers’ needs. An earcon that conveyed when an aircraft enters the airspace and from which direction was considered useful to support situational awareness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2023
Keywords
Sonification; Air traffic control; Situational awareness; User evaluation
National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-196256 (URN)10.1007/s12193-023-00404-x (DOI)001021523300001 ()
Note

Funding: Swedish Transport Authority [TRV-2019/53555]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [KAW 2019.0024]

Available from: 2023-07-08 Created: 2023-07-08 Last updated: 2023-12-07
Lundin Palmerius, K., Henriksson, M., Westin, C. & Lundberg, J. (2022). Digital Tower Assistant Functionality and Design: Planning, Analysis and Operative Interfaces based on Workshops with ATCOs. In: : . Paper presented at SESAR Innovation Days 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital Tower Assistant Functionality and Design: Planning, Analysis and Operative Interfaces based on Workshops with ATCOs
2022 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Multi Remote Tower Operations (MRTO), where one ATCO has the responsibility of two airports simultaneously, have become an important means to reduce the cost for air traffic control at small regional airports in Sweden without sacrificing safety or service levels. A challenge in MRTO is to keep normal movements operational on an airport while there is busy traffic on the second airport handled by the same ATCO. Earlier work has described the potential of using a digital tower assistant (DiTA), an automation that handles the communication and monitoring of e.g. a single, simple approach and landing on an airport with an otherwise empty sky, while the ATCO needs to focus their attention on the other airport. In this paper we let two interaction designers analyse the interview material from a recent study with five experienced ATCOs, each performing two scenarios using DiTA, and present the conclusions made from an interaction design perspective.

Keywords
Remote Tower Centre; Automation; Interaction Design; Reskilling; Air Traffic Control; Multi Remote Tower Operations
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-200578 (URN)
Conference
SESAR Innovation Days 2022
Available from: 2024-01-31 Created: 2024-01-31 Last updated: 2024-01-31
Zohrevandi, E., Westin, C., Vrotsou, K. & Lundberg, J. (2022). Exploring Effects of Ecological Visual Analytics Interfaces on Experts' and Novices' Decision‐Making Processes: A Case Study in Air Traffic Control. Paper presented at 24th Eurographics/IEEE VGTC Conference on Visualization (EuroVis), Rome, ITALY, jun 12-17, 2022. Computer graphics forum (Print), 41(3), 453-464
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring Effects of Ecological Visual Analytics Interfaces on Experts' and Novices' Decision‐Making Processes: A Case Study in Air Traffic Control
2022 (English)In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 453-464Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Operational demands in safety-critical systems impose a risk of failure to the operators especially during urgent situations. Operators of safety-critical systems learn to make decisions effectively throughout extensive training programs and many years of experience. In the domain of air traffic control, expensive training with high dropout rates calls for research to enhance novices' ability to detect and resolve conflicts in the airspace. While previous researchers have mostly focused on redesigning training instructions and programs, the current paper explores possible benefits of novel visual representations to improve novices' understanding of the situations as well as their decision-making process. We conduct an experimental evaluation study testing two ecological visual analytics interfaces, developed in a previous study, as support systems to facilitate novice decision-making. The main contribution of this paper is threefold. First, we describe the application of an ecological interface design approach to the development of two visual analytics interfaces. Second, we perform a human-in-the-loop experiment with forty-five novices within a simplified air traffic control simulation environment. Third, by performing an expert-novice comparison we investigate the extent to which effects of the proposed interfaces can be attributed to the subjects' expertise. The results show that the proposed ecological visual analytics interfaces improved novices' understanding of the information about conflicts as well as their problem-solving performance. Further, the results show that the beneficial effects of the proposed interfaces were more attributable to the visual representations than the users' expertise. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2022
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-187151 (URN)10.1111/cgf.14554 (DOI)000842261500039 ()
Conference
24th Eurographics/IEEE VGTC Conference on Visualization (EuroVis), Rome, ITALY, jun 12-17, 2022
Note

Funding: KAW Scholar Grant

Available from: 2022-08-08 Created: 2022-08-08 Last updated: 2022-09-27Bibliographically approved
Nylin, M., Johansson Westberg, J. & Lundberg, J. (2022). Reduced autonomy workspace (RAW) - an interaction design approach for human-automation cooperation. Cognition, Technology & Work, 24, 261-273
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduced autonomy workspace (RAW) - an interaction design approach for human-automation cooperation
2022 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 24, p. 261-273Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lack of support for handling a reduction of autonomy in a highly autonomous automation may lead to a stressful situation for a human when forced to take over. We present a design approach, the Reduced Autonomy Workspace, to address this. The starting point is that the human and the automation work together in parallel control processes, but at different levels of autonomy cognitive control, such as setting goals or implementing plans, which is different from levels of automation. When autonomy is reduced, the automation should consult the human by providing information that has been aligned to the level at which the human is working, and the timing of the provision should be adapted to suit the humans work situation. This is made possible by allowing the automation to monitor the human in a separate process. The combination of these processes, information level alignment and timing of the presentation, are the key characteristics of the Reduced Autonomy Workspace. The Reduced Autonomy Workspace consists of four phases: Identification of the need; evaluation of whether, and, if so, when, and how to present information; perception and response by the human; implementation of a solution by the automation. The timing of the information presentation should be adapted in real-time to provide flexibility, while the level of the information provided should be tuned offline and kept constant to provide predictability. Use of the Reduced Autonomy Workspace can reduce the risk for surprising, stressful hand-over situations, and the need to monitor the automation to avoid them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer London Ltd, 2022
Keywords
Reduced autonomy workspace; Levels of autonomy in cognitive control; Joint control framework; Air traffic management; Levels of automation; Automation ironies
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-182616 (URN)10.1007/s10111-022-00695-2 (DOI)000746814300001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Linkoping University; Swedish Transport Administration [TRV 2018/41347]

