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Brändström, Sven
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Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
Brändström, S. (2009). Personality and its complexity: An investigation of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personality and its complexity: An investigation of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In former days the descriptions of personality were based on typologies, reflecting the view that people do not change over time and so have a stable, life-long personality type. Later on exclusive categories were created, but during recent times the understanding of personality has changed due to more dimensional and dynamic thinking.

Cloninger’s personality theory integrates concepts and research findings from neuroanatomy, neurophysiology of behavior and learning, and from developmental, social and clinical psychology. It is postulated that the behavioural systems of temperament and character are related to two major neural systems for the adaptation of experiences on various levels. The continuous interaction between temperament and character affects the personality development in both directions; temperament impacts upon character and vice versa during life.

The development of the TCI was founded on the development of the biosocial theory of personality, which in turn stimulated the further development of the theory. Unfortunately this theory-based approach is not commonly used in the development of personality measurements. The development of a personality questionnaire on the basis of the theory must be viewed as a significant challenge, and this prompted my interest in dealing with and learning more about this personality assessment method.

The objectives of this thesis were a critical evaluation of Cloninger’s theory; a test of its applicability in psychiatric science; and an attempt to contribute to its development.

The main findings of our investigations can be described as follows:

The adaptation of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was successful and the seven factor structure of Cloninger’s biopsychological theory of personality theory was mainly confirmed by the Swedish normative data and by cross-cultural comparisons between data from Germany, Sweden and the U.S.A.

The results concerning internal consistency and factor structure further underline that the adult version of the TCI is unsuitable for use in adolescents before age of 17 years. For the adolescents the junior TCI is recommended.

Furthermore temperament dimensions seem to be more stable over time compared to the character dimensions. The gender and age differences found suggest that both have to be taken into account in research and clinical application.

The results from our studies suggested that the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) has to be evaluated as a useful tool within the process of validation of diagnosis of a Personality Disorder (PD), especially in clinical practice where it is often difficult to recognise all a patient’s personality disturbances during a short time. Use of the TCI is likely to improve understanding, classification, and subsequently the interpretations in clinical settings.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. p. 62
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1115
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17839 (URN)978-91-7393-656-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-05-07, Elsa Brändström salen, Campus US, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2009-08-21Bibliographically approved
Richter, J. & Brändström, S. (2009). Personality disorder diagnosis by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 50(4), 347-352
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personality disorder diagnosis by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory
2009 (English)In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 347-352Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Personality disorders (PDs) criteria are still in development. Cloninger's biosocial theory of personality contributed to this discussion. The aim of the study was to explore the relationships between extreme expressions on temperament and an immature character according to Cloninger's assumptions. Eight hundred healthy volunteers and 200 psychiatric inpatients were consecutively recruited each from Sweden and Germany, and were asked to complete the Temperament and Character Inventory, which measures 4 temperament and 3 character dimensions. Patients differed from controls on temperament and character dimensions. The combination of low and very low character scores with extreme scores in either novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence was found more often among patients with PD compared with patients without PD and controls; this is more pronounced with an increasing number of extreme temperament scores. The Temperament and Character Inventory represents a useful tool in the diagnostic process of personality disorders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Maryland Heights, United States: Saunders Elsevier, 2009
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17838 (URN)10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.09.002 (DOI)000266820100008 ()
Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Brändström, S., Sigvardsson, S., Nylander, P.-O. & Richter, J. (2008). The Swedish Version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A Cross-Validation of Age and Gender Influences. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 24(1), 14-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Swedish Version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A Cross-Validation of Age and Gender Influences
2008 (English)In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 14-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to establish new norms of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), data from 2,209 Swedish individuals (age between 13 and 80) was analyzed. The second aim was to evaluate the impact of age and gender on the questionnaire scores. The third aim was to investigate whether the TCI can be meaningfully applied to adolescents in personality assessment as a basis for further research and clinical studies. Age and gender showed independent effects on personality dimensions, which implies that age and gender specific norms have to be established for the TCI. Furthermore, the results in terms of inconsistencies in the correlational and factorial structure, as well as low internal consistency scores in the younger age groups, suggest that the adult version of the TCI should not be applied below the age of 17; for these age groups we recommend the use of the junior TCI (JTCI). The inventory is under further development and several items are in need of revision in order to create less complicated formulations, enabling an improvement in the psychometrics.

