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Lindfors, A., Feiz, R., Eklund, M. & Ammenberg, J. (2019). Assessing the Potential, Performance and Feasibility of Urban Solutions: Methodological Considerations and Learnings from Biogas Solutions. Sustainability, 11(14), Article ID 3756.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the Potential, Performance and Feasibility of Urban Solutions: Methodological Considerations and Learnings from Biogas Solutions
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 14, article id 3756Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many cities of the world are faced with multiple sustainability challenges, for example related to food and energy supply, transportation, waste management, clean air, and more. Preferably, these challenges are addressed with broad and interconnected solutions with the ambition of addressing several challenges simultaneously, in this paper referred to as multi-functional urban solutions. Implementation of multi-functional urban solutions requires well informed decisions, supported by knowledge about the potential contributions that the solutions can make to a more sustainable city as well as on issues that may hinder or facilitate their implementation. Thus, in this paper, we suggest a soft multi-criteria decision analysis method that can be used to gather and structure this knowledge. This method acknowledges the importance of incorporating local knowledge, is based on life-cycle thinking, and is flexible and open-ended by design so that it can be tailored to specific needs and conditions. The method contributes to existing practices in sustainability assessment and feasibility studies, linking and integrating potential and performance assessment with issues affecting solutions’ feasibility of implementation. This method offers a way for local authorities, researchers and exporting companies to organize and structure the diverse range of knowledge to be considered for more informed decisions regarding the implementation of multi-functional urban solutions. While the main contributions of the paper are methodological, brief descriptions of two studies that have applied this method to assess biogas solutions are shown as clarifying examples. One of these studies was performed in Chisinau, Moldova and the other in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
sustainability assessment; multi-criteria assessment; multi-criteria decision analysis; anaerobic digestion; environmental assessment; integrative solutions
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-158693 (URN)10.3390/su11143756 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068917284 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2019-07-11 Created: 2019-07-11 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Feiz, R., Ammenberg, J., Björn, A., Yufang, G., Karlsson, M., Liu, Y., . . . Zhang, F. (2019). Biogas Potential for Improved Sustainability in Guangzhou, China: A Study Focusing on Food Waste on Xiaoguwei Island. Sustainability, 11(6)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas Potential for Improved Sustainability in Guangzhou, China: A Study Focusing on Food Waste on Xiaoguwei Island
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2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As a result of rapid development in China and the growth of megacities, large amounts of organic wastes are generated within relatively small areas. Part of these wastes can be used to produce biogas, not only to reduce waste-related problems, but also to provide renewable energy, recycle nutrients, and lower greenhouse gases and air polluting emissions. This article is focused on the conditions for biogas solutions in Guangzhou. It is based on a transdisciplinary project that integrates several approaches, for example, literature studies and lab analysis of food waste to estimate the food waste potential, interviews to learn about the socio-technical context and conditions, and life-cycle assessment to investigate the performance of different waste management scenarios involving biogas production. Xiaoguwei Island, with a population of about 250,000 people, was chosen as the area of study. The results show that there are significant food waste potentials on the island, and that all studied scenarios could contribute to a net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Several socio-technical barriers were identified, but it is expected that the forthcoming regulatory changes help to overcome some of them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
biogas, food waste, system study, biomethane potential, socio-technical study, megacities, China, Guangzhou city, Xiaoguwei Island
National Category
Environmental Engineering Energy Systems Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155110 (URN)10.3390/su11061556 (DOI)000465613000051 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Linkoping University-Guangzhou University Research Center on Urban Sustainable Development by Guangzhou City; Training Program for Excellent Young Teachers in Guangdong Universities [YQ2015125]

Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved
Feiz, R. & Ammenberg, J. (2017). Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 122, 373-387
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part I: A Multi-Criteria Approach
2017 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 373-387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework is developed for assessing the suitability of producing biogas from different types of biomass (feedstocks). This framework allows learning about the limitations and opportunities for biogas development and more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. The framework is reasonably comprehensive, yet it is simple enough to be used by practitioners. It could help to minimize the risk of sub-optimization or neglecting important risks or opportunities. This article, the first of two associated articles, is focused on the framework itself. The framework is applied to assess the suitability of producing biogas from “stickleback”, which is a non-edible fish in the Baltic Sea region. In the companion article (Part II), four other feedstocks are assessed, namely ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste.

This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
multi-criteria analysis, biogas, biofertilizer, biomass, strategic decision-making, resource efficiency
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130775 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.01.019 (DOI)000401881300036 ()
Projects
BRC-RP2 (system projects, multi-criteria analysis of biogas solutions)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyLinköpings universitet
Note

At the time of the thesis presentation was this publication a manuscript.

