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Lindfors, A., Feiz, R., Eklund, M. & Ammenberg, J. (2019). Assessing the Potential, Performance and Feasibility of Urban Solutions: Methodological Considerations and Learnings from Biogas Solutions. Sustainability, 11(14), Article ID 3756.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the Potential, Performance and Feasibility of Urban Solutions: Methodological Considerations and Learnings from Biogas Solutions
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 14, article id 3756Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many cities of the world are faced with multiple sustainability challenges, for example related to food and energy supply, transportation, waste management, clean air, and more. Preferably, these challenges are addressed with broad and interconnected solutions with the ambition of addressing several challenges simultaneously, in this paper referred to as multi-functional urban solutions. Implementation of multi-functional urban solutions requires well informed decisions, supported by knowledge about the potential contributions that the solutions can make to a more sustainable city as well as on issues that may hinder or facilitate their implementation. Thus, in this paper, we suggest a soft multi-criteria decision analysis method that can be used to gather and structure this knowledge. This method acknowledges the importance of incorporating local knowledge, is based on life-cycle thinking, and is flexible and open-ended by design so that it can be tailored to specific needs and conditions. The method contributes to existing practices in sustainability assessment and feasibility studies, linking and integrating potential and performance assessment with issues affecting solutions’ feasibility of implementation. This method offers a way for local authorities, researchers and exporting companies to organize and structure the diverse range of knowledge to be considered for more informed decisions regarding the implementation of multi-functional urban solutions. While the main contributions of the paper are methodological, brief descriptions of two studies that have applied this method to assess biogas solutions are shown as clarifying examples. One of these studies was performed in Chisinau, Moldova and the other in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
sustainability assessment; multi-criteria assessment; multi-criteria decision analysis; anaerobic digestion; environmental assessment; integrative solutions
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-158693 (URN)10.3390/su11143756 (DOI)000482261800001 ()2-s2.0-85068917284 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Funding agencies:  Biogas Research Center; Energy Agency of Sweden, Linkoping University

Available from: 2019-07-11 Created: 2019-07-11 Last updated: 2019-11-07Bibliographically approved
Feiz, R., Ammenberg, J., Björn, A., Yufang, G., Karlsson, M., Liu, Y., . . . Zhang, F. (2019). Biogas Potential for Improved Sustainability in Guangzhou, China: A Study Focusing on Food Waste on Xiaoguwei Island. Sustainability, 11(6)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas Potential for Improved Sustainability in Guangzhou, China: A Study Focusing on Food Waste on Xiaoguwei Island
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2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As a result of rapid development in China and the growth of megacities, large amounts of organic wastes are generated within relatively small areas. Part of these wastes can be used to produce biogas, not only to reduce waste-related problems, but also to provide renewable energy, recycle nutrients, and lower greenhouse gases and air polluting emissions. This article is focused on the conditions for biogas solutions in Guangzhou. It is based on a transdisciplinary project that integrates several approaches, for example, literature studies and lab analysis of food waste to estimate the food waste potential, interviews to learn about the socio-technical context and conditions, and life-cycle assessment to investigate the performance of different waste management scenarios involving biogas production. Xiaoguwei Island, with a population of about 250,000 people, was chosen as the area of study. The results show that there are significant food waste potentials on the island, and that all studied scenarios could contribute to a net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Several socio-technical barriers were identified, but it is expected that the forthcoming regulatory changes help to overcome some of them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
biogas, food waste, system study, biomethane potential, socio-technical study, megacities, China, Guangzhou city, Xiaoguwei Island
National Category
Environmental Engineering Energy Systems Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155110 (URN)10.3390/su11061556 (DOI)000465613000051 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Linkoping University-Guangzhou University Research Center on Urban Sustainable Development by Guangzhou City; Training Program for Excellent Young Teachers in Guangdong Universities [YQ2015125]

Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-11-27Bibliographically approved
A.S.M. Monjurul, H. & Ammenberg, J. (2019). Biogas potential from municipal and agricultural residual biomass for power generation in Hazaribagh, Bangladesh: A strategy to improve the energy system. Renewable Energy Focus, 29(June 2019), 14-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas potential from municipal and agricultural residual biomass for power generation in Hazaribagh, Bangladesh: A strategy to improve the energy system
2019 (English)In: Renewable Energy Focus, ISSN 1755-0084, Vol. 29, no June 2019, p. 14-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy is considered as one of the significant benchmarks towards sustainable growth. Due to the recenteconomic growth, energy demand is increasing day by day in Bangladesh. The power generation mainlyrelies on fossil fuels though there are plans to increase the renewable energy share by the concernstakeholders. Considering the global warming, energy generation from renewable sources is consideredas a sustainable way to mitigate the anthropogenic emission. This study, therefore, addresses thepotentiality of biogas production from municipal waste and agricultural residues in a city territory ofDhaka namely Hazaribagh. The potential sources include wastes from two markets, six slaughterhouses,domestic wastes, one poultry farm and three croplands. The calculations made in this study to estimatethe amount of biogas and electricity from the described sources are done in a simple way, just to illustratethe potential. This study suggests that there is a good potentiality of biogas production and electricitygeneration from municipal wastes and agricultural residues of Hazaribagh. Moreover, this study alsomentions the significant actors like government, future owners, people and so on that are needed to beincorporated to implement biogas solution in a city territory.

Keywords
biogas potential, waste, renewable energy, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Hazaribagh
National Category
Energy Systems Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161704 (URN)10.1016/j.ref.2019.02.001 (DOI)
Projects
Biogas Research Center
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, Biogas Research Center
Available from: 2019-11-07 Created: 2019-11-07 Last updated: 2019-11-07
Gustafsson, M., Lindfors, A., Anderberg, S., Ammenberg, J. & Eklund, M. (2019). Local potential production, use and conditions for implementation of biogas solutions in Norrköping, Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at Nordic Biogas Conference.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local potential production, use and conditions for implementation of biogas solutions in Norrköping, Sweden
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Biogas is expected to make an important contribution to the vision of fossil-free transports in Sweden. However, estimates of the national production potential have taken a top-down perspective, without detailing where the potential exists and how to realise it. This study is made with a bottom-up perspective, investigating the potential for production and use of biogas within different sectors and individual industries in the municipality of Norrköping. Moreover, critical factors and driving actors for realising these potentials are raised and analysed.  The study was conducted with a participatory approach involving 22 representatives from the municipality, biogas producers, interest organisations and companies dealing with potential biogas substrates. The results indicate a potential biogas production of 500 GWh/year by 2030, out of which 60% would come from the agricultural sector and 30% from local pulp and paper industries. A more modest estimate indicate that the production would cover 10 – 15% of the local energy demand for road transport and shipping as well as industrial energy gas.  Substrates are distributed over a large geographical area and between several actors, requiring cooperation between substrate owners to reach an economically feasible scale. In addition, collaboration with biogas companies could provide the substrate owners with necessary specialist knowledge. In order to realise the biogas potential, Norrköping municipality has a central role to play as coordinator and knowledge hub, as well as by directing procurements towards biogas and plan for biogas fuelling stations.

Keywords
Biogas solutions, local perspective, potential study, participatory study, critical factors
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160216 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Biogas Conference
Projects
BRC - Biogas Research Center
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2019-09-11 Created: 2019-09-11 Last updated: 2019-11-13
Gustafsson, M., Lindfors, A., Anderberg, S., Ammenberg, J. & Eklund, M. (2018). Biogaslösningar i Norrköping: Potential för produktion och marknad. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogaslösningar i Norrköping: Potential för produktion och marknad
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Norrköpings kommun har i sin Energiplan för 2030 satt som mål att energieffektivisera med minst 30 % jämfört med 2005, samt att 100 % av de energislag och bränslen som används inom kommunens geografiska område (ej inräknat sjöfart och flyg) ska vara förnybara. Lokalt producerad biogas skulle kunna bidra till arbetet mot dessa mål och möjligheten att producera biogas har undersökts i tidigare förstudier på enskilda anläggningar i kommunen. Medan grannkommunen Linköping under många år har haft en kontinuerlig egen biogasproduktion i stor skala har Norrköping endast haft en mindre produktion av biogas, trots ett liknande invånarantal och flera stora industrier vars avfallsströmmar utgör potentiella biogassubstrat.

