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Stenlund, J. I. & Tibell, L. A. (2019). Visualizing macroevolutionary timescales: students’ comprehension of different temporal representations in an animation. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 12(1), 1-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visualizing macroevolutionary timescales: students’ comprehension of different temporal representations in an animation
2019 (English)In: Evolution: Education and Outreach, ISSN 1936-6426, E-ISSN 1936-6434, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Macroevolutionary time is a difficult idea to grasp and is considered to be a threshold concept in teaching and learning evolution. One way of addressing this subject is to use animations that represent evolutionary time. The aim of this descriptive and exploratory study was to investigate how various representations of time in an animation affect the way undergraduate students comprehend different temporal aspects of hominin evolution. Two factors, namely differences in timelines (the number of timelines with different scales) and the mode of the default animated time rate (either constant throughout the animation or decreasing as the animation progressed) were combined to give four different time representations. The temporal aspects were investigated using undergraduate students’ ability to find events at specific times, to comprehend relative order, to comprehend concurrent events, to estimate the duration of time intervals and their ability to compare the lengths of time intervals.

Results: The results revealed that “finding events at specific times” near to the end of the animation (closer to present time), where the sequence of events appeared very quickly, was more difficult for groups working with animations with only one timeline. We also found that the ability to comprehend concurrent events can be impaired if several timelines are displayed and the animation speed is relatively high. The ability to estimate the duration of a time interval was more difficult for groups working with animations with only one timeline, especially at the end of the animation where the sequence of events occurred quickly. Making correct comparisons of time intervals was relatively independent of which animation was used with one notable exception: groups working with an animation featuring several timelines and a decreasing default animated time rate performed worst at comparing events with intervals that spanned parts of the timeline with different scales.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the choice of animation should depend on the teaching intention. However, a visualization with several timelines, and an animated time which slowed down toward present time, generated the best results for the majority of items tested. Temporal scale shift may interfere with the perception of time in cases where durations are compared.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SpringerNature, 2019
Keywords
Evolution, Visualization, Threshold concept, Deep time
National Category
Learning Media and Communication Technology Human Aspects of ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154881 (URN)10.1186/s12052-019-0099-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-03-04 Created: 2019-03-04 Last updated: 2019-03-04Bibliographically approved
Andersson, J., Löfgren, R. & Tibell, L. (2019). What’s in the body? Children’s annotated drawings. Journal of Biological Education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What’s in the body? Children’s annotated drawings
2019 (English)In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, E-ISSN 2157-6009Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a study of children’s ideas of the body’s internal structure. Children between four and 13 years (N = 170) individually produced drawings. During each drawing session the children explained their drawings to a facilitator and added written labels either by them- selves or, if they were too young to write, with the facilitator’s help. The results provide an updated comprehensive picture of children in differ- ent age groups and their views on the internal structure of the body. The type and numbers of organs drawn are similar to those documented in previous studies. However, in comparison to recent studies, the children drew more organs, the brain was indicated almost as often as the heart, and the Valentine heart was frequently used as a symbol. In contrast with previous research, children drew connections between organs. This result calls for caution regarding conclusions made from decontextua- lized questions. The importance of providing children with the opportu- nity to clarify their drawings is emphasised since it otherwise becomes a question of the researcher’s interpretation. The connections they draw, and explanations they give to their drawings, have interesting implica- tions for understanding children’s ideas, and hence both for teaching and learning and for science education research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Biology education; early years; children’s drawings; human body; internal organs
National Category
Other Natural Sciences Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156731 (URN)10.1080/00219266.2019.1569082 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2019-05-13
Bohlin, G., Göransson, A. C., Höst, G. & Tibell, L. (2018). Insights from introducing natural selection to novices using animations of antibiotic resistance. Journal of Biological Education, 52(3), 314-330
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insights from introducing natural selection to novices using animations of antibiotic resistance
2018 (English)In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, E-ISSN 2157-6009, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 314-330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antibiotic resistance is typically used to justify education about evolution, as evolutionary reasoning improves our understanding of causes of resistance and possible countermeasures. It has also been promoted as a useful context for teaching natural selection, because its potency as a selection factor, in combination with the very short generation times of bacteria, allows observation of rapid selection. It is also amenable to animations, which have potential for promoting conceptual inferences. Thus, we have explored the potential benefits of introducing antibiotic resistance as a first example of natural selection, in animations, to novice pupils (aged 13–14 years). We created a series of animations that pupils interacted with in groups of 3–5 (total n = 32). Data were collected at individual (pre-/post- test) and group (collaborative group questions) levels. In addition, the exercise was video-recorded and the full transcripts were analysed inductively. The results show that most of the pupils successfully applied basic evolutionary reasoning to predict antibiotic resistance development in tasks during and after the exercise, suggesting that this may be an effective approach. Pedagogical contributions include the identification of certain characteristics of the bacterial context for evolution teaching, including common misunderstandings, and factors to consider when designing animations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
natural selection, antibiotic resistance, animation, mutations, lower secondary education
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140024 (URN)10.1080/00219266.2017.1368687 (DOI)000438131600009 ()2-s2.0-85028536269 (Scopus ID)
Projects
EvoVis
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsradet) [2012-5344]

Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2018-07-27Bibliographically approved
Höst, G., Schönborn, K., Tibell, L. & Fröcklin, H. (2018). What Biological Visualizations Do Science CenterVisitors Prefer in an Interactive Touch Table?. Education Sciences, 8(4), Article ID 166.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What Biological Visualizations Do Science CenterVisitors Prefer in an Interactive Touch Table?
2018 (English)In: Education Sciences, ISSN 2227-7102, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hands-on digital interactivity in science centers provides new communicative opportunities. The Microcosmos multi-touch table allows visitors to interact with 64 image “cards” of (sub)microscopic biological structures and processes embedded across seven theme categories. This study presents the integration of biological content, interactive features and logging capabilities into the table, and analyses visitors’ usage and preferences. Data logging recorded 2,070,350 events including activated category, selected card, and various finger-based gestures. Visitors interacted with all cards during 858 sessions (96 s on average). Finger movements covered an average accumulated distance of 4.6 m per session, and about 56% of card interactions involved two fingers. Visitors made 5.53 category switches per session on average, and the virus category was most activated (average 0.96 per session). An overall ranking score related to card attractive power and holding power revealed that six of the most highly used cards depicted viruses and four were colourful instrument output images. The large finger traversal distance and proportion of two-finger card interaction may indicate the intuitiveness of the gestures. Observed trends in visitor engagement with the biological visualizations are considered in terms of construal level theory. Future work will examine how interactions are related to potential learning of biological content.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: , 2018
Keywords
visualization in biology education; (sub)microscopic scale; digital touch table interfaces; science centers
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151994 (URN)10.3390/educsci8040166 (DOI)
Projects
Norrköpings fond för Forskning och Utveckling NK KS 2016/0417
Available from: 2018-10-12 Created: 2018-10-12 Last updated: 2018-11-12
Bohlin, G., Göransson, A. C., Höst, G. & Tibell, L. (2017). A conceptual characterization of online videos explaining natural selection. Science & Education, 26(7-9), 975-999
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A conceptual characterization of online videos explaining natural selection
2017 (English)In: Science & Education, ISSN 0926-7220, E-ISSN 1573-1901, Vol. 26, no 7-9, p. 975-999Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Educational videos on the Internet comprise a vast and highly diverse source of information. Online search engines facilitate access to numerous videos claiming to explain natural selection, but little is known about the degree to which the video content match key evolutionary content identified as important in evolution education research. In this study, we therefore analyzed the content of 60 videos accessed through the Internet, using a criteria catalog with 38 operationalized variables derived from research literature. The variables were sorted into four categories: (a) key concepts (e.g. limited resources and inherited variation), (b) threshold concepts (abstract concepts with a transforming and integrative function), (c) misconceptions (e.g. that evolution is driven by need), and (d) organismal context (e.g. animal or plant). The results indicate that some concepts are frequently communicated, and certain taxa are commonly used to illustrate concepts, while others are seldom included. In addition, evolutionary phenomena at small temporal and spatial scales, such as subcellular processes, are rarely covered. Rather, the focus is on population-level events over time scales spanning years or longer. This is consistent with an observed lack of explanations regarding how randomly occurring mutations provide the basis for variation (and thus natural selection). The findings imply, among other things, that some components of natural selection warrant far more attention in biology teaching and science education research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2017
Keywords
natural selection, evolution, threshold concepts, visualizations, misconceptions, content analysis, videos, key concepts
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143411 (URN)10.1007/s11191-017-9938-7 (DOI)000418390100011 ()
Projects
EvoVis
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2018-01-08Bibliographically approved
