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Bergdahl, Björn
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Persson, A.-C., Fyrenius, A. & Bergdahl, B. (2010). Perspectives on using multimedia scenarios in a PBL medical curriculum. Medical teacher, 32(9), 766-772
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perspectives on using multimedia scenarios in a PBL medical curriculum
2010 (English)In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 766-772Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 1999, the Faculty of Health Sciences at Linköping University, Sweden, started up a process of replacing text-based problem-based learning (PBL) scenarios with web-based multimedia-enhanced scenarios. This article brings together three studies of the results of this process and the experience gained from 10 years of implementation work. Results and conclusions: Adding multimedia to PBL scenarios makes them more realistic and thereby more motivating and stimulating for the student to process. The group process is not disrupted by the introduction of the computer in the group room. It is important to challenge the students by varying the scenarios perspective and design in order to get away from cue-seeking behaviors that might jeopardize a deep approach to learning. Scrutinizing all scenarios in a PBL curriculum can be used as a tool for improvement and renewal of the entire curriculum.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-59063 (URN)10.3109/01421591003688381 (DOI)
Available from: 2010-09-08 Created: 2010-09-08 Last updated: 2017-12-12
Hammar, M., Bergdahl, B. & Öhman, L. (2006). Celebrating the Past by Expanding the Future: The Faculty of Health Science, Linköping University 1986–2006. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Celebrating the Past by Expanding the Future: The Faculty of Health Science, Linköping University 1986–2006
2006 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During the fall of 2006, the Faculty of Health Sciences (FHS) celebrates its 20th birthday. Linköping has a long tradition of health education; our nursing programme started already in 1895 and occupational therapy began in 1965. From the late 1960’s, medical students from Uppsala spent their last seven semesters in Linköping, mainly for clinical studies. After some years, academic and teachers from the young faculty, together with the county council, realized the enormous potential benefits of a complete undergraduate medical programme at Linköping University. Inspired by apparent innovations from McMaster University in Canada, Maastricht in Holland, Ben Gurion in Israel and Tromsø in Norway, these ideas and ideals were gradually turned into reality. In a complicated process, concerning the life or death of the medical faculty, a close co-operation between the University and the County Council of Östergötland was extremely fruitful. A proposal regarding a complete medical programme, and study periods integrated between the other health education programmes, was forwarded to the Swedish government in December 1982 and approved in 1984.

The new FHS at Linköping University was launched in 1986, and by the end of August the first students began their studies. Already at the start, FHS included several programmes for health professionals: nursing, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, medicine, social welfare and laboratory technology. Speech and language pathology was added in 2003 and the education curriculum for laboratory technicians was developed into a master’s programme in medical biology. A number of important concepts were included in the new programmes. Problem based learning (PBL) was chosen as the fundamental basis for organising studies; using small tutorial groups with supervisors as “coaches” and real patient histories as triggers for learning. Since 2001, realistic cases/scenarios are made available on the Intranet.

PBL is highly appreciated by the majority of students and teachers. This method of learning focused in contexts, according to pedagogic research, leads to a higher retention of knowledge than in traditional teacher-centered approaches toward learning. Important PBL spin-off effects are in educating students to cooperate in groups, to communicate and argue, to listen to other students’ opinions, to evaluate their own efforts and to identify learning needs. Furthermore, the method implies that students’ learn to independently find and evaluate scientific information, thereby realizing that the truth is somewhat “relative,” since what they find may differ depending on the sources used. Perhaps the most important characteristic of PBL is that it moves the main responsibility for obtaining goals and new knowledge from the teacher to the student.

Other important elements of the various curricula at the FHS are vertical and horizontal integration. In vertical integration, e.g. between clinical and basic science, different sections are interwoven with clear progressive shifts over phases and semesters. This has shown to stimulate profound rather than superficial learning, and probably stimulates better understanding. Horizontal integration focuses on the simultaneous learning of several subjects needed to understand and explain the scenarios used.

In PBL, teachers are expected to cooperate over departmental borders, a process that often produces positive spin-off effects extending further to research. They take on many different roles as e.g. planners, semester coordinators, tutors, lecturers and clinical supervisors. As such, newcomers may encounter certain frustration. Continuous staff development is critical to assure pedagogical selection and excellence, and thereby the quality of the programmes.

