liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Nordfeldt, Sam
Publications (10 of 36) Show all publications
Nordfeldt, S., Ängarne-Lindberg, T., Nordwall, M., Ekberg, J. & Berterö, C. (2013). As facts and chats go online, what is important for adolsescents with type 1 diabetes?. PLoS ONE, 8(6), e67659
Open this publication in new window or tab >>As facts and chats go online, what is important for adolsescents with type 1 diabetes?
Show others...
2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 6, p. e67659-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Continued refinement of resources for patient information, education and support is needed. Considering the rapid development of new communication practices, the perspectives of young people themselves warrant more attention using a wide research focus. The purpose of this study was to understand information-seeking behaviours, Internet use and social networking online in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). This applied to their everyday life, including the context of diabetes and their experiences and need of contact with T1DM peers.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Twenty-four adolescents aged 10–17 years with T1DM were recruited from a county hospital in the south-east of Sweden. Qualitative data were obtained using eight focus groups, wherein each participant engaged in a 60–90 minute video/audio-recorded session. The focus group data were transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Some demographic and medical information was also collected. The three main categories that were identified; Aspects of Security, Updating, and Plainness and their sub-categories gave significant information about how to enhance information retrieval and peer contacts related to T1DM. Regarding the persons' information-seeking behaviour, Internet use, and use of social media some differences could be identified depending on gender and age.

Conclusions/Significance

Sensitivity and adaptation to users' needs and expectations seem crucial in the development of future online resources for adolescents with T1DM. To start with, this could mean applying a wider range of already existing information and communication technologies. Health practitioners need to focus on the areas of security of information and communication, frequency of updating, and simplicity of design-less is more.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2013
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95905 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0067659 (DOI)000320846500150 ()23805322 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-08-08 Created: 2013-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Nordfeldt, S., Ängarne-Lindberg, T., Nordwall, M. & Krevers, B. (2013). Parents of Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Their Views on Information and Communication Needs and Internet Use. A Qualitative Study. PLoS ONE, 8(4)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parents of Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Their Views on Information and Communication Needs and Internet Use. A Qualitative Study
2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Little is known about parents’ views on the use of online resources for information, education and support regarding childhood type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Considering the rapidly evolving new communication practices, parents’ perspectives need to be explored. The main purpose of this paper was to explore parents’ perceptions of their information-seeking, Internet use, and social networking online. This applied to their everyday life, including the contexts of T1DM and contact with peers. A second aim was to identify implications for future development of Internet use in this respect.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Twenty-seven parents of 24 young persons aged 10–17 with T1DM participated in eight focus group interviews during their regular visits to a county hospital. Focus group discussions were video/audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using inductive qualitative content analysis. Self-reported demographic and medical information was also collected. A main theme was Finding things out, including two sub-themes, Trust and Suitability. The latter were key factors affecting parents’ perceptions of online resources. Parents’ choice of information source was related to the situation, previous experiences and knowledge about sources and, most importantly, the level of trust in the source. A constantly present background theme was Life situation, including two sub-themes, Roles and functions and Emotions and needs. Parents’ information-seeking regarding T1DM varied greatly, and was closely associated with their life situation, the adolescents development phases and the disease trajectory.

Conclusions/Significance

Health practitioners and system developers need to focus on creating trust and suitability for users’ needs. They should understand the children’s diverse needs, which depend on their life situation, on the children’s development, and on the disease trajectory. To enhance trust in online health information and support services, the participation of local practitioners is crucial.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2013
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-93394 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0062096 (DOI)000318008400136 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Linkoping Centre for Life Science Technologies (LIST), Linkoping University, Sweden||