Bohlin, G., Härting, J., Harms, U. & Tibell, L. A. E. (2015). A Criteria Catalogue Covering Multiple Evolutionary Aspects Including Threshold Concepts for Assessment of Animations Explaining Evolution. In: : . Paper presented at NARST 2015, Annual International Conference. 11-14 April. Chicago, USA..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Criteria Catalogue Covering Multiple Evolutionary Aspects Including Threshold Concepts for Assessment of Animations Explaining Evolution
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
Evolution, Dynamic Visualizations, Threshold Concepts
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117154 (URN)
Conference
NARST 2015, Annual International Conference. 11-14 April. Chicago, USA.
Projects
EvoVis
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
Available from: 2015-04-20 Created: 2015-04-20 Last updated: 2016-05-04
Göransson, A., Stenlund, J. & Tibell, L. (2015). A Novel Computer Application for Teaching Evolutionary Mechanisms: Visual Analogies of Randomness and Natural Selection. In: : . Paper presented at NARST 2015, Annual International Conference. 11 - 14 april, 2015, Chicago, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Novel Computer Application for Teaching Evolutionary Mechanisms: Visual Analogies of Randomness and Natural Selection
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
evolution, education, threshold concepts, visualization
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117155 (URN)
Conference
NARST 2015, Annual International Conference. 11 - 14 april, 2015, Chicago, USA
Projects
EvoVis
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
Available from: 2015-04-20 Created: 2015-04-20 Last updated: 2016-05-04
Larsson, C. & Tibell, L. A. (2015). Challenging Students’ Intuitions: The Influence of a Tangible Model of Virus Assembly on Students’ Conceptual Reasoning About the Process of Self-Assembly. Research in science education, 45(5), 663-690
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenging Students’ Intuitions: The Influence of a Tangible Model of Virus Assembly on Students’ Conceptual Reasoning About the Process of Self-Assembly
2015 (English)In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 663-690Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A well-ordered biological complex can be formed by the random motion of its components, i.e. self-assemble. This is a concept that incorporates issues that may contradict students’ everyday experiences and intuitions. In previous studies, we have shown that a tangible model of virus self-assembly, used in a group exercise, helps students to grasp the process of self-assembly and in particular the facet “random molecular collision”. The present study investigates how and why the model and the group exercise facilitate students’ learning of this particular facet. The data analysed consist of audio recordings of six group exercises (n = 35 university students) and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 5 university students). The analysis is based on constructivist perspectives of learning, a combination of conceptual change theory and learning with external representations. Qualitative analysis indicates that perceived counterintuitive aspects of the process created a cognitive conflict within learners. The tangible model used in the group exercises facilitated a conceptual change in their understanding of the process. In particular, the tangible model appeared to provide cues and possible explanations and functioned as an “eye-opener” and a “thinking tool”. Lastly, the results show signs of emotions also being important elements for successful accommodation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2015
Keywords
Cognitive conflict, Conceptual change, Counterintuitive, Prior knowledge, Selfassembly, Tangible model
National Category
Media and Communications Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112219 (URN)10.1007/s11165-014-9446-6 (DOI)000368704200002 ()
Projects
Visualiseringar som meningsskapande verktyg för kommunikation av molekylär livsvetenskapVisMolLS
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR 2008–5077
Available from: 2014-11-19 Created: 2014-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Orraryd, D. & Tibell, L. A. .. (2015). Creative evolution: Students generating stop-motion animations of evolutionary change. In: : . Paper presented at ESERA, European Science Education Research Association, Helsinki, August 31-Sept 4, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creative evolution: Students generating stop-motion animations of evolutionary change
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