In PBL, teachers are expected to cooperate over departmental borders, a process that often produces positive spin-off effects extending further to research. They take on many different roles as e.g. planners, semester coordinators, tutors, lecturers and clinical supervisors. As such, newcomers may encounter certain frustration. Continuous staff development is critical to assure pedagogical selection and excellence, and thereby the quality of the programmes.

The aim to be a medical faculty with a standing among the most progressive worldwide implies continuous evaluation and development. Our mission is to foster the very best in health care; health care extending consideration toward educating competent professionals and conducting quality research with a focus on societal needs and welfare. To fulfil this mission, we need to advance teaching models based on evidence, and continuously improve and develop our educational methods. This process requires cooperation between departments, teachers and students within the university and indeed, throughout the world. Such contacts and collaborations are as important in education as they are in research, and extend an endless source of inspiration. Communication between the different undergraduate programmes at FHS has been extremely fruitful and should further be stimulated. At the faculty level, it is important to provide teachers with credit for efforts and development toward education. To keep integration and innovation at a high level, it is very important to balance the decision power and the distribution of money between departments and programmes.

The aim of this book is to provide a general overview, in glimpses, of some of the important developments in FHS education; to describe new ideas in progress or those already turned to reality and also, to extend some consideration of publications regarding our educational innovations. We hope these examples provide the essence of inspiration for future work, contributing to improved education and better health for all.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2006. p. 106
Series
Medical Faculty report, ISSN 1652-3598, E-ISSN 1652-3601 ; 3
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-62223 (URN)91-85643-07-6 (ISBN)
Note

Produced by the Department of External Relations, Linköping university Coordinator: Åke Hjelm. Editorial translation: Bohdan Sklepkovych. Design: Peter Modin. Photographers: Göran Billeson. Ida Lagstam, Jan Christer Persson

Available from: 2007-02-05 Created: 2010-11-23 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
Bergdahl, B., Fyrenius, A. & Persson, A.-C. (2006). EDIT-projekti. PBL: n verkkoskenaariot haastavat opiskelijat ajattelemaan. In: Timo Portimojärvi (Ed.), Ongelmapaperustaisen oppomisen verkko: . Tampere: Timo portimojärvi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EDIT-projekti. PBL: n verkkoskenaariot haastavat opiskelijat ajattelemaan
2006 (Finnish)In: Ongelmapaperustaisen oppomisen verkko / [ed] Timo Portimojärvi, Tampere: Timo portimojärvi , 2006, p. -196Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [fi]

  Kirjassa yhdistyy kaksi runsaasti huomiota saanutta oppimisen, opiskelun ja opetuksen näkökulmaa - välillä yhdessä välillä erikseen. Ongelmaperustainen oppiminen on jo vakiintunut useissa oppilaitoksissa, ja verkko-opiskelu lisääntyy ja kehittyy joustavan opiskelun muotona. Kirja on ensimmäinen suomalainen ongelmaperustaisen oppimisen ja verkko-opiskelun yhdistämiseen keskittyvä kirja.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tampere: Timo portimojärvi, 2006
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-37758 (URN)38328 (Local ID)9789514468216 (ISBN)951446821X (ISBN)38328 (Archive number)38328 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-09-03Bibliographically approved
Tingström, P., Ekelund, U., Kamwendo, K. & Bergdahl, B. (2006). Effects of a problem-based learning rehabilitation program on physical activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation (JCR), 26(1), 32-38
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a problem-based learning rehabilitation program on physical activity in patients with coronary artery disease
2006 (English)In: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation (JCR), ISSN 0883-9212, E-ISSN 1539-0691, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 32-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a problem-based learning (PBL) rehabilitation program on physical activity.

METHODS: We randomized 207 consecutive patients younger than 70 years, with a recent event of coronary artery disease (CAD), to a PBL group (n = 104) or a control group (n = 103). In addition to standard treatment, the PBL patients participated in a 1-year program with 13 sessions in small groups, where learning needs and behavior change were focused upon. Physical activity was assessed by means of interviews with all patients and by an activity monitor in 69 patients at pretest and in 175 after 1 year.

