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Ekberg, Joakim
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Publications (10 of 40) Show all publications
Timpka, T., Eriksson, H., Holm, E., Strömgren, M., Ekberg, J., Spreco, A. & Dahlström, Ö. (2016). Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures. Epidemiology and Infection, 144(10), 2031-2042
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures
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2016 (English)In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 144, no 10, p. 2031-2042Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Workplaces are one of the most important regular meeting places in society. The aim of this study was to use simulation experiments to examine the impact of different workplace cultures on influenza dissemination during pandemics. The impact is investigated by experiments with defined social-mixing patterns at workplaces using semi-virtual models based on authentic sociodemographic and geographical data from a North European community (population 136 000). A simulated pandemic outbreak was found to affect 33% of the total population in the community with the reference academic-creative workplace culture; virus transmission at the workplace accounted for 10.6% of the cases. A model with a prevailing industrial-administrative workplace culture generated 11% lower incidence than the reference model, while the model with a self-employed workplace culture (also corresponding to a hypothetical scenario with all workplaces closed) produced 20% fewer cases. The model representing an academic-creative workplace culture with restricted workplace interaction generated 12% lower cumulative incidence compared to the reference model. The results display important theoretical associations between workplace social-mixing cultures and community-level incidence rates during influenza pandemics. Social interaction patterns at workplaces should be taken into consideration when analysing virus transmission patterns during influenza pandemics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2016
Keywords
Epidemiology; infectious disease control; influenza; medical informatics (veterinary and medical); modelling
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130396 (URN)10.1017/S0950268816000169 (DOI)000379785600002 ()26847017 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency [2010-2788]; Swedish Science Council [2006-4433, 2008-5252]; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovations (VINNOVA) [2011-03231]

Available from: 2016-08-15 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2018-04-07
Timpka, T., Jacobsson, J., Ekberg, J., Finch, C. F., Bichenbach, J., Edouard, P., . . . Manuel Alonso, J. (2015). Meta-narrative analysis of sports injury reporting practices based on the Injury Definitions Concept Framework (IDCF): A review of consensus statements and epidemiological studies in athletics (track and field). Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(6), 643-650
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Meta-narrative analysis of sports injury reporting practices based on the Injury Definitions Concept Framework (IDCF): A review of consensus statements and epidemiological studies in athletics (track and field)
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 643-650Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Consistency in routines for reporting injury has been a focus of development efforts in sports epidemiology for a long time. To gain an improved understanding of current reporting practices, we applied the Injury Definitions Concept Framework (IDCF) in a review of injury reporting in a subset of the field. Design: Meta-narrative review. Methods: An analysis of injury definitions reported in consensus statements for different sports and studies of injury epidemiology in athletics (track and field) published in PubMed between 1980 and 2013 was performed. Separate narratives for each of the three reporting contexts in the IDCF were constructed from the data. Results: Six consensus statements and 14 studies reporting on athletics injury epidemiology fulfilled the selection criteria. The narratives on sports performance, clinical examination, and athlete self-report contexts were evenly represented in the eligible studies. The sports performance and athlete self-report narratives covered both professional and community athletes as well as training and competition settings. In the clinical examination narrative, data collection by health service professionals was linked to studies of professional athletes at international championships. Conclusions: From an application of the IDCF in a review of injury reporting in sports epidemiology we observed a parallel usage of reporting contexts in this field of research. The co-existence of reporting methodologies does not necessarily reflect a problematic situation, but only provided that firm precautions are taken when comparing studies performed in the different contexts. (C) 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2015
Keywords
Sports epidemiology; Terminology; Sports injury; Overuse injuries; Qualitative methods
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122652 (URN)10.1016/j.jsams.2014.11.393 (DOI)000363599000005 ()25620458 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-11-16 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2018-04-07
Timpka, T., Janson, S., Jacobsson, J., Ekberg, J., Dahlström, Ö., Kowalski, J., . . . Svedin, C. G. (2015). Protocol Design for Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Studies of Sexual Abuse and Associated Factors in Individual Sports: Feasibility Study in Swedish Athletics. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), 14(1), 179-187
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protocol Design for Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Studies of Sexual Abuse and Associated Factors in Individual Sports: Feasibility Study in Swedish Athletics
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 179-187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
JOURNAL SPORTS SCIENCE and MEDICINE, 2015
Keywords
Sports epidemiology; sexual abuse; survey methods; gender issues; research ethics
National Category
Basic Medicine Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115815 (URN)000350048900024 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Center for Sports Research (CIF) [P2014-0167]

