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Prytz, E., Norén, C. & Jonson, C.-O. (2018). Fixation Differences in Visual Search of Accident Scenes by Novices and Expert Emergency Responders. Human Factors, 60(8), 1219-1227
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fixation Differences in Visual Search of Accident Scenes by Novices and Expert Emergency Responders
2018 (English)In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 60, no 8, p. 1219-1227Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective:

We sought to investigate whether expert–novice differences in visual search behavior found in other domains also apply to accident scenes and the emergency response domain.

Background:

Emergency service professionals typically arrive at accidents only after being dispatched when a civilian witness has called an emergency dispatch number. Differences in visual search behavior between the civilian witness (usually a novice in terms of emergency response) and the professional first responders (experts at emergency response) could thus result in the experts being given insufficient or erroneous information, which would lead them to arrive unprepared for the actual situation.

Method:

A between-subjects, controlled eye-tracking experiment with 20 novices and 17 experts (rescue and ambulance service personnel) was conducted to explore expert–novice differences in visual search of accident and control images.

Results:

The results showed that the experts spent more time looking at task-relevant areas of the accident images than novices did, as predicted by the information reduction hypothesis. The longer time was due to longer fixation durations rather than a larger fixation count.

Conclusion:

Expert–novice differences in visual search are present in the emergency domain. Given that this domain is essential to saving lives and also relies heavily on novices as the first link in the chain of response, such differences deserve further exploration.

Application:

Visual search behavior from experts can be used for training purposes. Eye-tracking studies of novices can be used to inform the design of emergency dispatch interviews.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
visual search, disaster response, emergency medicine, eye tracking, expert–novice differences
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150343 (URN)10.1177/0018720818788142 (DOI)000449837300010 ()30102566 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) [2011-4957]

Available from: 2018-08-17 Created: 2018-08-17 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Lowndes, B., Forsyth, K., Prytz, E., Jonson, C.-O., Abdelrahman, A., Matthew, S., . . . Hallbeck, S. (2017). A Preliminary Comparison of Three Tourniquet Instructions for Just-in-Time Guidance of a Simulated Tourniquet Application. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2017 Annual Meeting: . Paper presented at The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 61st Annual Meeting, October 9-13 October, Austin, Texas, USA (pp. 1076-1080). Santa Monica: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, HFES
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Preliminary Comparison of Three Tourniquet Instructions for Just-in-Time Guidance of a Simulated Tourniquet Application
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2017 Annual Meeting, Santa Monica: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, HFES , 2017, p. 1076-1080Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The American College of Surgeons (ACS) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) encourage the use of tourniquets as part of the “Stop the Bleed” campaign. Both have provided instructions for layperson tourniquet application in order to save the life of a hemorrhaging trauma victim. This study sought to compare the impact of using ACS and DHS instructions with manufacturer-provided instructions for the completion of simulated tourniquet application steps. Thirty surgical trainees completed a simulated tourniquet application with one of the three instruction sets. Their completion time and success for each step were measured. Participants that received ACS instructions failed the fewest number of steps (p < 0.01) and completed the task faster (Mean (SD) = 70 (33) seconds) compared to those with the manufacturer-provided instructions (p < 0.01). Tourniquet instruction sets need to be refined in order to optimize the success rate of just-in-time guidance for tourniquet application.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Santa Monica: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, HFES, 2017
Series
Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. Proceedings, ISSN 1541-9312 ; 2017
Keywords
stop the bleed, tourniquet, just-in-time, training
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141997 (URN)10.1177/1541931213601873 (DOI)
Conference
The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 61st Annual Meeting, October 9-13 October, Austin, Texas, USA
Available from: 2017-10-17 Created: 2017-10-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Jonson, C.-O., Prytz, E. & Janson, O. (2017). A social network analysis of the emergency medical command during a live CBRNE exercise. In: Abstracts of Scientific Papers-WADEM Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine 2017: . Paper presented at WADEM Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine, Toronto, Canada, 25-28 April, 2017 (pp. S223-S224). Cambridge University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A social network analysis of the emergency medical command during a live CBRNE exercise
2017 (English)In: Abstracts of Scientific Papers-WADEM Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine 2017, Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. S223-S224Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2017
Series
Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X ; Volume 32, Issue S1
Keywords
social network analysis, sna, cbrne, first responder, emergency, disaster management, command and control
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141755 (URN)10.1017/S1049023X17005787 (DOI)
Conference
WADEM Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine, Toronto, Canada, 25-28 April, 2017
Available from: 2017-10-17 Created: 2017-10-17 Last updated: 2017-11-22Bibliographically approved
Prytz, E., Rybing, J., Carlsson, H. & Jonson, C.-O. (2017). Evaluating learning and simulation exercise efficacy for a course on advanced prehospital trauma. In: Abstracts of Scientific Papers-WADEM Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine 2017: . Paper presented at Wadem Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine, Totonto, Canada, 25-28 April 2017 (pp. S222-S223). Cambridge University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating learning and simulation exercise efficacy for a course on advanced prehospital trauma
2017 (English)In: Abstracts of Scientific Papers-WADEM Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine 2017, Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. S222-S223Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Study/Objective: In this study, we aimed to design a questionnaire battery for course and simulation exercise evaluation, and pilot-test the battery by evaluating a course on Advanced Prehospital Trauma Care (APTC).