Available from: 2022-02-01 Created: 2022-02-01 Last updated: 2023-11-08Bibliographically approved
Svensson, Å., Forsell, C., Lundberg, J. & Rönnberg, N. (2021). Automation, teamwork, and the feared loss of safety: Air traffic controllers’ experiences and expectations on current and future ATM systems. In: 32nd European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics: Designing Virtual and Physical Interactive Systems, ECCE 2021: . Paper presented at 32nd European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2021, Siena, Italy, 26-29 April, 2021. ACM Digital Library, Article ID 10.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automation, teamwork, and the feared loss of safety: Air traffic controllers’ experiences and expectations on current and future ATM systems
2021 (English)In: 32nd European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics: Designing Virtual and Physical Interactive Systems, ECCE 2021, ACM Digital Library, 2021, p. -8, article id 10Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In various control systems, automation is implemented to increase efficiency and safety. With increased automation, it becomes increasingly relevant to view the automation as a team member, rather than as a tool. In best cases, human-automation teamwork keeps workload within acceptable limits, increase situation awareness, and keeps the operator in the control loop. However, human-automation teamwork will only flourish if the automation is developed with the human operator in mind. Therefore, investigations of the current experiences and expectations regarding automation and teamwork are important for the development of automation. Through a questionnaire among Air Traffic Controllers (ATCOs), the present study aims to investigate how ATCOs perceive automation and safety in current and future air traffic control systems and the importance of different teamwork factors for human-human and human-automation collaboration. The results indicate that the ATCOs believe that safety will increase in the future along with increasing automation as long as the automation is working as expected. The ATCOs expressed a fear of deskilling and losing situation awareness with automation, a fear associated with a new ATCO role of monitoring the system and take over when the automation fails. The results suggest that design for human-automation teamwork aspects that ATCOs value, such as adaptability or mutual performance monitoring, could be a way forward.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2021
Keywords
Teamwork, Automation, Safety, Air Traffic Control
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-175342 (URN)10.1145/3452853.3452855 (DOI)978-1-4503-8757-6 (ISBN)
Conference
32nd European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2021, Siena, Italy, 26-29 April, 2021
Available from: 2021-04-27 Created: 2021-04-27 Last updated: 2024-01-29Bibliographically approved
Lundberg, J., Arvola, M. & Lundin Palmerius, K. (2021). Human Autonomy in Future Drone Traffic: Joint Human-AI Control in Temporal Cognitive Work. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, 4, Article ID 704082.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human Autonomy in Future Drone Traffic: Joint Human-AI Control in Temporal Cognitive Work
2021 (English)In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, E-ISSN 2624-8212, Vol. 4, article id 704082Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The roles of human operators are changing due to increased intelligence and autonomy of computer systems. Humans will interact with systems at a more overarching level or only in specific situations. This involves learning new practices and changing habitual ways of thinking and acting, including reconsidering human autonomy in relation to autonomous systems. This paper describes a design case of a future autonomous management system for drone traffic in cities in a key scenario we call The Computer in Brussels. Our approach to designing for human collaboration with autonomous systems builds on scenario-based design and cognitive work analysis facilitated by computer simulations. We use a temporal method, called the Joint Control Framework to describe human and automated work in an abstraction hierarchy labeled Levels of Autonomy in Cognitive Control. We use the Score notation to analyze patterns of temporal developments that span levels of the abstraction hierarchy and discuss implications for human-automation communication in traffic management. We discuss how autonomy at a lower level can prevent autonomy on higher levels, and vice versa. We also discuss the temporal nature of autonomy in minute-to-minute operative work. Our conclusion is that human autonomy in relation to autonomous systems is based on fundamental trade-offs between technological opportunities to automate and values of what human actors find meaningful.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2021
Keywords
human-centered AI; autonomy; scenario-based design; unmanned traffic management; joint control framework; interaction design; visualization design; UTM
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-179053 (URN)10.3389/frai.2021.704082 (DOI)000751704800128 ()34355166 (PubMedID)
Projects
UTM CITY
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

Funding: Swedish Transport Administration

Available from: 2021-09-08 Created: 2021-09-08 Last updated: 2022-03-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8862-7331

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