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Bohlin, G., Göransson, A. C., Höst, G. & Tibell, L. (2018). Insights from introducing natural selection to novices using animations of antibiotic resistance. Journal of Biological Education, 52(3), 314-330
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insights from introducing natural selection to novices using animations of antibiotic resistance
2018 (English)In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, E-ISSN 2157-6009, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 314-330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antibiotic resistance is typically used to justify education about evolution, as evolutionary reasoning improves our understanding of causes of resistance and possible countermeasures. It has also been promoted as a useful context for teaching natural selection, because its potency as a selection factor, in combination with the very short generation times of bacteria, allows observation of rapid selection. It is also amenable to animations, which have potential for promoting conceptual inferences. Thus, we have explored the potential benefits of introducing antibiotic resistance as a first example of natural selection, in animations, to novice pupils (aged 13–14 years). We created a series of animations that pupils interacted with in groups of 3–5 (total n = 32). Data were collected at individual (pre-/post- test) and group (collaborative group questions) levels. In addition, the exercise was video-recorded and the full transcripts were analysed inductively. The results show that most of the pupils successfully applied basic evolutionary reasoning to predict antibiotic resistance development in tasks during and after the exercise, suggesting that this may be an effective approach. Pedagogical contributions include the identification of certain characteristics of the bacterial context for evolution teaching, including common misunderstandings, and factors to consider when designing animations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
natural selection, antibiotic resistance, animation, mutations, lower secondary education
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140024 (URN)10.1080/00219266.2017.1368687 (DOI)000438131600009 ()2-s2.0-85028536269 (Scopus ID)
Projects
EvoVis
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsradet) [2012-5344]

Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2018-07-27Bibliographically approved
Bohlin, G., Göransson, A. C., Höst, G. & Tibell, L. (2017). A conceptual characterization of online videos explaining natural selection. Science & Education, 26(7-9), 975-999
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A conceptual characterization of online videos explaining natural selection
2017 (English)In: Science & Education, ISSN 0926-7220, E-ISSN 1573-1901, Vol. 26, no 7-9, p. 975-999Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Educational videos on the Internet comprise a vast and highly diverse source of information. Online search engines facilitate access to numerous videos claiming to explain natural selection, but little is known about the degree to which the video content match key evolutionary content identified as important in evolution education research. In this study, we therefore analyzed the content of 60 videos accessed through the Internet, using a criteria catalog with 38 operationalized variables derived from research literature. The variables were sorted into four categories: (a) key concepts (e.g. limited resources and inherited variation), (b) threshold concepts (abstract concepts with a transforming and integrative function), (c) misconceptions (e.g. that evolution is driven by need), and (d) organismal context (e.g. animal or plant). The results indicate that some concepts are frequently communicated, and certain taxa are commonly used to illustrate concepts, while others are seldom included. In addition, evolutionary phenomena at small temporal and spatial scales, such as subcellular processes, are rarely covered. Rather, the focus is on population-level events over time scales spanning years or longer. This is consistent with an observed lack of explanations regarding how randomly occurring mutations provide the basis for variation (and thus natural selection). The findings imply, among other things, that some components of natural selection warrant far more attention in biology teaching and science education research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2017
Keywords
natural selection, evolution, threshold concepts, visualizations, misconceptions, content analysis, videos, key concepts
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143411 (URN)10.1007/s11191-017-9938-7 (DOI)000418390100011 ()
Projects
EvoVis
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2018-01-08Bibliographically approved
Bohlin, G., Härting, J., Harms, U. & Tibell, L. A. E. (2015). A Criteria Catalogue Covering Multiple Evolutionary Aspects Including Threshold Concepts for Assessment of Animations Explaining Evolution. In: : . Paper presented at NARST 2015, Annual International Conference. 11-14 April. Chicago, USA..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Criteria Catalogue Covering Multiple Evolutionary Aspects Including Threshold Concepts for Assessment of Animations Explaining Evolution
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
Evolution, Dynamic Visualizations, Threshold Concepts
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117154 (URN)
Conference
NARST 2015, Annual International Conference. 11-14 April. Chicago, USA.
Projects
EvoVis
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
Available from: 2015-04-20 Created: 2015-04-20 Last updated: 2016-05-04
Göransson, A., Stenlund, J. & Tibell, L. (2015). A Novel Computer Application for Teaching Evolutionary Mechanisms: Visual Analogies of Randomness and Natural Selection. In: : . Paper presented at NARST 2015, Annual International Conference. 11 - 14 april, 2015, Chicago, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Novel Computer Application for Teaching Evolutionary Mechanisms: Visual Analogies of Randomness and Natural Selection
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
evolution, education, threshold concepts, visualization
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117155 (URN)
Conference
NARST 2015, Annual International Conference. 11 - 14 april, 2015, Chicago, USA
Projects
EvoVis
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
Available from: 2015-04-20 Created: 2015-04-20 Last updated: 2016-05-04
Larsson, C. & Tibell, L. A. (2015). Challenging Students’ Intuitions: The Influence of a Tangible Model of Virus Assembly on Students’ Conceptual Reasoning About the Process of Self-Assembly. Research in science education, 45(5), 663-690
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenging Students’ Intuitions: The Influence of a Tangible Model of Virus Assembly on Students’ Conceptual Reasoning About the Process of Self-Assembly
2015 (English)In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 663-690Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A well-ordered biological complex can be formed by the random motion of its components, i.e. self-assemble. This is a concept that incorporates issues that may contradict students’ everyday experiences and intuitions. In previous studies, we have shown that a tangible model of virus self-assembly, used in a group exercise, helps students to grasp the process of self-assembly and in particular the facet “random molecular collision”. The present study investigates how and why the model and the group exercise facilitate students’ learning of this particular facet. The data analysed consist of audio recordings of six group exercises (n = 35 university students) and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 5 university students). The analysis is based on constructivist perspectives of learning, a combination of conceptual change theory and learning with external representations. Qualitative analysis indicates that perceived counterintuitive aspects of the process created a cognitive conflict within learners. The tangible model used in the group exercises facilitated a conceptual change in their understanding of the process. In particular, the tangible model appeared to provide cues and possible explanations and functioned as an “eye-opener” and a “thinking tool”. Lastly, the results show signs of emotions also being important elements for successful accommodation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2015
Keywords
Cognitive conflict, Conceptual change, Counterintuitive, Prior knowledge, Selfassembly, Tangible model
National Category
Media and Communications Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112219 (URN)10.1007/s11165-014-9446-6 (DOI)000368704200002 ()
Projects
Visualiseringar som meningsskapande verktyg för kommunikation av molekylär livsvetenskapVisMolLS
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR 2008–5077
Available from: 2014-11-19 Created: 2014-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Orraryd, D. & Tibell, L. A. .. (2015). Creative evolution: Students generating stop-motion animations of evolutionary change. In: : . Paper presented at ESERA, European Science Education Research Association, Helsinki, August 31-Sept 4, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creative evolution: Students generating stop-motion animations of evolutionary change
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