Background: Many course evaluations suffer from simplistic metrics, such as whether the course participants “enjoyed” the course. In contrast, the current study sought to measure (self-estimated) pre- and post-course knowledge, relevant to specific learning objectives, as well as questions pertaining to specific factors of the simulation exercises used in the course (eg, fidelity/realism, learning objective fit, transferability of tools/procedures, usefulness, among others) were selected based on simulation theory and simulation-based training literature.

Methods: Data were collected during a course on APTC. Twelve students participated. The mean professional experience was 15.5 years. The participants completed an informed consent form prior to the study. They completed a pre-course questionnaire, a post-course questionnaire, and a course evaluation form.

Results: The mean self-estimated improvement in theoretical knowledge pertaining to the course objectives was 8.23 on a 0 to 10 scale, and 8.25 for practical skills. Greatest improvement was in advanced airway management, physiological reactions to hypothermia, pneumothorax interventions, special considerations for patients injured by explosives (eg, blast injuries and burns), and medical decision making during an active shooter scenario. The evaluation of the simulation exercises received high marks (mean rating 4.53 [3.92-4.92] out of 5.0) on all aspects. The participants rated the overall course quality at 4.67 (on a 0 to 5 scale), with the simulations, practical exercises, and the structure of moving from theory to practice being mentioned as particularly positive.

Conclusion: Overall, the results showed that the APTC course received high marks on almost all measured factors. Further validation of the questionnaires is needed before general implementation of the battery can be recommended. Such implementation would benefit diverse course development and quality assurance

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2017
Series
Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X ; 32, Issue S1
Keywords
simulation, learning, exercises, training, prehospital
National Category
Applied Psychology Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141756 (URN)10.1017/S1049023X17005763 (DOI)
Conference
Wadem Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine, Totonto, Canada, 25-28 April 2017
Available from: 2017-10-17 Created: 2017-10-17 Last updated: 2018-04-03Bibliographically approved
Forsyth, K., Lowndes, B., Prytz, E., Jonson, C.-O., Matthew, S., Heller, S., . . . Blocker, R. (2017). Improving Instructions to Stop the Bleed. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2017 Annual Meting: . Paper presented at The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 61st Annual Meeting, 9-13 October, Austin, Texas, USA (pp. 588-592). Santa Monica: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, HFES
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving Instructions to Stop the Bleed
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2017 Annual Meting, Santa Monica: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, HFES , 2017, p. 588-592Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Stop The Bleed initiative was developed by the Department of Homeland Security to educate lay providers in bleeding reduction strategies. The current study evaluated: (1)three tourniquet instructions using a simulated tourniquet task and (2)participant confidence levels in tourniquet use and lay provider training. Thirty participants with limited clinical experience applied a tourniquet to a simulated limb using one of three instruction sets. Twelve of these participants (40%) participated in a tourniquet training session and focus group to discuss each instruction set. Participants preferred the most simple and pictoral instruction set, and identified opportunities for improvement in each set. Participant confidence in tourniquet use increased significantly following the task and the focus group. After the focus group, participant confidence in instructing lay providers on proper tourniquet use significantly increased. Adding key steps, contextual pictures, and indicators of success to instructions could support lay providers stop the bleed in life-threatening situations

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Santa Monica: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, HFES, 2017
Series
Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. Proceedings, ISSN 1541-9312 ; 2017
Keywords
tourniquet, instructions, human factors, stop the bleed
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141983 (URN)10.1177/1541931213601631 (DOI)
Conference
The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 61st Annual Meeting, 9-13 October, Austin, Texas, USA
Available from: 2017-10-16 Created: 2017-10-16 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Bengtsson, K., Jonson, C.-O. & Prytz, E. G. (2016). Framtidens skadeplats: intervjuer med landstingens beredskapssamordnare. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framtidens skadeplats: intervjuer med landstingens beredskapssamordnare
2016 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med föreliggande studie var att genom intervjuer med beredskapssamordnare från Sveriges landsting försöka skapa en bild av hur uppfattningen var att skadeplatsen såg ut idag och skulle kunna kommat att förändras på sikt. Vidare önskade intervjustudien söka svar på frågor som rörde komplexiteten på skadeplatsen genom att diskutera ledningsförhållanden, samverkan med andra aktörer, alarmerings- och dirigeringsfunktionernas roll i det svenska sjukvårdsystemet samt hur ett möjligt arbete med ett återtagande av förmågan till ett civilt försvar skulle påverka systemet i sin helhet. Överlag har detta syfte uppnåtts genom ett rikt material kring relevanta frågeställningar som belyst ett flertal kritiska aspekter både i dagens situation men även för framtiden.