Funding agencies: Energy Agency of Sweden, Linkoping University

Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved
Ammenberg, J. & Feiz, R. (2017). Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 122, 388-404
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Feedstocks for Biogas Production, Part II: Results for Strategic Decision Making
2017 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 388-404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biogas production is essentially based on organic materials and biological processes; hence it can contribute to the transition toward a biobased economy. Biogas is a biofuel that can contribute to a more renewable and local energy system. In comparison with other biofuels, biogas is more flexible and can be produced from many different types of feedstock, including biomass containing various shares of carbohydrates, lipids and, both from primary and secondary raw materials. However, a significantly expanded biogas production is dependent on good business conditions, in turn related to societal acceptance and support. There are many factors that can make a biogas solution more or less suitable for both producers and the broader society. Among the many influencing factors, the choice of feedstocks (biomass) for producing biogas and biofertilizer is of strategic importance. But, to assess the suitability is complicated, because it is linked to many different challenges such as cost, energy balance, environmental impacts, institutional conditions, available technologies, geographical conditions, alternative and competing interest, and so on. Suitability includes aspects related to feasibility for implementation, potential for renewable energy and nutrient recycling, and resource efficiency. In this article, a multi-criteria framework, which is proposed in a companion article (Part II), is used to assess the suitability of four types of feedstocks for producing biogas (considering Swedish conditions). The assessed feedstocks are ley crops, straw, farmed blue mussels, and source-sorted food waste. The results have synthesized and structured a lot of information, which facilitates considerably for those that want an overview and to be able to review several different areas simultaneously. Among the assessed feedstocks, biogas production from household food waste and ley is the most straightforward. For straw and farmed blue mussels, there are more obstacles to overcome including some significant barriers. For all feedstock there are challenges related to the institutional conditions. The assessment contributes to the knowledge about sustainable use of these feedstocks, and the limitations and opportunities for biogas development. It supports more informed decision making, both in industry and policy. Existing, or forthcoming, biogas and biofertilizer producers who are considering altering or expanding their production systems can benefit from a better understanding of different choices of feedstock that are or can be (potentially) at their disposal; thus, identify hotspots, weak points, and possible candidates for implementation in future. This research is performed within the Biogas Research Center (BRC), which is a transdisciplinary center of excellence with the overall goal of promoting resource-efficient biogas solutions in Sweden. The BRC is funded by the Energy Agency of Sweden, Linköping University, and more than 20 partners from academia, industry, municipalities and other several public and private organizations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
multi-criteria analysis, biogas, ley crops, straw, blue mussel, food waste
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130776 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.01.020 (DOI)000401881300037 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyLinköpings universitet
Note

At the time of the thesis presentation was this publication a manuscript.

Funding agencies: Energy Agency of Sweden; Linkoping University

Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved
Ammenberg, J., Svensson, B., Karlsson, M., Svensson, N., Björn, A., Karlsson, M., . . . Eklund, M. (2015). Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 1. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 1
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2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Biogas Research Center (BRC) är ett kompetenscentrum för biogasforskning som finansieras av Energimyndigheten, LiU och ett flertal externa organisationer med en tredjedel vardera. BRC har en mycket bred tvärvetenskaplig inriktning och sammanför biogasrelaterad kompetens från flera olika områden för att skapa interaktion på flera olika plan:

  • mellan näringsliv, akademi och samhälle,
  • mellan olika perspektiv, samt
  • mellan olika discipliner och kompetensområden.

BRC:s vision är:

Resurseffektiva biogaslösningar finns genomförda i många nya tillämpningar och bidrar till en mer hållbar energiförsörjning, förbättrat miljötillstånd och goda affärer.

BRC:s särskilda roll för att uppnå denna vision är att bidra med kunskapsförsörjning och process-/teknikutveckling för att facilitera utveckling, innovation och implementering av biogaslösningar. Resurseffektivitet är ett nyckelord, vilket handlar om att förbättra befintliga processer och system samt utveckla biogaslösningar i nya sektorer och möjliggöra användning av nya substrat.

For BRC:s etapp 1, den första tvåårsperioden mellan 2012-2014, var forskningsprojekten organiserade enligt tabellen nedan. Den visar viktiga utmaningar för biogasproducenter och andra intressenter, samt hur dessa ”angreps” med åtta forskningsprojekt. Fem av projekten var av explorativ karaktär i bemärkelsen att de var bredare och mer framtidsorienterade - exempelvis utvärderade flera möjliga tekniska utvecklingsmöjligheter (EP1-5). Tre projekt hade ett tydligare fokus på teknik- och processutveckling (DP6-8).