Keywords
Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), age cohort, Swedish normative data, personality, gender
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17832 (URN)10.1027/1015-5759.24.1.14 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-04-22 Created: 2009-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Richter, J., Brandstrom, S., Emami, H. & Ghazinour, M. (2007). An Iranian (Farsi) version of the temperament and character inventory: A cross-cultural comparison. Psychological Reports, 100(3 II), 1218-1228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Iranian (Farsi) version of the temperament and character inventory: A cross-cultural comparison
2007 (English)In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 100, no 3 II, p. 1218-1228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Temperament and Character Inventory is a widely used personality questionnaire. It was developed to measure the four temperament dimensions of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, and Persistence, as well as three character dimensions, such as Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-transcendence, described in Cloninger's unified biosocial theory of personality. In a sample of 300 Germans, 300 Swedes, and 316 Iranian subjects, a factorial structure analysis using the Procrustes rotation method showed the structure of personality to be generally equivalent across cultures. Noteworthy cultural differences between the overall Asian and European subjects reflected by the data were observed in various Temperament and Character dimensions. Seemingly, there are cultural differences in the expression of the various personality facets that require a replacement of many items in the Iranian version. The Temperament and Character Inventory is sensitive to age, sex, and cultural differences in personality. © Psychological Reports 2007.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-49455 (URN)10.2466/PR0.100.3.1218-1228 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12
Engström, C., Brändström, S., Sigvardsson, S., Cloninger, R. & Nylander, P.-O. (2004). Bipolar disorder: I. Temperament and character. Journal of Affective Disorders, 82(1), 131-134
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bipolar disorder: I. Temperament and character
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2004 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 131-134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The nature of the relationship between personality and bipolar affective disorders is an important but unanswered question. Methods: We have studied personality in bipolar patients by using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). TCI were administered to 100 euthymic bipolar patients and 100 controls from the normal population. Results: Bipolar patients were significantly higher in harm avoidance (HA) and lower in reward dependence (RD), self-directedness (SD), and cooperativeness (CO) than controls. Bipolar patients are more fatigable, less sentimental, more independent, less purposeful, less resourceful, less empathic, less helpful, less pure-hearted, and have less impulse control than controls. Bipolar II patients are more impulsive, more fatigable, less resourceful, and have less impulse control than bipolar I patients. Limitations: Our results are limited to euthymic bipolar patients and cannot be generalized to affective disorders. Conclusions: Even when clinically euthymic on lithium maintenance, bipolar patients continue to have a characteristic cognitive deficit. This is in agreement with cognitive theories about cognitive deficits in depression that are regarded as important vulnerability factors in mood disorders.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24736 (URN)10.1016/j.jad.2003.09.004 (DOI)6987 (Local ID)6987 (Archive number)6987 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Engström, C., Brändström, S., Sigvardsson, S., Cloninger, C. R. & Nylander, P.-O. (2004). Bipolar disorder. III: Harm avoidance a risk factor for suicide attempts. Bipolar Disorders, 6(2), 130-138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bipolar disorder. III: Harm avoidance a risk factor for suicide attempts
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2004 (English)In: Bipolar Disorders, ISSN 1398-5647, E-ISSN 1399-5618, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine whether personality, i.e. temperament and character influence suicide attempts in bipolar patients. Methods: Bipolar patients were recruited from lithium dispensaries. Temperament and character inventory (TCI) was administered to 100 euthymic bipolar patients and 100 controls. Results: Age of onset was significantly lower in patients with suicide attempts in the total bipolar group (I and II) and bipolar I patients compared with patients without suicide attempts. Bipolar (I and II) and bipolar I patients with suicide attempts were significantly higher in harm avoidance (HA) and reward dependence compared with patients without suicide attempts. Patients (I and II) with suicide attempts had significantly more anticipatory worry, fatigability and asthenia than patients without suicide attempts. Bipolar I patients with suicide attempts had significantly more fatigability and asthenia and were more dependent than patients without suicide attempts. HA was lowest in patients with no suicide attempts and no family history of suicide, higher in patients with family history of suicide or patients with suicide attempts, and significantly highest in patients with suicide attempts and family history of suicide. Patients with suicide attempts and family history of suicide had more anticipatory worry, fatigability and asthenia. Bipolar disorder was significantly correlated to HA and suicide attempts to HA and PS. Family history of suicide and gender were significantly correlated to suicide attempts. Conclusions: Age of onset, HA, PS, gender and family history of suicide had a moderate to very strong effect on suicide attempts in bipolar patients. © Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28711 (URN)10.1111/j.1399-5618.2004.00101.x (DOI)13880 (Local ID)13880 (Archive number)13880 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Pettersson, K., Brändström, S., Toolanen, G., Hildingsson, C. & Nylander, P.-O. (2004). Temperament and character: prognostic factors in whiplash patients?. European spine journal, 13(5), 408-414
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperament and character: prognostic factors in whiplash patients?
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2004 (English)In: European spine journal, ISSN 0940-6719, E-ISSN 1432-0932, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 408-414Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We studied the relationship between whiplash injury and personality in 40 whiplash patients who admitted the hospital within 8 h from the car accident and 80 age- and gender-matched controls. For this purpose we used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). We found that personality dimensions in whiplash patients both in the acute phase and at follow-up 2 years later showed the same results, i.e., significantly less Harm Avoidant (less anxious, low HA) than controls, but when dividing patients into groups depending on severity of outcome from whiplash injury 2 years after, no differences were found. According to our results personality symptoms related to whiplash injury is probably not a secondary phenomenon. Whiplash patients were normally developed in character, i.e., self-directedness (SD), and CO (cooperativeness) and therefore in general are capable of coping with their somatic problems.