iagrams have been used to visualize evolutionary relationships for more than 150 years, and are today readily found in many areas such as textbooks, media, museums and the scientific literature. The tree of life metaphor, where the diagram takes the form of an organic vertical tree has been used almost as long and is still used to a high degree in textbooks and at museums. Despite this high prevalence the instructional needed to develop tree-thinking abilities are often lacking, potentially leading to interpretational misconceptions of the evolutionary concepts presented.

In this study 5 exhibitions with evolutionary content in natural science museums in the Nordic countries have been analysed in order to understand how evolutionary tree diagrams are incorporated in these exhibitions, what design is used and what instructional support is available to the visitor. A multi-modal social semiotic approach was used, where 3 functional levels were analysed together in order to assess the meaning making potential of the evolutionary trees in these exhibitions; i) content, representational process and design. ii) instruction and interactivity. iii) spatial and organizational composition. The analyses show a wide range of communication strategies; reaching from the evolutionary tree diagrams having a pivotal role in the exhibition narrative to being placed purely in the margin with no explicit connection to the overall evolutionary content. The instructional support is in many cases lacking but is sometimes incorporated in the presentational text of specific parts of the evolutionary tree, and the design ranges from tree of life type iconic visualisations to highly abstract renderings. Overall the evolutionary tree as a visual tool to communicate important evolutionary concepts seems to be used to a high degree but important aspects in order to better afford scientific correct interpretations of the trees are sometimes lacking.