RESULTS: Only small differences between groups were found at posttest. Interview data revealed significantly less activity at low-intensity level in the control group, whereas the activity monitor showed no significant differences. No changes were found in total physical activity during the year within the 2 groups. The self-reported physical activity indicating a level of brisk walking was markedly higher than that measured by the activity monitor, the latter indicating that only 35% of the patients achieved a 10-minute period of continued physical activity per day on an adequate level.

CONCLUSIONS: Our PBL program had no important impact on the physical activity pattern of patients with CAD. The activity monitor is a feasible way of measuring physical activity in these patients, indicating a lower level of physical activity than interview data.

Keywords
Cardiac rehabilitation, Coronary artery disease, Physical activity, Problem-based learning
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-50323 (URN)10.1097/00008483-200601000-00007 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Bergdahl, B. (2006). Vem är bäst lämpad att bli läkare? En kombination av antagningsmetoder kan ge bättre urval. Läkartidningen, 103(37), 2613-2614
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vem är bäst lämpad att bli läkare? En kombination av antagningsmetoder kan ge bättre urval
2006 (Swedish)In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, no 37, p. 2613-2614Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35209 (URN)25649 (Local ID)25649 (Archive number)25649 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Tingström, P., Kamwendo, K. & Bergdahl, B. (2005). Effects of a problem-based learning rehabilitation programme on quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 4(4), 324-330
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a problem-based learning rehabilitation programme on quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease
2005 (English)In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 324-330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The aim of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is not only physical improvement but also increased quality of life (QoL). A CR programme based upon problem based learning (PBL) philosophy was developed, to achieve and apply new knowledge related to coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this paper was to evaluate the impact of the PBL programme on QoL.

Methods: 207 consecutive patients < 70 years of age with a recent event of CAD were randomised to a PBL group (n = 104) or a control group (n = 103). In addition to standard treatment, the PBL patients participated in 13 group sessions during 1 year, where individual learning needs and behavioural changes were focused upon. QoL was measured by the Ladder of Life, Self-Rated Health (SRH), SF 36, and Cardiac Health Profile (CHP).

Results: Significant differences between the groups, favouring the PBL patients, were found by global instruments: more optimistic expectations of the future QoL and a better general condition. No differences were found by SRH, SF 36 or subscales of CHP, but QoL increased in both groups during the year.

Conclusions: The main outcome was that QoL improved in both groups with some effects favouring the PBL programme.

Keywords
Coronary artery disease, Cardiac rehabilitation, Problem-based learning, Quality of life
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-31058 (URN)10.1016/j.ejcnurse.2005.04.008 (DOI)16778 (Local ID)16778 (Archive number)16778 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Kärner, A., Tingström, P., Abrandt Dahlgren, M. & Bergdahl, B. (2005). Incentives for lifestyle changes in patients with coronary heart disease. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 51(3), 261-275
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incentives for lifestyle changes in patients with coronary heart disease
2005 (English)In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 261-275Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim. This paper reports a study exploring how patients in the rehabilitation phase of coronary heart disease experience facilitating and constraining factors related to lifestyle changes of importance for wellbeing and prognosis.

Background. Lifestyle change is important but complex during rehabilitation after a myocardial infarction or angina pectoris. The intentions to perform behaviours and to experience control over facilitators and constraints are important determinants of behaviour.

Methods. A total of 113 consecutive patients below 70 years of age (84 men and 29 women) were interviewed within 6 weeks of a cardiac event and again after 1 year. Interview transcriptions and notes taken by hand were qualitatively analysed using the phenomenographic framework. The distribution of statements among the categories identified was quantitatively analysed. The data were collected in 1998–2000.

Findings. Four main categories portrayed patients' experiences of facilitating or constraining incentives for lifestyle changes. 'Somatic incentives' featured bodily signals indicating improvements/illness. 'Social/practical incentives' involved shared concerns, changed conditions including support/demand from social network, and work/social security issues. Practical incentives concerned external environmental factors in the patients' concrete context. 'Cognitive incentives' were characterized by active decisions and appropriated knowledge, passive compliance with limited insights, and routines/habits. 'Affective incentives' comprised fear of and reluctance in the face of lifestyle changes/disease, lessened self-esteem, and inability to resist temptations. Cognitive incentives mostly facilitated physical exercise and drug treatment. Social/practical incentives facilitated physical exercise and diet change. Physical exercise and diet changes were mainly constrained by somatic, social, and affective incentives.