Available from: 2015-03-20 Created: 2015-03-20 Last updated: 2018-04-07
Timpka, T., Jacobsson, J., Dahlström, Ö., Kowalski, J., Bargoria, V., Ekberg, J., . . . Renström, P. (2015). The psychological factor self-blame predicts overuse injury among top-level Swedish track and field athletes: a 12-month cohort study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(22), 1472-1477
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The psychological factor self-blame predicts overuse injury among top-level Swedish track and field athletes: a 12-month cohort study
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2015 (English)In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 49, no 22, p. 1472-1477Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Athletes psychological characteristics are important for understanding sports injury mechanisms. We examined the relevance of psychological factors in an integrated model of overuse injury risk in athletics/track and field. Methods Swedish track and field athletes (n=278) entering a 12-month injury surveillance in March 2009 were also invited to complete a psychological survey. Simple Cox proportional hazards models were compiled for single explanatory variables. We also tested multiple models for 3 explanatory variable groupings: an epidemiological model without psychological variables, a psychological model excluding epidemiological variables and an integrated (combined) model. Results The integrated multiple model included the maladaptive coping behaviour self-blame (p=0.007; HR 1.32; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.61), and an interaction between athlete category and injury history (p<0.001). Youth female (p=0.034; HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.95) and youth male (p=0.047; HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.99) athletes with no severe injury the previous year were at half the risk of sustaining a new injury compared with the reference group. A training load index entered the epidemiological multiple model, but not the integrated model. Conclusions The coping behaviour self-blame replaced training load in an integrated explanatory model of overuse injury risk in athletes. What seemed to be more strongly related to the likelihood of overuse injury was not the athletics load per se, but, rather, the load applied in situations when the athletes body was in need of rest.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2015
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123828 (URN)10.1136/bjsports-2015-094622 (DOI)000365796900014 ()26373585 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Center for Sports Research (CIF) [P2014-0167]

Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2018-04-07Bibliographically approved
Ganedahl, H., Zsaludek Viklund, P., Carlen, K., Kylberg, E. & Ekberg, J. (2015). Work-site wellness programmes in Sweden: a cross-sectional study of physical activity, self-efficacy, and health. Public Health, 129(5), 525-530
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work-site wellness programmes in Sweden: a cross-sectional study of physical activity, self-efficacy, and health
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2015 (English)In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 129, no 5, p. 525-530Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, a work-site wellness programme implies reimbursing some of the expenses for health-promoting activities. Although work-site wellness programmes are readily available in Sweden, a large number of employees elect not to participate. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of physical activity, self-reported general health assessment and self-efficacy with participation in a work-site wellness programme. Study design: A cross-sectional study design was used. Methods: An online questionnaire was distributed to employees of a manufacturing company with 2500 employees in southwest Sweden. Results: Those who took advantage of the work-site wellness programme assessed their general health as better and had higher assessment of physical activity. The study showed that being enlisted also implies a higher level of physical activity and general health; however, the effect sizes of these correlations were small. Self-efficacy, i.e. perceived behavioural control, was not associated with participation in the work-site wellness programme. However, self-efficacy was correlated with both general health assessment and physical activity. A regression analysis to determine explanatory contributions to the general health assessment score showed no significant contribution from participation in a work-site wellness programme, but was instead explained by perceived behavioural control and physical activity. Conclusions: Given the small effect size of the difference in physical activity between participators and non-participators in the work-site wellness programme, it is probable that only a small proportion of participators changed their health-promoting activities as a result of the work-site wellness programme. (C) 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WB Saunders, 2015
Keywords
Theory of planned behaviour; Self-efficacy; Perceived behavioural control; Physical activity
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119594 (URN)10.1016/j.puhe.2015.01.023 (DOI)000355146400015 ()25749670 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|University of Skovde