iagrams have been used to visualize evolutionary relationships for more than 150 years, and are today readily found in many areas such as textbooks, media, museums and the scientific literature. The tree of life metaphor, where the diagram takes the form of an organic vertical tree has been used almost as long and is still used to a high degree in textbooks and at museums. Despite this high prevalence the instructional needed to develop tree-thinking abilities are often lacking, potentially leading to interpretational misconceptions of the evolutionary concepts presented.

In this study 5 exhibitions with evolutionary content in natural science museums in the Nordic countries have been analysed in order to understand how evolutionary tree diagrams are incorporated in these exhibitions, what design is used and what instructional support is available to the visitor. A multi-modal social semiotic approach was used, where 3 functional levels were analysed together in order to assess the meaning making potential of the evolutionary trees in these exhibitions; i) content, representational process and design. ii) instruction and interactivity. iii) spatial and organizational composition. The analyses show a wide range of communication strategies; reaching from the evolutionary tree diagrams having a pivotal role in the exhibition narrative to being placed purely in the margin with no explicit connection to the overall evolutionary content. The instructional support is in many cases lacking but is sometimes incorporated in the presentational text of specific parts of the evolutionary tree, and the design ranges from tree of life type iconic visualisations to highly abstract renderings. Overall the evolutionary tree as a visual tool to communicate important evolutionary concepts seems to be used to a high degree but important aspects in order to better afford scientific correct interpretations of the trees are sometimes lacking.

National Category
Didactics Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122575 (URN)
Conference
ESERA, European Science Education Research Association, Helsinki, August 31-Sept 4, 2015
Projects
EvoVis
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
Available from: 2015-11-09 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2018-07-20
Bohlin, G., Göransson, A. C. & Tibell, L. A. E. (2015). Diverse use of threshold concepts - A content analysis of online dynamic visualizations describing evolution.. In: : . Paper presented at ESERA 2015, 11th Conference of the European Science Education Research Association. 31 Aug - 4 Sept. Helsinki, Finland..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diverse use of threshold concepts - A content analysis of online dynamic visualizations describing evolution.
2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is an abundance of dynamic visualizations (animations, videos and simulations) that claim to explain evolution available on the Internet. The present study explores what aspects of evolution that are represented in these potential learning tools. A criteria catalogue covering 40 operationalized variables was used as a content analysis grid in the analysis of 71 dynamic visualizations. The concepts, derived from research literature, were operationalized into variables sorted into four different categories: (a) content-specific concepts (such as limited resources or inherited variation), (b) threshold concepts (core concepts that transform and integrate understanding within a subject), (c) alternative conceptions (such as teleological explanations or anthropomorphism), and (d) model organism. The results indicate that some concepts are dominantly communicated while others are seldom or never included in online visualizations. Regarding the proposed threshold concepts, evolutionary events happening on small time- and spatial scales, such as subcellular processes, were seldom observed. Rather, the focus was on events happening at a population level in time scales spanning from years and longer. This echoes with an observed lack of explanations regarding randomly occurring mutations providing the basis for variation. Implications include that there are components of evolution that would benefit from being addressed with an increased focus in biology teaching and science education research. The results may also serve as a useful toolkit in the design of new educational material.

Keywords
Evolution, Threshold concepts, Dynamic visualizations
National Category
Didactics Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121370 (URN)
Conference
ESERA 2015, 11th Conference of the European Science Education Research Association. 31 Aug - 4 Sept. Helsinki, Finland.
Projects
EvoVis
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
Available from: 2015-09-15 Created: 2015-09-15 Last updated: 2016-05-04
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4694-5611

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