I den här slutrapporten ges en kortfattad bakgrundsbeskrivning och det finns en introduktion till vad den här typen av kompetenscentrum innebär generellt. Därefter finns mer detaljerad information om BRC, exempelvis gäller det centrumets etablering, relevans, vision, hörnstenar och utveckling. De deltagande organisationerna presenteras, både forskargrupperna vid Linköpings universitet och partners och medlemmar. Vidare finns en mer utförlig introduktion till och beskrivning av utmaningarna i tabellen och kortfattat information om forskningsprojekten, följt av ett kapitel som berör måluppfyllelse och den externa utvärdering som gjorts av BRC:s verksamhet. Detaljerad, listad information finns till stor del i bilagorna.

Kortfattat kan det konstateras att måluppfyllelsen överlag är god. Det är speciellt positivt att så många vetenskapliga artiklar publicerats (eller är på gång att publiceras) kopplat till forskningsprojekten och även i det vidare centrumperspektivet. Helt klart förekommer en omfattande verksamhet inom och kopplat till BRC. I etapp 2 är det viktigt att öka andelen mycket nöjda partner och medlemmar, där nu hälften är nöjda och hälften mycket nöjda. Det handlar framför allt om stärkt kommunikation, interaktion och projektledning. Under 2015 förväntas åtminstone två doktorsexamina, där avhandlingarna har stor koppling till forskningen inom etapp 1.

I början på år 2014 skedde en extern utvärdering av verksamheten vid BRC med huvudsyftet att bedöma hur väl centrumet lyckats med etableringen samt att granska om det fanns förutsättningar för framtida framgångsrik verksamhet. Generellt var utfallet mycket positivt och utvärderarna konstaterade att BRC på kort tid lyckats etablera en verksamhet som fungerar väl och engagerar det stora flertalet deltagande aktörer, inom relevanta områden och där de flesta involverade ser BRC som en befogad och väl fungerande satsning, som de har för avsikt att även fortsättningsvis stödja. Utvärderingen bidrog också med flera relevant tips och till att belysa utmaningar.

Utöver denna slutrapport finns separata publikationer från forskningsprojekten.

Arbetet som presenteras i rapporten har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och de medverkande organisationerna.

Abstract [en]

Biogas Research Center (BRC) is a center of excellence in biogas research funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, Linköping University and a number of external organizations with one-third each. BRC has a very broad interdisciplinary approach, bringing together biogas-related skills from several areas to create interaction on many levels:

  • between industry, academia and society,
  • between different perspectives, and
  • between different disciplines and areas of expertise.

BRC’s vision is:

BRC contributes to the vision by advancing knowledge and technical development, as well as by facilitating development, innovation and business. Resource efficiency is central, improving existing processes and systems as well as establishing biogas solutions in new sectors and enabling use of new substrates.

For BRC phase 1, the first two year period from 2012-2014, the research projects were organized in accordance with the table below showing important challenges for biogas producers and other stakeholders, and how these challenges were tackled in eight research projects. Five of the projects had an exploratory nature, meaning that they were broader, more future oriented and, for example, evaluated several different technology paths (EP1-5). Three projects focused more on technology and process development (DP6-8).

This final report briefly presents the background and contains some information about competence centers in general. Thereafter follows more detailed information about BRC, for example, regarding the establishment, relevance, organization, vision, corner stones and development. The participating organizations are presented, both the research groups within Linköping University and the partners and members. Further on, there is a more detailed introduction to and description of the challenges mentioned in the table above and a short presentation from each of the research projects, followed by some sections dealing with fulfillment of objectives and an external assessment of BRC. Detailed, listed information is commonly provided in the appendices.

Briefly, the fulfillment of objectives is good and it is very positive that so many scientific articles have been published (or are to be published) from the research projects and also within the wider center perspective. Clearly, extensive and relevant activities are ongoing within and around BRC. In phase 2 it essential to increase the share of very satisfied partners and members, where now half of them are satisfied and the other half is very satisfied. For this purpose, improved communication, interaction and project management are central. During 2015, at least two PhD theses are expected, to a large extent based on the research from BRC phase 1.

In the beginning of 2014 an external assessment of BRC was carried out, with the main purpose to assess how well the center has been established and to review the conditions for a future, successful competence center. Generally, the outcome was very positive and the assessors concluded that BRC within a short period of time had been able to establish a well-functioning organization engaging a large share of the participants within relevant areas, and that most of the involved actors look upon BRC as a justifiable and well working investment that they plan to continue to support. The assessment also contributed with several relevant tips of improvements and to clarify challenges to address.