Resultatet ger en relativt entydig bild av hur situationen uppfattas på landstingsnivå idag av personalen som behandlar beredskapsfrågorna. Den bild som målas upp fokuserar kanske främst på en upplevd avsaknad av centrala och nationellt övergripande styrningar vilket menligt påverkar förmågan att lyfta ledningsförmågan från regional till nationell nivå vid en större händelse som överstiger den regionala förmågan. Den svenska modellen för att hantera samhällsstörningar av idag är väl anpassad för att hantera händelser inom ramen för det egna länets geografiska område. Befintliga koncept för samverkan och samordning bedöms fungera bra i vardagen, exempelvis vid de vanligaste fallen av skadeplatser: trafik och brand. Detta innebär dock att systemet fungerar väl under förutsättning att händelsen är begränsad i såväl tid och rum som vad avser antalet drabbade. En större händelse eller flera händelser samtidigt på olika platser, särskilt om det finns försvårande faktorer såsom utsläpp av farliga ämnen eller en högre hotbild, skapar försvårande omständigheter som upplevs svårhanterliga idag. I ett framtida scenario upplevs även risken för dessa händelser och terrorattacker att öka. Avhängigheten av IT samt ett samhälle som i allt högre grad förlitar sig på ”just in time”-leveranser gör att sårbarheten har ökat och upplevs fortsätta göra det även i framtiden. Andra viktiga områden som lyfts är nuvarande och befarad framtida brist på kompetent personal samt att utbildnings- och övningsverksamhet inte kan bedrivas i önskvärd utsträckning, delvis på grund av personalbrist och –omsättning.

Vidare syns den generella uppfattningen vara att det saknas ett tydligt ledarskap på nationell nivå då det sällan, om alls, utkommer några direkta styrningar rörande vad som skall uppnås och i vilken utsträckning. Detta har också påvisats i avsnittet ovan rörande före-, under- och efterperspektivet där det finns en klart övervägande del synpunkter på de två förstnämnda perspektiven. Nationell styrning är alltså något som uppfattas vara efterfrågat och då inte bara avseende ledning under insats utan även i frågor rörande enhetlig utrustning och metodik samt utbildnings- och övningsfrågor. Få respondenter har tagit upp efterperspektivet i någon större utsträckning men då det har förekommit har det framförallt berört erfarenhetshanteringsfrågor och den brist som upplevs finnas inom detta specifika område idag. Erfarenheter från den egna verksamheten, såväl i vardagen som vid insatser vid allvarliga händelser, behöver tas om hand, följas upp och sedan utgöra grund för ett levande utvecklingsarbete.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. p. 52
Series
CARER Report ; 19
National Category
Work Sciences Political Science Public Administration Studies Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133196 (URN)
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Ohlander, U., Linger, O., Hägg, V., Nilsson, L., Holmqvist, Å., Durefors, S., . . . Prytz, E. (2016). Performance using low-cost gaze-control for simulated flight tasks. In: Dick de Waard, Antonella Toffetti, Rebecca Wiczorek, Andreas Sonderegger, Stefan Röttger, Petr Bouchner, Thomas Franke, Stephen Fairclough, Matthijs Noordzij, and Karel Brookhuis (Ed.), Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter 2016 Annual Conference: Human Factors and User Needs in Transport, Control, and the Workplace. Paper presented at Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter 2016 Annual Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, October 26-28, 2016 (pp. 201-210).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance using low-cost gaze-control for simulated flight tasks
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2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter 2016 Annual Conference: Human Factors and User Needs in Transport, Control, and the Workplace / [ed] Dick de Waard, Antonella Toffetti, Rebecca Wiczorek, Andreas Sonderegger, Stefan Röttger, Petr Bouchner, Thomas Franke, Stephen Fairclough, Matthijs Noordzij, and Karel Brookhuis, 2016, p. 201-210Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the current study, interaction using gaze control was compared to computer mouse using the MATB-II (Multi-Attribute Task Battery) environment. The study had two aims; the first was to explore the utility of low-cost technologies in a rapid prototyping and testing environment for aviation. The second aim was to use such an environment to compare a novel interaction device (a low-cost gaze control device) to a familiar interaction device (computer mouse). Method: Thirty participants performed two scenarios with each interaction device. The software MATB-II provided simulated flight tasks and recorded performance. Mental workload was assessed by the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) questionnaire after each scenario. Results: The results showed that gaze control resulted in significantly higher overall mental workload than computer mouse. Performance was better with mouse in two of the four tasks. Conclusions: Concerning the first aim, the study demonstrated the value of low-cost technology for initial user testing before using more expensive high-fidelity environments. Concerning the second aim, the computer mouse resulted in better performance and lower mental workload. This may either be due to higher user familiarity with computer mouse interaction or to limitations of the gaze control equipment and insufficient adjustments of the interface design to optimize for gaze control.