I denna rapport redovisas resultaten från ett projekt med målsättning att kartlägga och kvantifiera potentialerna för produktion och användning av biogas i Norrköpings kommun, att utröna vad som krävs för att dessa ska kunna realiseras, samt vilken betydelse detta skulle ha för Norrköping. Projektet genomfördes i form av en workshopserie med deltagare från BRC:s partners samt Region Östergötland, Östgötautmaningen, Biogas Öst, Norrköping Vatten och Avfall, Holmen Paper och Kolmårdens djurpark. Frågeställningarna angreps med en så kallad ”bottom-up”-metodik, med utgångspunkt i de lokala förutsättningarna, och uppskattningar av den potentiella produktionen och användningen av biogas gjordes med fokus på olika substratströmmar respektive olika marknader.

Resultaten visar på en stor outnyttjad potential för biogasproduktion i Norrköping, framförallt inom jordbrukssektorn samt lokala pappers- och massabruk. Samtidigt finns det en stor potentiell lokal marknad för biogas. Den beräknade produktionspotentialen kan, om den uppfylls, täcka i storleksordningen 10 – 15 % av energibehovet för vägtransporter och sjöfart samt det industriella energigasbehovet i Norrköping.

Ett av de stora hindren för att utveckla produktionen av biogas i Norrköping är att substraten, förutom vid enskilda industrier, är spridda på ett stort antal anläggningar och aktörer. Många potentiella producenter saknar dessutom nödvändig kunskap om produktion och försäljning av biogas. Detta ställer krav på samverkan mellan olika aktörer, till exempel ägare av substrat och biogasproducenter. Samarbete mellan olika substratägare för storskalig samrötning och centraliserad uppgradering till fordonsgas skulle kunna ge ekonomiska fördelar jämfört med småskaliga anläggningar.

Norrköpings kommun kan själva spela en viktig roll i utvecklingen mot ökad produktion och användning av biogas genom strategisk infrastrukturplanering, upphandling och förmedling av kunskap om biogas till potentiella producenter och användare. Ett sätt för kommunen att effektivare kunna bedriva arbete inom området kan vara att tillsätta en särskild biogas- eller biobränslesamordnare.

Abstract [en]

In the municipal Energy plan for 2030, Norrköping has set the goal to increase its energy efficiency by at least 30 % compared to 2005, and that 100 % of the energy sources and fuels used within the geographical area of Norrköping (not including sea and air) will be renewable. Locally produced biogas could contribute towards these goals, and the possibility to produce biogas has previously been investigated in pre-studies on individual facilities in the municipality. While the neighboring municipality of Linköping has had a continuous large-scale biogas production for many years, Norrköping has only had a small production of biogas, despite a similar number of inhabitants and several large industries with waste streams that could potentially be used as substrate for biogas.

This report presents the results of a project with the goal of mapping and quantifying the potentials for production and use of biogas in Norrköping, to elucidatehow these can  be realized, and what importance  this would have for Norrköping. The project was conducted through a workshop series with participants from BRC partners as well as Region Östergötland, Östgötautmaningen, Biogas Öst, Norrköping Water and Waste, Holmen Paper and Kolmården Zoo. The research questions were approached with a “bottom-up” methodology, departing from the local conditions, and estimates of the potential production and use of biogas were made with focus on different substrate streams and markets, respectively.