Keywords
whiplash, personality, temperament, character, TCI, harm avoidance
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46205 (URN)10.1007/s00586-004-0681-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Richter, J., Brändström, S., Emami, H. & Ghazonour, M. (2004). Temperament and character in cross-cultural comparisons between Swedish and Iranian people and Iranian refugees in Sweden - Personality in transition?. Collegium Antropologicum, 28(2), 865-876
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperament and character in cross-cultural comparisons between Swedish and Iranian people and Iranian refugees in Sweden - Personality in transition?
2004 (English)In: Collegium Antropologicum, ISSN 0350-6134, E-ISSN 1848-9486, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 865-876Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study was a cross-cultural comparison of personality traits between individuals from two very different cultures and refugees who resettled several years before from one to the other. Four hundred forty four Swedish individuals of the normal population, and 100 Iranian refugees in Sweden, and a group of 335 individuals from Tehran, capital of Iran, were investigated by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory, a questionnaire to assess temperament and character. Iranians are those that are most frequently correctly classified followed by the Swedish based on temperament scores by means of a Discriminance analyses. Iranian refugees in Sweden were classified to about 50 per cent as Swedish and to slightly more then one-third as Iranians. Especially concerning character, 4 per cent only could be correctly classified as refugees. The results give some perspective on the adaptation process and personality changes in refugees several years after resettlement in another country with a complete different culture.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24735 (URN)6986 (Local ID)6986 (Archive number)6986 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Engström, C., Brändström, S., Sigvardsson, S., Cloninger, R. & Nylander, P.-O. (2003). Bipolar disorder. II: Personality and age of onset. Bipolar Disorders, 5(5), 340-348
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bipolar disorder. II: Personality and age of onset
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2003 (English)In: Bipolar Disorders, ISSN 1398-5647, E-ISSN 1399-5618, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 340-348Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine whether personality i.e. temperament and character interacts with age of onset in bipolar disorder. Methods: Bipolar patients were recruited among in- and outpatients from lithium dispensaries of northern Sweden. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder type I and II. Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used for measuring personality. TCI was administered to 100 lithium treated bipolar patients and 100 controls. Results: Treatment response was significantly lower (p = 0.005) in patients with early onset compared with late onset. Family history (p = 0.013) and suicide attempts (p = 0.001) were also significantly more common in patients with early onset. Further, patients with early onset were significantly higher (p = 0.045) in the temperament factor harm avoidance (HA) than patients with late onset, but the difference was weak. Patients with early onset had more fear of uncertainty (HA2, P = 0.022) and were more shy (HA3, p = 0.030). Bipolar I patients showed similar results as those in the total bipolar group (I and II), with significantly higher HA (p = 0.019, moderate difference), HA2 (p = 0.015) and HA3 (p = 0.043) in patients with early onset compared with late onset. Bipolar II patients showed no differences between early and late age of onset but the groups are small and the results are therefore uncertain. Conclusions: Early age of onset in bipolar disorder was correlated to an increase in severity, family history, poorer treatment response and poorer prognosis. Early onset was also correlated to personality.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-40477 (URN)10.1034/j.1399-5618.2003.00050.x (DOI)53356 (Local ID)53356 (Archive number)53356 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Brändström, S., Richter, J. & Nylander, P.-O. (2003). Further development of the temperament and character inventory. Psychological Reports, 93(3 II), 995-1002
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Further development of the temperament and character inventory
2003 (English)In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 93, no 3 II, p. 995-1002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Temperament and Character Inventory is an internationally used personality questionnaire based on Cloninger's psychobiological theory of personality. Given some limitations of Version 9 a revised version was developed. The structural equivalence of the two versions was demonstrated from a cross-cultural perspective with 309 and 173 healthy volunteers from Sweden and Germany, respectively, who completed both versions in one session. In testing for the replicability of the factors across both samples as well as across both versions, an orthogonal Procrustes rotation method was used. The reliability coefficients for the revision were higher than the former version for both samples. The factor structures of the inventory remain highly equivalent across cultures and across versions. The results indicate a cross-cultural transferability of the Temperament and Character dimensions of the inventory. The stability and the validity of the 7-factor model of personality, as suggested by Cloninger, are supported. The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised represents an important and useful method for the assessment of personality.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-27718 (URN)12456 (Local ID)12456 (Archive number)12456 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13
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