This report is written in Swedish, but for each research project there will be reports and/or scientific papers published in English.

The work presented in this report has been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the participating organizations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. p. 99
Series
Biogas Research Center (BRC) Report ; 2014:1
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114037 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2015-02-05 Created: 2015-02-05 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Ersson, C., Ammenberg, J. & Eklund, M. (2015). Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry. Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, 9(3), 269-295
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry
2015 (English)In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 269-295Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Connectedness through cooperation with other sectors regarding feedstock, energy, products and by-products is important for environmental performance of industrial production. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of the level of connectedness in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry, involving producers of ethanol, biogas and biodiesel. In interviews, the CEOs of four important companies provided information about current strategies, historic and planned development. The production systems are dynamic and have changed significantly over time, including material and energy exchanges between traditionally separate industries. Interesting development was noted where revised business strategies have led to changed cooperation structures and thus altered material and energy flows. Fuel and raw material prices are very influential and all of the respondents said that political decisions to a large extent affect their competitiveness and emphasised the importance of clear long-term institutional conditions, ironically very much in contrast to the current situation within EU and Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2015
Keywords
biofuels, biogas, ethanol, biodiesel, industrial ecology and symbiosis, synergies, material and energy flows, connectedness, resource efficiency
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123223 (URN)10.1504/PIE.2015.073416 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

Available from: 2015-12-08 Created: 2015-12-08 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Feiz, R., Ammenberg, J., Baas, L., Eklund, M., Helgstrand, A. & Marshall, R. (2015). Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 98, 272-281
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 272-281Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Cement production, Life Cycle Assessment, CO2 emissions, Modeling Performance indicators
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105939 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.083 (DOI)000356194300028 ()
Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Feiz, R., Ammenberg, J., Baas, L., Eklund, M., Helgstrand, A. & Marshall, R. (2015). Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 98, 282-291
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 282-291Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within the fields of environmental systems analysis and industrial symbiosis. The aim is to apply a broad systems perspective and through the use of multiple criteria related to technologies and organization strategies facilitate informed decision-making regarding different CO2 performance measures in the cement industry.

The integrated assessment framework consists of two parts: a generic and a case-specific part. It is applied to a cement production cluster in Germany called Cluster West, consisting of three cement plants owned by CEMEX. The framework can be used in different ways. It can be used as a tool to perform literature reviews and categorize the state-of-the-art knowledge about options to improve the CO2 performance. It can also be used to assess options for the cement industry in general as well as for individual plants.

This paper describes the assessment framework, the ideas behind it, its components and the process of carrying out the assessment. The first part provides a structured overview of the options for improvement for the cement industry in general, while the second part is a case-specific application for Cluster West, providing information about the feasibility for different categories of measures that can reduce the CO2 emissions. The overall impression from the project is that the framework was successfully established and, when applied, facilitated strategic discussions and decision-making. Such frameworks can be utilized to systematically assess hundreds of different measures and identify the ones most feasible and applicable for implementation, within the cement industry but also possibly in other sectors. The results demonstrated that even in a relatively synergistic and efficient production system, like Cluster West, there are opportunities for improvement, especially if options beyond “production efficiency” are considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
industrial ecology, cement, CO2 emissions, industrial symbiosis, environmental assessment framework, integrated assessment
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105940 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.103 (DOI)000356194300029 ()
Note

On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Ammenberg, J., Baas, L., Eklund, M., Feiz, R., Helgstrand, A. & Marshall, R. (2015). Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact. Journal of Cleaner Production, 98, 145-155
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Cement, CO2 emissions, Life cycle assessment (LCA), Industrial symbiosis Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS)
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105941 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.086 (DOI)000356194300015 ()
Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Ersson, C., Ammenberg, J. & Eklund, M. (2013). Biofuels for transportation in 2030: feedstock and production plants in a Swedish county. Biofuels, 4(4), 379-395
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biofuels for transportation in 2030: feedstock and production plants in a Swedish county
2013 (English)In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 379-395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: This paper gives insight into whether biofuels for road transport can play an important role in a Swedish county in the year 2030, and contributes to knowledge on how to perform similar studies.

Methodology: A resource-focused assessment, including feedstock from the waste sector, agricultural sector, forestry sector and aquatic environments, partially considering technological and economic constraints.

Results: Two scenarios were used indicating that biofuels could cover almost 30 and 50%, respectively, of total energy demand for road transport.

Conclusion: Without compromising food security, this study suggests that it is possible to significantly increase biofuel production, and to do this as an integrated part of existing society, thereby also contributing to positive societal synergies.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102371 (URN)10.4155/bfs.13.23 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-12-09 Created: 2013-12-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8323-881X

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