National Category
Didactics Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122575 (URN)
Conference
ESERA, European Science Education Research Association, Helsinki, August 31-Sept 4, 2015
Projects
EvoVis
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
Available from: 2015-11-09 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2018-07-20
Bohlin, G., Göransson, A. C. & Tibell, L. A. E. (2015). Diverse use of threshold concepts - A content analysis of online dynamic visualizations describing evolution.. In: : . Paper presented at ESERA 2015, 11th Conference of the European Science Education Research Association. 31 Aug - 4 Sept. Helsinki, Finland..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diverse use of threshold concepts - A content analysis of online dynamic visualizations describing evolution.
2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is an abundance of dynamic visualizations (animations, videos and simulations) that claim to explain evolution available on the Internet. The present study explores what aspects of evolution that are represented in these potential learning tools. A criteria catalogue covering 40 operationalized variables was used as a content analysis grid in the analysis of 71 dynamic visualizations. The concepts, derived from research literature, were operationalized into variables sorted into four different categories: (a) content-specific concepts (such as limited resources or inherited variation), (b) threshold concepts (core concepts that transform and integrate understanding within a subject), (c) alternative conceptions (such as teleological explanations or anthropomorphism), and (d) model organism. The results indicate that some concepts are dominantly communicated while others are seldom or never included in online visualizations. Regarding the proposed threshold concepts, evolutionary events happening on small time- and spatial scales, such as subcellular processes, were seldom observed. Rather, the focus was on events happening at a population level in time scales spanning from years and longer. This echoes with an observed lack of explanations regarding randomly occurring mutations providing the basis for variation. Implications include that there are components of evolution that would benefit from being addressed with an increased focus in biology teaching and science education research. The results may also serve as a useful toolkit in the design of new educational material.

Keywords
Evolution, Threshold concepts, Dynamic visualizations
National Category
Didactics Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121370 (URN)
Conference
ESERA 2015, 11th Conference of the European Science Education Research Association. 31 Aug - 4 Sept. Helsinki, Finland.
Projects
EvoVis
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
Available from: 2015-09-15 Created: 2015-09-15 Last updated: 2016-05-04
Granklint Enochson, P., Redfors, A., Dempster, E. R. & Tibell, L. A. (2015). Ideas about the Human Body among Secondary Students in South Africa. African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 19(2), 199-211
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ideas about the Human Body among Secondary Students in South Africa
2015 (English)In: African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, ISSN 1028-8457, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 199-211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we focus on how South African students’ ideas about the human body are constituted in their descriptions of three different scenarios involving the pathway of a sandwich, a painkiller and a glass of water through the body. In particular, we have studied the way in which the students transferred ideas between the sandwich and the painkiller compared with the students’ ability to explain the water pathway. The study surveyed 161 ninth-grade students in five different schools in South Africa. Data collection methods used were: drawings, written questions (open-ended items) and interviews with selected students. The questions emerged from the three scenarios—what happens in the body when you eat a sandwich, swallow a painkiller and drink a glass of water. We report that it is difficult for the students to transfer knowledge of the digestive system horizontally from the sandwich scenario to descriptions of the painkiller and water scenarios. The integration of three organ systems (digestive, circulatory and excretory) to describe the water scenario was even more difficult for the students than the horizontal transfer from the sandwich scenario. The students also showed a diversity of nonscientific descriptions, especially concerning the water scenario. The paper discusses why a large percentage of the students (50%) included non-scientific ideas in their decriptions of the water scenario.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK: , 2015
Keywords
Students’ ideas; organ system; biology; horizontal transfer; integration of body systems
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122570 (URN)10.1080/10288457.2015.1050804 (DOI)
Projects
BodyVis
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2008-1023
Available from: 2015-11-09 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2018-07-20Bibliographically approved
Hennig, J., Andrésen, C., Museth, A. K., Lundström, P., Tibell, L. & Jonsson, B.-H. (2015). Local Destabilization of the Metal-Binding Region in Human Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase by Remote Mutations Is a Possible Determinant for Progression of ALS. Biochemistry, 54(2), 323-333
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local Destabilization of the Metal-Binding Region in Human Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase by Remote Mutations Is a Possible Determinant for Progression of ALS
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 323-333Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

More than 100 distinct mutations in the gene CuZnSOD encoding human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) have been associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), a fatal neuronal disease. Many studies of different mutant proteins have found effects on protein stability, catalytic activity, and metal binding, but without a common pattern. Notably, these studies were often performed under conditions far from physiological. Here, we have used experimental conditions of pH 7 and 37 degrees C and at an ionic strength of 0.2 M to mimic physiological conditions as close as possible in a sample of pure protein. Thus, by using NMR spectroscopy, we have analyzed amide hydrogen exchange of the fALS-associated I113T CuZnSOD variant in its fully metalated state, both at 25 and 37 degrees C, where (15)N relaxation data, as expected, reveals that CuZnSOD I113T exists as a dimer under these conditions. The local dynamics at 82% of all residues have been analyzed in detail. When compared to the wild-type protein, it was found that I113T CuZnSOD is particularly destabilized locally at the ion binding sites of loop 4, the zinc binding loop, which results in frequent exposure of the aggregation prone outer beta-strands I and VI of the beta-barrel, possibly enabling fibril or aggregate formation. A similar study (Museth, A. K., et al. (2009) Biochemistry, 48, 8817-8829) of amide hydrogen exchange at pH 7 and 25 degrees C on the G93A variant also revealed a selective destabilization of the zinc binding loop. Thus, a possible scenario in ALS is that elevated local dynamics at the metal binding region can result in toxic species from formation of new interactions at local beta-strands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society, 2015
National Category
Biological Sciences Chemical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114994 (URN)10.1021/bi500606j (DOI)000348333300022 ()25496420 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [Dnr 2006-4253, Dnr 621-2012-5136]