Available from: 2015-06-22 Created: 2015-06-22 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Timpka, T., Spreco, A., Gursky, E., Eriksson, O., Dahlström, Ö., Strömgren, M., . . . Holm, E. (2014). Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks in Sweden: a cross-sectional study following a mass vaccination campaign. PLoS ONE, 9(3), e91060
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks in Sweden: a cross-sectional study following a mass vaccination campaign
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2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3, p. e91060-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Failure to incorporate the beliefs and attitudes of the public into theoretical models of preparedness has been identified as a weakness in strategies to mitigate infectious disease outbreaks. We administered a cross-sectional telephone survey to a representative sample (n = 443) of the Swedish adult population to examine whether self-reported intentions to improve personal hygiene and increase social distancing during influenza outbreaks could be explained by trust in official information, self-reported health (SF-8), sociodemographic factors, and determinants postulated in protection motivation theory, namely threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The interviewees were asked to make their appraisals for two scenarios: a) an influenza with low case fatality and mild lifestyle impact; b) severe influenza with high case fatality and serious disturbances of societal functions. Every second respondent (50.0%) reported high trust in official information about influenza. The proportion that reported intentions to take deliberate actions to improve personal hygiene during outbreaks ranged between 45–85%, while less than 25% said that they intended to increase social distancing. Multiple logistic regression models with coping appraisal as the explanatory factor most frequently contributing to the explanation of the variance in intentions showed strong discriminatory performance for staying home while not ill (mild outbreaks: Area under the curve [AUC] 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.82;0.89), severe outbreaks AUC 0.82 (95% CI 0.77;0.85)) and acceptable performance with regard to avoiding public transportation (AUC 0.78 (0.74;0.82), AUC 0.77 (0.72;0.82)), using handwash products (AUC 0.70 (0.65;0.75), AUC 0.76 (0.71;0.80)), and frequently washing hands (AUC 0.71 (0.66;0.76), AUC 0.75 (0.71;0.80)). We conclude that coping appraisal was the explanatory factor most frequently included in statistical models explaining self-reported intentions to carry out non-pharmaceutical health actions in the Swedish outlined context, and that variations in threat appraisal played a smaller role in these models despite scientific uncertainties surrounding a recent mass vaccination campaign.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2014
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105029 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0091060 (DOI)000332485800091 ()
Available from: 2014-03-06 Created: 2014-03-06 Last updated: 2018-04-07Bibliographically approved
Timpka, T., Spreco, A., Dahlström, Ö., Eriksson, O., Gursky, E., Ekberg, J., . . . Holm, E. (2014). Performance of eHealth data sources in local influenza surveillance: a 5-year open cohort study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(4), e116
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance of eHealth data sources in local influenza surveillance: a 5-year open cohort study
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 16, no 4, p. e116-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: There is abundant global interest in using syndromic data from population-wide health information systems--referred to as eHealth resources--to improve infectious disease surveillance. Recently, the necessity for these systems to achieve two potentially conflicting requirements has been emphasized. First, they must be evidence-based; second, they must be adjusted for the diversity of populations, lifestyles, and environments.

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to examine correlations between data from Google Flu Trends (GFT), computer-supported telenursing centers, health service websites, and influenza case rates during seasonal and pandemic influenza outbreaks. The secondary objective was to investigate associations between eHealth data, media coverage, and the interaction between circulating influenza strain(s) and the age-related population immunity.

METHODS: An open cohort design was used for a five-year study in a Swedish county (population 427,000). Syndromic eHealth data were collected from GFT, telenursing call centers, and local health service website visits at page level. Data on mass media coverage of influenza was collected from the major regional newspaper. The performance of eHealth data in surveillance was measured by correlation effect size and time lag to clinically diagnosed influenza cases.

RESULTS: Local media coverage data and influenza case rates showed correlations with large effect sizes only for the influenza A (A) pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 (r=.74, 95% CI .42-.90; P<.001) and the severe seasonal A H3N2 outbreak in 2011-2012 (r=.79, 95% CI .42-.93; P=.001), with media coverage preceding case rates with one week. Correlations between GFT and influenza case data showed large effect sizes for all outbreaks, the largest being the seasonal A H3N2 outbreak in 2008-2009 (r=.96, 95% CI .88-.99; P<.001). The preceding time lag decreased from two weeks during the first outbreaks to one week from the 2009 A pH1N1 pandemic. Telenursing data and influenza case data showed correlations with large effect sizes for all outbreaks after the seasonal B and A H1 outbreak in 2007-2008, with a time lag decreasing from two weeks for the seasonal A H3N2 outbreak in 2008-2009 (r=.95, 95% CI .82-.98; P<.001) to none for the A p H1N1 outbreak in 2009 (r=.84, 95% CI .62-.94; P<.001). Large effect sizes were also observed between website visits and influenza case data.

CONCLUSIONS: Correlations between the eHealth data and influenza case rates in a Swedish county showed large effect sizes throughout a five-year period, while the time lag between signals in eHealth data and influenza rates changed. Further research is needed on analytic methods for adjusting eHealth surveillance systems to shifts in media coverage and to variations in age-group related immunity between virus strains. The results can be used to inform the development of alert-generating eHealth surveillance systems that can be subject for prospective evaluations in routine public health practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Journal of Medical Internet Research, 2014
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106758 (URN)10.2196/jmir.3099 (DOI)000336501600017 ()24776527 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-05-21 Created: 2014-05-21 Last updated: 2018-04-07Bibliographically approved
Timpka, T., Spreco, A., Eriksson, O., Dahlström, Ö., Gursky, E. A., Stromgren, M., . . . Eriksson, H. (2014). Predictive performance of telenursing complaints in influenza surveillance: a prospective cohort study in Sweden. Eurosurveillance, 19(46), 24-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictive performance of telenursing complaints in influenza surveillance: a prospective cohort study in Sweden
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2014 (English)In: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 19, no 46, p. 24-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Syndromic data sources have been sought to improve the timely detection of increased influenza transmission. This study set out to examine the prospective performance of telenursing chief complaints in predicting influenza activity. Data from two influenza seasons (2007/08 and 2008/09) were collected in a Swedish county (population 427,000) to retrospectively determine which grouping of telenursing chief complaints had the largest correlation with influenza case rates. This grouping was prospectively evaluated in the three subsequent seasons. The best performing telenursing complaint grouping in the retrospective algorithm calibration was fever (child, adult) and syncope (r=0.66; pless than0.001). In the prospective evaluation, the performance of 14-day predictions was acceptable for the part of the evaluation period including the 2009 influenza pandemic (area under the curve (AUC)=0.84; positive predictive value (PPV)=0.58), while it was strong (AUC=0.89; PPV=0.93) for the remaining evaluation period including only influenza winter seasons. We recommend the use of telenursing complaints for predicting winter influenza seasons. The method requires adjustments when used during pandemics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EUR CENTRE DIS PREVENTION and CONTROL, 2014
National Category
Basic Medicine Mathematics Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113057 (URN)000345424100004 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency [2010-2788]; Swedish Science Council [2008-5252]; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovations (VINNOVA) [2011-03231]