The results show a great, unexploited potential for biogas production in Norrköping, mainly in the agricultural sector and in local pulp and paper mills. There is also a large potential market for biogas in Norrköping. The estimated production potential could, if actualized, cover around 10 – 15 % of the energy demand road transport and shipping as well as the industrial energy gas demand in Norrköping.

One of the main obstacles to develop the production of biogas in Norrköping is the fact that the substrates, except for at individual industrial plants, are scattered among a large number of facilities and actors. In addition, many potential producers lack the knowledge to produce and sell biogas. Thus, cooperation between different actors is required, for example between substrate owners and biogas producers. Cooperation between different substrate owners for large-scale co-digestion and upgrading to vehicle gas could give economic advantages compared to small-scale facilities.

Norrköping municipality could be a key actor in the development towards increased local production and use of biogas through strategic infrastructure planning, procurement strategies and mediation of knowledge about biogas to potential producers and users. One way for the municipality to make the work in this area more efficient and effective can be to employ a biogas- or biofuel-coordinator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. p. 28
Series
BRC Report ; 2018:3
Keywords
Biogas, Potential, Lokalt, Produktion, Marknad
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161349 (URN)
Projects
BRC, Biogas Research Center
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2019-10-30 Created: 2019-10-30 Last updated: 2019-11-13Bibliographically approved
Feiz, R. & Ammenberg, J. (2017). Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 122, 373-387
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach
2017 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 373-387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework is developed for assessing the suitability of producing biogas from different types of biomass (feedstocks). This framework allows learning about the limitations and opportunities for biogas development and more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. The framework is reasonably comprehensive, yet it is simple enough to be used by practitioners. It could help to minimize the risk of sub-optimization or neglecting important risks or opportunities. This article, the first of two associated articles, is focused on the framework itself. The framework is applied to assess the suitability of producing biogas from “stickleback”, which is a non-edible fish in the Baltic Sea region. In the companion article (Part II), four other feedstocks are assessed, namely ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste.

This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
multi-criteria analysis, biogas, biofertilizer, biomass, strategic decision-making, resource efficiency
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130775 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.01.019 (DOI)000401881300036 ()
Projects
BRC-RP2 (system projects, multi-criteria analysis of biogas solutions)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyLinköpings universitet
Note

At the time of the thesis presentation was this publication a manuscript.

Funding agencies: Energy Agency of Sweden, Linkoping University

Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved
Ammenberg, J. & Feiz, R. (2017). Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 122, 388-404
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making
2017 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 388-404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. Biogas is a biofuel that can contribute to a more renewable and local energy system. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework, which is proposed in a companion article (Part II), is used to assess the suitability of four types of feedstocks for producing biogas (considering Swedish conditions). The assessed feedstocks are ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste. The results have synthesized and structured a lot of information, which facilitates considerably for those that want an overview and to be able to review several different areas simultaneously. Among the assessed feedstocks, biogas production from household food waste and ley is the most straightforward. For straw and farmed blue mussels, there are more obstacles to overcome including some significant barriers. For all feedstock there are challenges related to the institutional conditions. The assessment contributes to the knowledge about sustainable use of these feedstocks, and the limitations and opportunities for biogas development. It supports more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
multi-criteria analysis, biogas, ley crops, straw, blue mussel, food waste
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130776 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.01.020 (DOI)000401881300037 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyLinköpings universitet
Note

At the time of the thesis presentation was this publication a manuscript.

Funding agencies: Energy Agency of Sweden; Linkoping University

Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved
Ammenberg, J., Svensson, B., Karlsson, M., Svensson, N., Björn, A., Karlsson, M., . . . Eklund, M. (2015). Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 1. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 1
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2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Biogas Research Center (BRC) är ett kompetenscentrum för biogasforskning som finansieras av Energimyndigheten, LiU och ett flertal externa organisationer med en tredjedel vardera. BRC har en mycket bred tvärvetenskaplig inriktning och sammanför biogasrelaterad kompetens från flera olika områden för att skapa interaktion på flera olika plan:

  • mellan näringsliv, akademi och samhälle,
  • mellan olika perspektiv, samt
  • mellan olika discipliner och kompetensområden.