Available from: 2013-05-31 Created: 2013-05-31 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Hanberger, L., Ludvigsson, J. & Nordfeldt, S. (2013). Use of a Web 2.0 Portal to Improve Education and Communication in Young Patients With Families: Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15(8)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of a Web 2.0 Portal to Improve Education and Communication in Young Patients With Families: Randomized Controlled Trial
2013 (English)In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 15, no 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Diabetes requires extensive self-care and comprehensive knowledge, making patient education central to diabetes self-management. Web 2.0 systems have great potential to enhance health information and open new ways for patients and practitioners to communicate. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjective: To develop a Web portal designed to facilitate self-management, including diabetes-related information and social networking functions, and to study its use and effects in pediatric patients with diabetes. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: A Web 2.0 portal was developed in collaboration with patients, parents, and practitioners. It offered communication with local practitioners, interaction with peers, and access to relevant information and services. Children and adolescents with diabetes in a geographic population of two pediatric clinics in Sweden were randomized to a group receiving passwords for access to the portal or a control group with no access (n=230) for 1 year. All subjects had access during a second study year. Users activity was logged by site and page visits. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL), empowerment (DES), and quality of information (QPP) questionnaires were given at baseline and after 1 and 2 study years. Clinical data came from the Swedish pediatric diabetes quality registry SWEDIABKIDS. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: There was a continuous flow of site visits, decreasing in summer and Christmas periods. In 119/233 families (51%), someone visited the portal the first study year and 169/484 (35%) the second study year. The outcome variables did not differ between intervention and control group. No adverse treatment or self-care effects were identified. A higher proportion of mothers compared to fathers visited once or more the first year (Pandlt;.001) and the second year (Pandlt;.001). The patients who had someone in the family visiting the portal 5 times or more, had shorter diabetes duration (P=.006), were younger (P=.008), had lower HbA1c after 1 year of access (P=.010), and were more often girls (Pandlt;.001). Peer interaction seems to be a valued aspect. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The Web 2.0 portal may be useful as a complement to traditional care for this target group. Widespread use of a portal would need integration in routine care and promotion by diabetes team members.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Journal of Medical Internet Research / JMIR Publications, 2013
Keywords
type 1 diabetes, children, adolescent, health information technology, patient education, intervention studies, HbA1c
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100042 (URN)10.2196/jmir.2425 (DOI)000324620700005 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden (FORSS)||ALF Grants||County Council of Ostergotland||Swedish Child Diabetes Foundation (Barndiabetesfonden)||

Available from: 2013-10-25 Created: 2013-10-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Nordfeldt, S., Ängarne-Lindberg, T. & Berterö, C. (2012). To use or not to use - practitioners' perceptions of an open web portal for young patients with diabetes.. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14(6), 51-61
Open this publication in new window or tab >>To use or not to use - practitioners' perceptions of an open web portal for young patients with diabetes.
2012 (English)In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 51-61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Health care professionals' attitudes can be a significant factor in their acceptance and efficient use of information technology, so they need to have more knowledge about this resource to enhance their participation.

OBJECTIVE: We explored practitioners' perceptions of using an open-access interactive Web portal tailored to young diabetes type 1 patients and their guardians or significant others. The portal offered discussion forums, blog tools, self-care and treatment information, research updates, and news from local practitioners.

METHODS: Eighteen professionals who were on pediatric diabetes care teams each wrote an essay on their experience using the portal. For their essays, they were asked to describe two situations, focusing on positive and negative user experiences. The essays were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

RESULTS: Based on our analysis of the respondents essays, we identified three categories that describe perceptions of the Web portal. The first category - to use or not to use - included the different perspectives of the practioners; those who questioned the benefits of using the Web portal or showed some resistance to using it. The frequency of use among the practitioners varied greatly. Some practitioners never used it, while others used it on a daily basis and regularly promoted it to their patients. Some respondents in this category reflected on the benefits of contributing actively to online dialogues. In the second category - information center for everyone - practitioners embraced the site as a resource for scientifically sound information and advice. As part of their practice, and as a complement to traditional care, practitioners in this category described sending information through the portal to patients and their significant others. Practitioners felt safe recommending the site because they knew that the information provided was generated by other practitioners. They also assumed that their patients benefited from actively using the Web portal at home: peers brought the site to life by exchanging experiences through the discussion forums. In the third category - developing our practice - practitioners reflected upon the types of information that should be given to patients and how to give it (ie, during in-person appointments or through the Web portal). They perceived meeting with various professionals at other hospitals to update information on the portal and develop content policies as constructive teamwork. Practitioners expressed interest in reading patients' dialogues online to learn more about their views. They also thought about how they could use the portal to adapt more to patients' needs (eg, creating functions so patients could chat with the diabetes nurses and doctors).

CONCLUSIONS: Practitioners expressed positive perceptions toward a tailored open Web portal. They suggested that future benefits could be derived from systems that integrate factual information and online dialogues between practitioners and patients (ie, exchanging information for everyone's benefit).