Available from: 2015-01-09 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2018-04-07
Ekberg, J., Gursky, E. A. & Timpka, T. (2014). Pre-launch evaluation checklist for online health-promoting communities. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 47, 11-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pre-launch evaluation checklist for online health-promoting communities
2014 (English)In: Journal of Biomedical Informatics, ISSN 1532-0464, E-ISSN 1532-0480, Vol. 47, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

Despite the apparent potential of online health-promoting communities (OHPC), there is limited guidance available for developers on the basic design features that contribute to successful applications. The aim of this study was to develop a checklist for a pre-launch evaluation of OHPCs incorporating the perspectives of both the user and the health services communities.

METHODS:

The study was based on an action research design. Constructs previously applied to evaluate information system success were used as the basis for checklist development. The constructs were adapted for the OHPC context and formatively evaluated in a case study project. Evaluation data were collected from participatory observations and analyzed using qualitative methods.

RESULTS:

The initial OHPC checklist included the constructs information quality, service quality, and subjective norms. The contextual adaptation of the information quality construct resulted in items for content area, trust, and format; the adaptation of the service quality construct in items for staff competence, prompt service and empathy; and the adaptation of the subject norms construct in items for social facilitation, interconnectivity and communication. The formative evaluation demonstrated the critical need to balance the autonomy of the online community with the professional control of health services quality expressed in the information and service quality constructs.

CONCLUSIONS:

A pre-launch OHPC evaluation checklist has been designed for use in practical development of health promotion web resources. Research on instruments for OHPC evaluations is warranted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Community-based participatory research; Health promotion; Adolescents; Health service
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106037 (URN)10.1016/j.jbi.2013.10.004 (DOI)000333004500002 ()24177319 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-04-17 Created: 2014-04-17 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Ekberg, J., Timpka, T., Angbratt, M., Frank, L., Norén, A.-M., Andersen, E., . . . Andersson Gäre, B. (2013). Design of an online health-promoting community: negotiating user community needs with public health goals and service capabilities. BMC Health Services Research, 13(258)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of an online health-promoting community: negotiating user community needs with public health goals and service capabilities
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2013 (English)In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 13, no 258Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

An online health-promoting community (OHPC) has the potential to promote health and advance new means of dialogue between public health representatives and the general public. The aim of this study was to examine what aspects of an OHPC that are critical for satisfying the needs of the user community and public health goals and service capabilities.

Methods

Community-based participatory research methods were used for data collection and analysis, and participatory design principles to develop a case study OHPC for adolescents. Qualitative data from adolescents on health appraisals and perspectives on health information were collected in a Swedish health service region and classified into categories of user health information exchange needs. A composite design rationale for the OHPC was completed by linking the identified user needs, user-derived requirements, and technical and organizational systems solutions. Conflicts between end-user requirements and organizational goals and resources were identified.

Results

The most prominent health information needs were associated to food, exercise, and well-being. The assessment of the design rationale document and prototype in light of the regional public health goals and service capabilities showed that compromises were needed to resolve conflicts involving the management of organizational resources and responsibilities. The users wanted to discuss health issues with health experts having little time to set aside to the OHPC and it was unclear who should set the norms for the online discussions.

Conclusions

OHPCs can be designed to satisfy both the needs of user communities and public health goals and service capabilities. Compromises are needed to resolve conflicts between users’ needs to discuss health issues with domain experts and the management of resources and responsibilities in public health organizations.

Keywords
community-based participatory research, health promotion, adolescents, health service
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81727 (URN)10.1186/1472-6963-13-258 (DOI)000321580500001 ()
Available from: 2012-09-21 Created: 2012-09-21 Last updated: 2017-12-07
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