BRC:s vision är:

Resurseffektiva biogaslösningar finns genomförda i många nya tillämpningar och bidrar till en mer hållbar energiförsörjning, förbättrat miljötillstånd och goda affärer.

BRC:s särskilda roll för att uppnå denna vision är att bidra med kunskapsförsörjning och process-/teknikutveckling för att facilitera utveckling, innovation och implementering av biogaslösningar. Resurseffektivitet är ett nyckelord, vilket handlar om att förbättra befintliga processer och system samt utveckla biogaslösningar i nya sektorer och möjliggöra användning av nya substrat.

For BRC:s etapp 1, den första tvåårsperioden mellan 2012-2014, var forskningsprojekten organiserade enligt tabellen nedan. Den visar viktiga utmaningar för biogasproducenter och andra intressenter, samt hur dessa ”angreps” med åtta forskningsprojekt. Fem av projekten var av explorativ karaktär i bemärkelsen att de var bredare och mer framtidsorienterade - exempelvis utvärderade flera möjliga tekniska utvecklingsmöjligheter (EP1-5). Tre projekt hade ett tydligare fokus på teknik- och processutveckling (DP6-8).

I den här slutrapporten ges en kortfattad bakgrundsbeskrivning och det finns en introduktion till vad den här typen av kompetenscentrum innebär generellt. Därefter finns mer detaljerad information om BRC, exempelvis gäller det centrumets etablering, relevans, vision, hörnstenar och utveckling. De deltagande organisationerna presenteras, både forskargrupperna vid Linköpings universitet och partners och medlemmar. Vidare finns en mer utförlig introduktion till och beskrivning av utmaningarna i tabellen och kortfattat information om forskningsprojekten, följt av ett kapitel som berör måluppfyllelse och den externa utvärdering som gjorts av BRC:s verksamhet. Detaljerad, listad information finns till stor del i bilagorna.

Kortfattat kan det konstateras att måluppfyllelsen överlag är god. Det är speciellt positivt att så många vetenskapliga artiklar publicerats (eller är på gång att publiceras) kopplat till forskningsprojekten och även i det vidare centrumperspektivet. Helt klart förekommer en omfattande verksamhet inom och kopplat till BRC. I etapp 2 är det viktigt att öka andelen mycket nöjda partner och medlemmar, där nu hälften är nöjda och hälften mycket nöjda. Det handlar framför allt om stärkt kommunikation, interaktion och projektledning. Under 2015 förväntas åtminstone två doktorsexamina, där avhandlingarna har stor koppling till forskningen inom etapp 1.

I början på år 2014 skedde en extern utvärdering av verksamheten vid BRC med huvudsyftet att bedöma hur väl centrumet lyckats med etableringen samt att granska om det fanns förutsättningar för framtida framgångsrik verksamhet. Generellt var utfallet mycket positivt och utvärderarna konstaterade att BRC på kort tid lyckats etablera en verksamhet som fungerar väl och engagerar det stora flertalet deltagande aktörer, inom relevanta områden och där de flesta involverade ser BRC som en befogad och väl fungerande satsning, som de har för avsikt att även fortsättningsvis stödja. Utvärderingen bidrog också med flera relevant tips och till att belysa utmaningar.

Utöver denna slutrapport finns separata publikationer från forskningsprojekten.

Arbetet som presenteras i rapporten har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och de medverkande organisationerna.

Abstract [en]

Biogas Research Center (BRC) is a center of excellence in biogas research funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, Linköping University and a number of external organizations with one-third each. BRC has a very broad interdisciplinary approach, bringing together biogas-related skills from several areas to create interaction on many levels:

  • between industry, academia and society,
  • between different perspectives, and
  • between different disciplines and areas of expertise.