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85275 (URN)10.2196/jmir.1987 (DOI)000311078200004 ()23137767 (PubMedID)
Note

funding agencies|Linkoping Centre for Life Science Technologies (LIST) at Linkoping University, Sweden||

Available from: 2012-11-14 Created: 2012-11-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Nordfeldt, S. & Berterö, C. (2012). Young Patients' Views on the Open Web 2.0 Childhood Diabetes Patient Portal: A Qualitative Study. Future Internet, 4(2), 514-527
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Young Patients' Views on the Open Web 2.0 Childhood Diabetes Patient Portal: A Qualitative Study
2012 (English)In: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 514-527Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Little is known about the views of young patients themselves on interactive Web portal services provided by pediatric practitioners. We aimed to explore their perceptions of a real-world diabetes portal that offers facts and contact with peers and practitioners; e.g., discussion forums, blog tools, self-care and treatment information, research updates and news from local practitioners. Twelve young patients (ages 12–21, median 15 years), one boyfriend, 7 mothers and one father each wrote an essay on their experience from use of the portal. Their essays underwent qualitative content analysis. A major theme was “Helping and facilitating daily life with diabetes”, the portal was perceived as a place where contents are interesting, inspiring and may trigger users’ curiosity. There were three subthemes; “Ease of use in my everyday life,” which includes the perception that the portal was perceived as smooth and easy to enter and navigate whenever needed; that information was easy to understand for different groups of users. “Support via an exchange of experience,” includes the ability to contact peers being regarded advantageous. Some said that just reading others’ experiences can be helpful in terms of persevering; children could find peers in the same age group. “Evidence based information,” includes the perception of the portal being a useful and trustworthy source of facts on e.g., physical activity, blood glucose, medical devices, emotional wellbeing, food and nutrition, and other aspects that impact living with diabetes. Young users expressed positive perceptions towards the interactive web portal. Such services seem to have great potential for supporting young patients and significant others - intergrading for confidence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: M D P I AG, 2012
Keywords
Web 2.0; eHealth; type 1 diabetes; self-care; disease management; patient information; learning; intergradation; health care professionals; children; adolescents; parents
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78740 (URN)10.3390/fi4020514 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-06-19 Created: 2012-06-19 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Nordfeldt, S., Hanberger, L. & Berterö, C. (2010). Patient and parent views on a Web 2.0 diabetes portal - the management tool, the generator and the gatekeeper: Qualitative study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 12(2), 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patient and parent views on a Web 2.0 diabetes portal - the management tool, the generator and the gatekeeper: Qualitative study
2010 (English)In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The Internet has undergone rapid development, with significant impact on social life and on modes of communication. Modern management of type 1 diabetes requires that patients have access to continuous support and learning opportunities. Although Web 2.0 resources can provide this support, few pediatric clinics offer it as part of routine diabetes care.Objective: We aimed to explore patients’ and parents’ attitudes toward a local Web 2.0 portal tailored to young patients with type 1 diabetes and their parents, with social networking tools such as message boards and blogs, locally produced self-care and treatment information, and interactive pedagogic devices. Opportunities and obstacles to the implementation of Web 2.0 applications in clinical practice were sought.Methods: Participants were 16 mothers, 3 fathers, and 5 young patients (ages 11-18 years; median 14 years) who each wrote an essay on their experience using the portal, irrespective of frequency and/or their success in using it. Two main guiding questions were asked. A qualitative content analysis was conducted of the essays as a whole.Results: Three main categories of portal users’ attitudes were found; we named them “the management tool,” “the generator,” and “the gatekeeper.” One category was related to the management tool functionality of the portal, and a wide range of concrete examples was found regarding useful facts and updates. Being enabled to search when necessary and find reliable information provided by local clinicians was regarded as a great advantage, facilitating a feeling of security and being in control. Finding answers to difficult-to-ask questions, questions portal users did not know they had before, and questions focusing on sensitive areas such as anxiety and fear, was also an important feature. A second category was related to the generator function in that visiting the portal could generate more information than expected, which could lead to increased use. Active message boards and chat rooms were found to have great value for enhancing mediation of third party peer-to-peer information. A certain level of active users from peer families and visible signs of their activity were considered necessary to attract returning users. A third category was related to the gatekeeper function of the password requirement, which created various access problems. This and other unsuccessful experiences caused users to drop the portal. A largely open portal was suggested to enhance use by those associated with the child with diabetes, such as school personnel, relatives, friends and others, and also by young users somewhat unwilling to self-identify with the disease.Conclusions: Web 2.0 services have great potential for supporting parents and patients with type 1 diabetes by enhancing their information retrieval and disease management. Well-developed services, such as this one, may generate continued use and should, therefore, be carefully maintained and updated by health care professionals who are alert and active on the site with new information and updates. Login procedures should be simple and minimized as much as possible. The education of clinical practitioners regarding the use of Web 2.0 resources needs more attention.