Conclusion. The results illustrate important incentives that should be considered in contacts with patients and their families to improve the prospects of positively affecting co-operation with suggested treatment and lifestyle changes.

Keywords
adherence, cardiac rehabilitation, drug treatment, lifestyle changes, nursing, qualitative analysis
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13744 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03467.x (DOI)
Available from: 2005-12-23 Created: 2005-12-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Fyrenius, A., Bergdahl, B. & Silén, C. (2005). Lectures in problem-based learning - Why, when and how? An example of interactive lecturing that stimulates meaningful learning. Medical teacher, 27(1), 61-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lectures in problem-based learning - Why, when and how? An example of interactive lecturing that stimulates meaningful learning
2005 (English)In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 61-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Even though opinions differ as to whether lecturing is compatible with problem-based learning (PBL) or not, lectures are still a common form of instruction in PBL curricula. This paper discusses the lecture in the framework of theories of learning in general and the medical problem-based learning tradition in particular. An example of how theories of learning can be implemented in the lecture hall is presented. Theories that underpin PBL as an educational philosophy rather than as a method of instruction are reviewed. A lecture form, organized in introductory, in depth and application lectures, that responds to important factors for stimulating deep processing of knowledge and meaningful learning is discussed. Examples of and practical points about how to renew and restructure lectures in a way that counteracts surface approaches to learning, teacher centring and student passivity are presented. We argue that, with proper awareness of possible drawbacks of the large format, lectures can be used as valuable tools for learning also in a PBL curriculum.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24491 (URN)10.1080/01421590400016365 (DOI)6614 (Local ID)6614 (Archive number)6614 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Bergdahl, B., Eintrei, C., Fyrenius, A., Hultman, P. & Theodorsson, E. (2005). Läkarutbildningen i Linköpings förnyas. Problembaserat lärande, basvetenskap och folkhälsa förstärks. Läkartidningen, 102(38), 2654-2658
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Läkarutbildningen i Linköpings förnyas. Problembaserat lärande, basvetenskap och folkhälsa förstärks
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2005 (Swedish)In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 102, no 38, p. 2654-2658Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-31053 (URN)16772 (Local ID)16772 (Archive number)16772 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Kärner, A., Abrandt Dahlgren, M. & Bergdahl, B. (2004). Coronary heart disease: causes and drug treatment - spouses’ conceptions. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13(2), 167-176
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coronary heart disease: causes and drug treatment - spouses’ conceptions
2004 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 167-176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background. Spouses are important in the rehabilitation process of their partner after coronary heart disease event. Their knowledge and attitudes have an impact on their support to the partner concerning lifestyle changes and drug treatment after an event.

Aims and objectives. To explore spouses' conceptions concerning causes of coronary heart disease and drug treatment 1 year after the partner's cardiac event.

Design. Qualitative with an empirical and inductive approach.

Methods. Semi-structured interviews with strategically selected spouses (17 women and eight men) were taped. The transcripts were analysed within the phenomenographic framework.

Results. Spouses' conceptions about causes of coronary heart disease and its treatment consisted of correct facts, as judged on a lay level, less elaborated conceptions and misconceptions. Among causes of coronary heart disease, the spouses were most knowledgeable about fat intake. They knew less about contributions from inactivity, stress and smoking. Ambivalent feelings were expressed about benefits vs. side effects of drugs. The treatment was conceived as necessary for the heart, but harmful for other organs. Men and women were evenly distributed in most of the derived categories. More women than men considered stress as a cause of coronary heart disease and also misconceived physical exercise to cause the disease.

Conclusion. A variation of spouses' conceptions was revealed about causes of coronary heart disease and drug treatment. There was a lack of understanding concerning important parts of cardiac rehabilitation activities. These misconceptions may have implications by influencing their partner's co-operative behaviour.

Relevance to clinical practice. Spouses' pre-existing conceptions of coronary heart disease and its treatment should be considered in the rehabilitation process of their partner. Couples with misconceptions should be given the opportunity to increase qualitatively their knowledge starting from their point of view rather than from that of the professional perspective.

Keywords
cardiovascular disease, causal attributions, drug treatment, phenomenography, risk factors, spouses
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13742 (URN)10.1046/j.1365-2702.2003.00871.x (DOI)
Available from: 2005-12-23 Created: 2005-12-23 Last updated: 2016-08-31
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