BRC’s vision is:

BRC contributes to the vision by advancing knowledge and technical development, as well as by facilitating development, innovation and business. Resource efficiency is central, improving existing processes and systems as well as establishing biogas solutions in new sectors and enabling use of new substrates.

For BRC phase 1, the first two year period from 2012-2014, the research projects were organized in accordance with the table below showing important challenges for biogas producers and other stakeholders, and how these challenges were tackled in eight research projects. Five of the projects had an exploratory nature, meaning that they were broader, more future oriented and, for example, evaluated several different technology paths (EP1-5). Three projects focused more on technology and process development (DP6-8).

This final report briefly presents the background and contains some information about competence centers in general. Thereafter follows more detailed information about BRC, for example, regarding the establishment, relevance, organization, vision, corner stones and development. The participating organizations are presented, both the research groups within Linköping University and the partners and members. Further on, there is a more detailed introduction to and description of the challenges mentioned in the table above and a short presentation from each of the research projects, followed by some sections dealing with fulfillment of objectives and an external assessment of BRC. Detailed, listed information is commonly provided in the appendices.

Briefly, the fulfillment of objectives is good and it is very positive that so many scientific articles have been published (or are to be published) from the research projects and also within the wider center perspective. Clearly, extensive and relevant activities are ongoing within and around BRC. In phase 2 it essential to increase the share of very satisfied partners and members, where now half of them are satisfied and the other half is very satisfied. For this purpose, improved communication, interaction and project management are central. During 2015, at least two PhD theses are expected, to a large extent based on the research from BRC phase 1.

In the beginning of 2014 an external assessment of BRC was carried out, with the main purpose to assess how well the center has been established and to review the conditions for a future, successful competence center. Generally, the outcome was very positive and the assessors concluded that BRC within a short period of time had been able to establish a well-functioning organization engaging a large share of the participants within relevant areas, and that most of the involved actors look upon BRC as a justifiable and well working investment that they plan to continue to support. The assessment also contributed with several relevant tips of improvements and to clarify challenges to address.

This report is written in Swedish, but for each research project there will be reports and/or scientific papers published in English.

The work presented in this report has been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the participating organizations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. p. 99
Series
Biogas Research Center (BRC) Report ; 2014:1
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114037 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2015-02-05 Created: 2015-02-05 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Ersson, C., Ammenberg, J. & Eklund, M. (2015). Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry. Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, 9(3), 269-295
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry
2015 (English)In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 269-295Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Connectedness through cooperation with other sectors regarding feedstock, energy, products and by-products is important for environmental performance of industrial production. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of the level of connectedness in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry, involving producers of ethanol, biogas and biodiesel. In interviews, the CEOs of four important companies provided information about current strategies, historic and planned development. The production systems are dynamic and have changed significantly over time, including material and energy exchanges between traditionally separate industries. Interesting development was noted where revised business strategies have led to changed cooperation structures and thus altered material and energy flows. Fuel and raw material prices are very influential and all of the respondents said that political decisions to a large extent affect their competitiveness and emphasised the importance of clear long-term institutional conditions, ironically very much in contrast to the current situation within EU and Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2015
Keywords
biofuels, biogas, ethanol, biodiesel, industrial ecology and symbiosis, synergies, material and energy flows, connectedness, resource efficiency
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123223 (URN)10.1504/PIE.2015.073416 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

Available from: 2015-12-08 Created: 2015-12-08 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Feiz, R., Ammenberg, J., Baas, L., Eklund, M., Helgstrand, A. & Marshall, R. (2015). Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 98, 272-281
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 272-281Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Cement production, Life Cycle Assessment, CO2 emissions, Modeling Performance indicators
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105939 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.083 (DOI)000356194300028 ()
Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8323-881X

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