Keywords
Web 2.0; eHealth; childhood chronic disease; type 1 diabetes; self-care; disease management; patient information; apomediation; networking; social media; learning; health care professionals; children; adolescents; parents
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-57138 (URN)10.2196/jmir.1267 (DOI)
Available from: 2010-06-10 Created: 2010-06-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12
Ekberg, J., Ericson, L., Timpka, T., Eriksson, H., Nordfeldt, S., Hanberger, L. & Ludvigsson, J. (2010). Web 2.0 Systems Supporting Childhood Chronic Disease Management: Design Guidelines Based on Information Behaviour and Social Learning Theories. JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SYSTEMS, 34(2), 107-117
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Web 2.0 Systems Supporting Childhood Chronic Disease Management: Design Guidelines Based on Information Behaviour and Social Learning Theories
Show others...
2010 (English)In: JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SYSTEMS, ISSN 0148-5598, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 107-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Self-directed learning denotes that the individual is in command of what should be learned and why it is important. In this study, guidelines for the design of Web 2.0 systems for supporting diabetic adolescents every day learning needs are examined in light of theories about information behaviour and social learning. A Web 2.0 system was developed to support a community of practice and social learning structures were created to support building of relations between members on several levels in the community. The features of the system included access to participation in the culture of diabetes management practice, entry to information about the community and about what needs to be learned to be a full practitioner or respected member in the community, and free sharing of information, narratives and experience-based knowledge. After integration with the key elements derived from theories of information behaviour, a preliminary design guideline document was formulated.