Series
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, E-ISSN 2333-4959
Keywords
human factors, aviation, gaze control
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141022 (URN)
Conference
Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter 2016 Annual Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, October 26-28, 2016
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
Rybing, J., Larsson, J., Jonson, C.-O. & Prytz, E. (2016). Preliminary Validation Results of DigEmergo for Surge Capacity Management. In: Andrea H. Tapia, Pedro Antunes, Victor A. Bañuls, Kathleen Moore and João Porto de Albuquerque (Ed.), Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: . Paper presented at The 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, May 22-25, 2016. ISCRAM
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preliminary Validation Results of DigEmergo for Surge Capacity Management
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Andrea H. Tapia, Pedro Antunes, Victor A. Bañuls, Kathleen Moore and João Porto de Albuquerque, ISCRAM , 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents preliminary analysis from a validation study of a novel emergency medicine command and control training and evaluation simulator: DIGEMERGO®. The simulated emergency scenario was a surge capacity event at a generic emergency department, in which the participants took on a management role as the emergency department’s coordinating head nurse. A between group validation design with medical expert and novice participants was used. Initial analysis examined three triage measures associated with surge capacity management performance: time to triage, amount of patients triaged, and triage accuracy. The results show that experts were significantly more accurate at triaging in-hospital patients, but not incoming trauma patients. No significant differences in time or number of patients triaged was found. These initial results partially indicate simulator validity, but trauma patient triage accuracy suffered from a confounding variable in the triage system used. Analysis of additional measures is undergoing to further investigate validity claims.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ISCRAM, 2016
Series
Proceedings of the International ISCRAM Conference, ISSN 2411-3387 ; 2016
Keywords
Simulator validation, between group analysis, command and control, performance measures, emergency medicine, surge capacity
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128700 (URN)9788460879848 (ISBN)
Conference
The 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, May 22-25, 2016
Available from: 2016-05-30 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2018-03-20Bibliographically approved
Prytz, E. G., Rybing, J., Jonson, C.-O., Petterson, A., Berggren, P. & Johansson, B. (2015). An exploratory study of a low-level shared awareness measure using mission-critical locations during an emergency exercise. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 59th Annual Meeting: . Paper presented at Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 59th Annual Meeting (pp. 1152-1156). Sage Publications, 59(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An exploratory study of a low-level shared awareness measure using mission-critical locations during an emergency exercise
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 59th Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2015, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 1152-1156Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A shared awareness of other teams’ roles and tasks has been linked to successful performance in joint ventures. However, emergency management organizations responding to incidents do not always share critical information necessary for maintaining shared awareness. An instrument called Shared Priorities has previously been applied to measure aspects of shared situation awareness at level 2 and 3 in Endsley’s (1995) model. This paper reports on a shared awareness instrument focused on level 1 situation awareness and its associated level of team shared awareness. Participants in a large emergency response exercise were asked to locate and rank geographical locations based on importance for overall mission success. The results show that organizations tended to rank locations relevant for their own work higher than positions relevant to other organization’s tasks. The different organizations displayed different levels of inter-rater agreement within themselves concerning the ranking of these positions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2015
Series
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, ISSN 1071-1813, E-ISSN 2169-5067 ; 59
National Category
Business Administration Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126629 (URN)10.1177/1541931215591178 (DOI)
Conference
Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 59th Annual Meeting
Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2019-01-31Bibliographically approved
Prytz, E. & Scerbo, M. (2015). Changes in stress and subjective workload over time following a workload transition. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 16(6), 586-605
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in stress and subjective workload over time following a workload transition
2015 (English)In: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 586-605Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Workload transitions present individuals with sudden changes in workload. These transitions may affect stress and coping behaviour. Two experiments were performed using a digit detection task that shifted between low and high workload levels to examine transition effects on performance, stress, and effort. The first experiment used a large magnitude transition and resulted in decreased estimates of task engagement and effort. Over time, the levels of subjective stress observed in the transitioned groups approached those of the non-transitioned control groups. The second experiment used a transition more moderate in magnitude. The results were similar to those from the first experiment except that the transition resulted in higher, sustained task engagement and effort. These findings indicate that over time, the perceived stress of transitioned individuals will approach those of non-transitioned individuals; however, the magnitude of the transition may influence individuals to either increase or decrease task-oriented, effortful coping.

Keywords
stress, workload, human factors, ergonomics, workload transition
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128184 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2015.1084397 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-05-20 Created: 2016-05-20 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5943-0679

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