Available from: 2015-03-09 Created: 2015-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Tibell, L. A. .. & Harms, U. (2015). Lowering the Threshold - New Approaches for Teaching and Learning Evolution. In: : . Paper presented at NARST – National Association for Research in Science Teaching Chicago, April 11-14, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lowering the Threshold - New Approaches for Teaching and Learning Evolution
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The theory of evolution is widely considered to be one of the most important and groundbreaking theories in science history and essentially underpins all modern biology, from ecology through to medicine. Darwin's theory of evolution explains how all life is related and has descended from a common ancestor. Since the theory of evolution was first presented more than 150 years ago, results from across the life sciences have verified and enhanced details of this theory. There are a multitude of implications of direct societal importance for evolutionary aspects, e.g. antibiotic resistance, emergence of new diseases as well as responses and adaptations to climate change. Therefore, a meaningful understanding of evolutionary theory is essential for many areas of individual, social and scientific life. However, science education research has shown that the theory of evolution presents severe problems to learners, and many teaching strategies have failed or proven to be inefficient to solve them (e.g. Kampourakis & Zogza, 2008). Taking this knowledge into account the aim of our contribution is to propose new ways of teaching, learning and probing understanding about evolution. The first study applies the method of learning with worked examples to learning evolution. Worked examples have been shown to support the understanding of demanding scientific contents as well as of contents in other disciplines by empirical investigations (Chi et al., 1994). Here, worked examples are used in a very differentiated way, i.e. adjusted to the prior knowledge of the students. The second study attempts a new way to explore students’ conceptions of evolution by using student-generated animations. In many studies, students’ conceptions of evolution have been probed using interviews as well as paper and pencil tests, ranging from multiple-choice questionnaires to essays (e.g. Balgopal & Montplaisir, 2009). However, Nehm and Schonfeld (2008) showed that students’ results are strongly dependent on the particular method applied. The second study investigates a new method of exploring students’ conceptions of evolution, i.e. animations, which were generated by the students themselves in a collaborative setting.

Nehm and Reilly (2007) have suggested targeting misconceptions and core concepts as tools for explaining particular evolutionary scenarios. This would be in line with well-established conceptual change theories in science education (Strike & Posner 1992). The third, fourth and fifth study of our symposium is linked to these considerations. They focus on fundamental features of the evolutionary concept, i.e. thresholds concepts such as randomness, probability or spatio-temporal scales, which the authors hypothesize to be necessary to grasp the theory of evolution. The construct of evolution is composed of fundamental abstract ideas. Some of these concepts are in fact contra-intuitive and have to be connected in complex conceptual patterns for a full comprehension of evolution theory. Evolution spans spatial and temporal scales, from the development of life and species over millions of years, to the explanations of events that occur at the cellular and molecular level, and in time scales from microseconds to minutes and hours. Some kinds of visualizations are needed for making these concepts tangible for learners. Thousands of animations, dealing with evolution, are available on the Internet. The third paper presented proposes a criteria catalogue covering multiple evolutionary aspects including threshold concepts for the evaluation of animations meant for explaining evolution. The aim of this study was to map the presence (or absence) of important concepts in dynamic educational visualizations on evolution. By using the developed criteria catalogue, the study elucidates what concepts are focused on in animations, video clips and simulations and whether there are relevant evolutionary concepts in these media that are seldom represented or not represented at all. Paper four goes one step further: the explorative study shows the development and evaluation of a novel interactive visualization application intended to convey key mechanisms of natural selection such as random variation, selection and development over generations. The aim was to investigate students reasoning while working with this interactive simulation application stressing the threshold concept of randomness in the context of genetic variation. The final study presented in this contribution aims to investigate if problems in understanding evolution as well as in the development of misconceptions can be overcome by fostering the understanding of the threshold concept randomness.

Through this contribution, the authors aim to contribute to further development of the teaching and learning of evolution at secondary as well as higher educational levels.

National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122576 (URN)
Conference
NARST – National Association for Research in Science Teaching Chicago, April 11-14, 2015
Projects
EvoVis
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
Available from: 2015-11-09 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2018-07-20
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4694-5611

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