Keywords
Diabetes, Web 2.0, Design, Communities of practice, Informal learning, Information behaviour
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54607 (URN)10.1007/s10916-008-9222-0 (DOI)000275552800002 ()
Available from: 2010-03-26 Created: 2010-03-26 Last updated: 2013-09-05
Nordqvist, C., Hanberger, L., Timpka, T. & Nordfeldt, S. (2009). Health professionals' attitudes towards using a Web 2.0 portal for child and adolescent diabetes care: qualitative study.. Journal of medical Internet research, 11(2), e12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health professionals' attitudes towards using a Web 2.0 portal for child and adolescent diabetes care: qualitative study.
2009 (English)In: Journal of medical Internet research, ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 11, no 2, p. e12-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The Internet, created and maintained in part by third-party apomediation, has become a dynamic resource for living with a chronic disease. Modern management of type 1 diabetes requires continuous support and problem-based learning, but few pediatric clinics offer Web 2.0 resources to patients as part of routine diabetes care. OBJECTIVES: To explore pediatric practitioners' attitudes towards the introduction of a local Web portal for providing young type 1 diabetes patients with interactive pedagogic devices, social networking tools, and locally produced self-care and treatment information. Opportunities and barriers related to the introduction of such systems into clinical practice were sought. METHODS: Twenty clinicians (seven doctors, nine nurses, two dieticians, and two social welfare officers) from two pediatric diabetes teams participated in the user-centered design of a local Web 2.0 portal. After completion of the design, individual semi-structured interviews were performed and data were analyzed using phenomenological methods. RESULTS: The practitioners reported a range of positive attitudes towards the introduction of a local Web 2.0 portal to their clinical practice. Most interviewees were satisfied with how the portal turned out, and a sense of community emerged during the design process and development of the portal's contents. A complementary role was suggested for the portal within the context of health practice culture, where patients and their parents would be able to learn about the disease before, between, and after scheduled contacts with their health care team. Although some professionals expected that email communication with patients and online patient information would save time during routine care, others emphasized the importance of also maintaining face-to-face communication. Online peer-to-peer communication was regarded as a valuable function; however, most clinicians did not expect that the portal would be used extensively for social networking amongst their patients. There were no major differences in attitudes between different professions or clinics, but some differences appeared in relation to work tasks. CONCLUSIONS: Experienced clinical practitioners working in diabetes teams exhibited positive attitudes towards a Web 2.0 portal tailored for young patients with type 1 diabetes and their parents. The portal included provision of third-party information, as well as practical and social means of support. The practitioners' early and active participation provides a possible explanation for these positive attitudes. The findings encourage close collaboration with all user groups when implementing Web 2.0 systems for the care of young patients with chronic diseases, particularly type 1 diabetes. The study also highlights the need for efforts to educate clinical practitioners in the use of Web publishing, social networking, and other Web 2.0 resources. Investigations of attitudes towards implementing similar systems in the care of adults with chronic diseases are warranted.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18978 (URN)10.2196/jmir.1152 (DOI)000274632700001 ()19403464 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-06-07 Created: 2009-06-07 Last updated: 2013-09-05
Hanberger, L., Ludvigsson, J. & Nordfeldt, S. (2009). Health-related quality of life in intensively treated young patients with type 1 diabetes. Pediatric Diabetes, 10(6), 374-381
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health-related quality of life in intensively treated young patients with type 1 diabetes
2009 (English)In: Pediatric Diabetes, ISSN 1399-543X, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 374-381Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to analyse the impact of the disease and treatment on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in intensively treated young patients with diabetes. Our main hypothesis was that metabolic control, gender, age and socio-economic status predict HRQOL. All children and adolescents (n = 400, 191 girls) and parents in a geographic population of two paediatric clinics in Sweden [mean age 13.2 yr, ±SD 3.9, range 2.6-19.6; mean duration of diabetes 5.1 yr, ± SD 3.8, range 0.3-17.6; yr mean haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 7.1%, ±SD 1.2, range 4.0-10.7] received the DISABKIDS questionnaire, a validated combined chronic generic and condition-specific HRQOL measure for children, and the EuroQol-5D questionnaire. Parents as proxy perceived HRQOL lower than their children. Adolescents with separated parents reported lower generic HRQOL (GeHRQOL) and diabetes-specific HRQOL (DiHRQOL) than those with parents living together (p = 0.027 and p = 0.043, respectively). Adolescent girls reported lower GeHRQOL (p = 0.041) and DiHRQOL (p = 0.001) than boys did. Parents of girls less than8 yr of age reported lower DiHRQOL (p = 0.047) than did parents of boys less than8 yr. In addition, a difference was found in HRQOL between centres. Intensive insulin therapy did not seem to lower HRQOL. If anything, along with better metabolic control, it increased HRQOL. A correlation between DiHRQOL and HbA1c was found in adolescents (r = -0.16, p=0.046) and boys aged 8-12 yr (r = -0.28, p = 0.045). We conclude that the diabetes team can influence the HRQOL of the patients as there was a centre difference and because HRQOL is influenced by glycaemic control and insulin regimen. Girls seem to need extra support.

Keywords
Children and adolescents; Diabetes type 1; Quality of life; Questionnaire
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-21221 (URN)10.1111/j.1399-5448.2008.00496.x (DOI)
Available from: 2009-09-30 Created: 2009-09-30 Last updated: 2010-09-17
Bernfort, L., Nordfeldt, S. & Persson, J. (2008). ADHD from a socio-economic perspective. Acta Paediatrica, 97(2), 239-245
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ADHD from a socio-economic perspective
2008 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 97, no 2, p. 239-245Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related disorders affect children's ability to function in school and other environments. Awareness has increased in recent years that the same problems often persist in adulthood. Based on previous studies, we aimed to outline and discuss a descriptive model for calculation of the societal costs associated with ADHD and related disorders. Methods: Following a literature review including childhood and adult studies, long-term outcomes of ADHD and associated societal costs were outlined in a simple model. Results: The literature concerning long-term consequences of ADHD and related disorders is scarce. There is some evidence regarding educational level, psychosocial problems, substance abuse, psychiatric problems and risky behaviour. The problems are likely to affect employment status, healthcare consumption, traffic and other accidents and criminality. A proposed model structure includes persisting problems in adulthood, possible undesirable outcomes (and their probabilities) and (lifetime) costs associated with these outcomes. Conclusions: Existing literature supports the conclusion that ADHD and related disorders are associated with a considerable societal burden. To estimate that burden with any accuracy, more detailed long-term data are needed. © 2007 The Author(s).

Keywords
ADHD, Costs, Neuropsychiatric disorders, Outcome, Socio-economic perspective
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47033 (URN)10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00611.x (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications