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Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
Källman, U., Bergstrand, S., Ek, A.-C., Engström, M. & Lindgren, M. (2016). Nursing staff induced repositionings and immobile patients' spontaneous movements in nursing care.. International Wound Journal, 13(6), 1168-1175
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nursing staff induced repositionings and immobile patients' spontaneous movements in nursing care.
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2016 (English)In: International Wound Journal, ISSN 1742-4801, E-ISSN 1742-481X, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1168-1175Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate nursing staff induced repositionings and the patients' spontaneous movements during the day and night among older immobile patients in nursing care. Furthermore, the aim was to identify factors associated with the nursing staff induced repositionings and the patients' spontaneous movement frequency. An observational cross-sectional design was used. Spontaneous movements among patients (n = 52) were registered continuously using the MovinSense monitoring system. The nursing staff documented each time they repositioned the patient. Patients spontaneous movements were compared with nursing staff induced repositionings. There were large variations in the patients' spontaneous repositioning frequency during both days and nights, which shows that, although immobilised, some patients frequently reposition themselves. Analgesics were positively related to the movement frequency and psycholeptics were negatively related. The nursing staff more often repositioned the patients who were assessed as high risk than those assessed as low risk, but the patients' spontaneous movement frequency was not correlated to the risk score. This may be important when planning repositioning schedules. A monitoring system may be useful in decision making with regard to planning repositioning and positions used in the prevention of pressure ulcers among elderly immobile patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2016
Keywords
Nursing home residents, patient repositioning, pressure ulcer, interface pressure, skin temperature, tissue blood flow
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117445 (URN)10.1111/iwj.12435 (DOI)000387664400011 ()25779932 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Research Council Sodra Alvsborg Boras Sweden; Research Council ostergotland Linkoping Sweden; SwedBank Sjuharad foundation for research at the Sodra Alvsborg Hospital Boras Sweden; Sodra Alvsborgs Hospital Boras Sweden; King Gustaf V and Queen Victorias F

Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Bergstrand, S., Källman, U., Ek, A.-C., Engström, M. & Lindgren, M. (2015). Microcirculatory responses of sacral tissue in healthy individuals and inpatients on different pressure-redistribution mattresses. Journal of Wound Care, 24(8), 346-358
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microcirculatory responses of sacral tissue in healthy individuals and inpatients on different pressure-redistribution mattresses
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Wound Care, ISSN 0969-0700, E-ISSN 2052-2916, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 346-358Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the interaction between interface pressure and pressure-induced vasodilation and reactive hyperemia with different pressureredistribution mattresses.

Method: A cross-sectional study was performed with a convenience sample of 42 healthy individuals between 18 and 64 years of age, 38 healthy individuals 65 years or older, and 35 inpatients 65 years or older at a university hospital in Sweden. Blood flow was measured at depths of 1 mm, 2 mm, and 10 mm using a combined system of laser Doppler flowmetry and photoplethysmography. The blood flow, interface pressure and skin temperature were measured in the sacral tissue before, during, and after load while lying on one standard hospital mattress and three different pressure-redistribution mattresses.

Results: There were significant differences between the three foam mattresses with regard to average sacral pressure, peak sacral pressure, and local probe pressure with the lowest values at the visco-elastic foam/air mattress (23.5 ± 2.5 mmHg, 49.3 ± 11.1 mmHg, 29.2 ± 14.0 mmHg respectively). A greater proportion of subjects had affected blood flow in terms of lack of pressure-induced vasodilation on the visco-elastic foam/air mattress compared to the alternating pressure mattress at tissue depths of 2 mm (39.0% vs. 20.0%, respectively) and 10 mm (56.9 % vs. 35.1%, respectively). Eleven individuals, including subjects in all three subject groups were identified with no pressure-induced vasodilation or reactive hyperemia in any mattress, and this was considered a high-risk blood flow response.

Conclusion: Interface pressure magnitudes considered not harmful during pressure-exposure lying on different pressure-redistribution mattresses can affect the microcirculation in different tissue structures. Despite having the lowest pressure values compared to the other mattresses, the visco-elastic foam/air mattress had the highest proportion of subjects with decreased blood flow indicating a more affected blood flow. Three young healthy individuals were identified with the high-risk blood flow response, indicating an innate vulnerability to pressure exposure and may not benefit from pressure-redistribution mattresses. Finally it was shown that the evaluation of pressure-redistribution support surfaces in terms of mean blood flow during and after tissue exposure is not feasible but assessment of pressure-induced vasodilation and reactive hyperemia could be a new possibility to assess individualized physiological measurements of mechanisms known to be related to pressure ulcer development.

Keywords
interface pressure, pressure-induced vasodilation, pressure ulcer, reactive hyperemia, tissue blood flow
National Category
Nursing Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109951 (URN)10.12968/jowc.2015.24.8.346 (DOI)000359210200004 ()
Note

Vid tiden för disputationen var publikationen ett manuskript ("Exploring pressure-induced microcirculatory responses in sacral tissue in healthy individuals and inpatients on different pressure-redistribution mattresses")

Funding text: None declared. The study was funded by the Swedish Research Council, the Faculty of Health Sciences at Linkoping University, Region of Ostergotland., King GustafV and Queen Victoria's Freemason Foundation, NovaMedTech, and the European Union Regional Development Fund.

Available from: 2014-08-29 Created: 2014-08-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Källman, U., Bergstrand, S., Ek, A.-C., Engström, M. & Lindgren, M. (2015). Sacral pressure-induced blood flow responses at different tissue depths during one hour supine bedrest in nursing home residents.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sacral pressure-induced blood flow responses at different tissue depths during one hour supine bedrest in nursing home residents
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2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background. Pressure induced vasodilation (PIV) protects the skin from pressure induced ischemia. PIV responses at individual level during a long-term measurement period have not previously been described in an elderly population in a clinically relevant situation.

Aim. To describe individual PIV responses in a nursing home resident population for 1-hour periods of bed rest.

Method. From May 2011 to August 2012, blood flow at three tissue depths was measured for one hour over the sacrum in 0° supine position and 30° supine tilt position in 25 individuals aged 65 years or older while lying on a pressure redistributing mattress. Measurements were made using the non-invasive optical techniques Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) and photoplethysmography. The individuals were divided into a PIV group and a non-PIV group based upon the LDF data.

Results. In the PIV group, the blood flow in almost all cases increased immediately and remained over baseline for the entire 60 minutes of loading in both positions, while the blood flow decreased immediately and remained below baseline in the non-PIV group. These blood flow patterns were also seen in deeper tissue layers although a PIV response was most common in the underlying tissue in both groups.

Conclusion. The cutaneous blood flow response among the nursing home residents was distinct, appeared early and remained during the one hour of loading in both the PIV and non-PIV group. The non-PIV group may be more vulnerable to pressure and thus may be at risk for pressure ulcer development. More research is needed in order to verify the results.

Keywords
Tissue blood flow, pressure-induced vasodilation, interface pressure, skin temperature, pressure ulcer, nursing home residents
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117446 (URN)
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2015-04-27Bibliographically approved
Källman, U., Engström, M., Bergstrand, S., Ek, A.-C., Fredrikson, M., Lindberg, L.-G. & Lindgren, M. (2015). The Effects of Different Lying Positions on Interface Pressure, Skin Temperature, and Tissue Blood Flow in Nursing Home Residents. Biological Research for Nursing, 17(2), 142-151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effects of Different Lying Positions on Interface Pressure, Skin Temperature, and Tissue Blood Flow in Nursing Home Residents
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2015 (English)In: Biological Research for Nursing, ISSN 1099-8004, E-ISSN 1552-4175, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 142-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Although repositioning is considered an important intervention to prevent pressure ulcers, tissue response during loading in different lying positions has not been adequately explored.

Aim: To compare the effects of different lying positions on interface pressure, skin temperature, and tissue blood flow in nursing home residents.

Method: From May 2011 to August 2012, interface pressure, skin temperature, and blood flow at three tissue depths were measured for 1 hr over the sacrum in 30 supine tilt and 0 supine positions and over the trochanter major in 30lateral and 90lateral positions in 25 residents aged 65 years or older. Measurement of interface pressure was accomplished using a pneumatic pressure transmitter connected to a digital manometer, skin temperature using a temperature sensor, and blood flow using photoplethysmography and laser Doppler flowmetry.

Results: Interface pressure was significantly higher in the 0supine and 90lateral positions than in 30supine tilt and 30 lateral positions. The mean skin temperature increased from baseline in all positions. Blood flow was significantly higher in the 30 supine tilt position compared to the other positions. A hyperemic response in the post pressure period was seen at almost all tissue depths and positions.

Conclusion: The 30supine tilt position generated less interface pressure and allowed greater tissue perfusion, suggesting that this position is the most beneficial.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2015
Keywords
nursing home residents, patient repositioning, pressure ulcer, interface pressure, skin temperature, tissue blood flow
National Category
Clinical Medicine Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109318 (URN)10.1177/1099800414540515 (DOI)000349332300003 ()25037449 (PubMedID)
Note

The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship and/or publication of this article: This research project was funded by the Research Council, Sodra Alvsborg Hospital, Boras, Sweden [VGFOUSA-318701]; the Research Council, Ostergotland, Linkoping, Sweden [LIO-197101]; the Dermatology Department Research Foundation at Sodra Alvsborg Hospital, Boras Sweden [April 01, 2010]; the SwedBank Sjuharad Foundation for Research at the Sodra Alvsborg Hospital, Boras, Sweden [October 10, 2011]; the Sodra Alvsborg Hospital, Boras, Sweden [April 01, 2011]; the King Gustaf V and Queen Victoria's Freemason Foundation [December 2011]; the NovaMedTech and European Union-European Regional Development Fund [September 29, 2011]; Faculty of Health Science Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden [LIO-200671].

Available from: 2014-08-12 Created: 2014-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Bergstrand, S., Källman, U., Ek, A.-C., Lindberg, L.-G., Engström, M., Sjöberg, F. & Lindgren, M. (2014). Pressure-induced vasodilation and reactive hyperemia at different depths in sacral tissue under clinically relevant conditions. Microcirculation, 21(8), 761-771
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pressure-induced vasodilation and reactive hyperemia at different depths in sacral tissue under clinically relevant conditions
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2014 (English)In: Microcirculation, ISSN 1073-9688, E-ISSN 1549-8719, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 761-771Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To characterize pressure-induced vasodilatation and reactive hyperemia at different sacral tissue depths in different populations under clinically relevant pressure exposure.

METHODS: Forty-two subjects (< 65 years), 38 subjects (≥ 65 years), and 35 patients (≥ 65 years) participated. Interface pressure, skin temperature, and blood flow at tissue depths of 1 mm, 2 mm, and 10 mm (using laser Doppler flowmetry and photoplethysmography) were measured in the sacral tissue before, during, and after load in a supine position.

RESULTS: pressure-induced vasodilatation and reactive hyperemia were observed at three tissue depths. At 10 mm depth, the proportion of subjects with a lack of pressure-induced vasodilatation was higher compared to superficial depths. The patients had higher interface pressure during load than the healthy individuals, but there were no significant differences in blood flow. Twenty-nine subjects in all three study groups were identified with a lack of pressure-induced vasodilatation and reactive hyperemia.

CONCLUSIONS: pressure-induced vasodilatation and reactive hyperemia can be measured at different tissue depths. A lack of these responses was found in healthy individuals as well as in patients indicating an innate susceptibility in some individuals, and are potential important factors to evaluate in order to better understand the etiology of pressure ulcers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2014
Keywords
Pressure ulcer, photoplethysmography, laser Doppler flowmetry, non-invasive, tissue blood flow
National Category
Nursing Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109950 (URN)10.1111/micc.12160 (DOI)000344789400010 ()25100630 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-08-29 Created: 2014-08-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Bergstrand, S. (2014). Preventing pressure ulcers by assessment of the microcirculation in tissue exposed to pressure. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preventing pressure ulcers by assessment of the microcirculation in tissue exposed to pressure
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of this thesis was to combine optical methods into a system with the ability to simultaneously measure blood flow changes at different tissue depths. The goal of such a system was to reveal vascular mechanisms relevant to pressure ulcer etiology under clinically relevant conditions and in relation to the evaluation of pressure-redistribution support surfaces.

This thesis consists of four quantitative, cross-sectional studies measuring blood flow responses before, during, and after pressure exposure of the sacral tissue. Two optical methods – photoplethysmography and laser Doppler flowmetry – were combined in a newly developed system that has the ability to discriminate blood flows at different tissue depths. Studies I and II explored blood flow responses at different depths in 17 individuals. In Study I the blood flow was related to tissue thickness and tissue compression during pressure exposure of ≥ 220 mmHg. In Study II, the sacral tissue was loaded with 37.5 mmHg and 50.0 mmHg, and the variation in blood flow was measured. Studies III and IV included 42 healthy individuals < 65 years, 38 healthy individuals ≥ 65 years, and 35 patients ≥ 65 years. Study III included between-subject comparisons of blood flow and pressure between individuals in the three study groups lying in supine positions on a standard hospital mattress. Study IV added within-subject comparisons while the individual was lying on four different types of mattress. The studies explored the vascular phenomena pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV) and reactive hyperemia (RH).

The most common blood flow response to tissue exposure in this thesis was PIV, although a decrease in blood flow (a lack of PIV) was observed in some individuals. The patients tended to have higher interface pressure during pressure exposure than the healthy groups but no differences in blood flow responses were seen. Our results showed that pressure levels that are normally considered to be harmless could have a significant effect on the microcirculation in different tissue structures. Differences in individual blood flow responses in terms of PIV and RH were seen, and a larger proportion of individuals lacked these responses in the deeper tissue structures compared to more superficial tissue structures.

This thesis identified PIV and RH that are important vascular mechanisms for pressure ulcer development and revealed for the first time that PIV and RH are present at different depths under clinically relevant conditions. The thesis also identified a population of individuals not previously identified who lack both PIV and RH and seem to be particularly vulnerable to pressure exposure. Further, this thesis has added a new perspective to the microcirculation in pressure ulcer etiology in terms of blood flow regulation and endothelial function that are anchored in clinically relevant studies. Finally, the evaluation of pressureredistribution support surfaces in terms of mean blood flow during and after tissue exposure was shown to be unfeasible, but the assessment of PIV and RH could provide a new possibility for measuring individual physiological responses that are known to be related to pressure ulcer development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. p. 80
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1407
Keywords
Pressure ulcer, photoplethysmography, laser Doppler flowmetry, non-invasive, tissue blood flow, reactive hyperemia, pressure-induced vasodilation, interface pressure, risk assessment
National Category
Nursing Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109960 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-109960 (DOI)978-91-7519-317-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-09-12, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-08-29 Created: 2014-08-29 Last updated: 2014-08-29Bibliographically approved
Källman, U., Bergstrand, S., Ek, A.-C., Engström, M., Lindberg, L.-G. & Lindgren, M. (2013). Different lying positions and their effects on tissue blood flow and skin temperature in older adult patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(1), 133-144
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different lying positions and their effects on tissue blood flow and skin temperature in older adult patients
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim. To report a study to compare the effects of different lying positions on tissue blood flow and skin temperature in older adult patients. This article reports the evaluation of study design and procedures. Background. To reduce risk of pressure ulcers, repositioning of immobile patients is a standard nursing practice; however, research into how different lying positions effect tissue microcirculation is limited. Design. Descriptive comparative design. Methods. From MarchOctober 2010, 20 inpatients, aged 65 years or older, were included in the study. Tissue blood flow and skin temperature were measured over bony prominences and in gluteus muscle in four supine and two lateral positions. Results. The blood flow over the bony prominence areas was most influenced in the superficial skin and especially in the 30 degrees lateral position, where the blood flow decreased significantly in comparison with the supine positions. There were significant individual differences in blood flow responses, but no common trend was identified among the patients considered at risk for pressure ulcer development. The study procedure worked well and was feasible to perform in an inpatient population. Conclusion. The lying positions seem to influence the tissue blood flow over the bony prominences in different ways in older adult inpatients, but further study is needed to confirm the results and to make recommendations to clinical practice. The study procedure worked well, although some minor adjustments with regard to heat accumulation will be made in future studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing, 2013
Keywords
nursing, older adults, patient repositioning, pressure ulcer, prevention, skin temperature, tissue blood flow
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87459 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.06000.x (DOI)000312550600013 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Research Council South Alvsborg||South Alvsborg Hospital and Dermatology Department Research Foundation||South Alvsborg Hospital, Boras||Swed Bank Sjuharads foundation for research at the hospital of South Alvsborg, Boras, Sweden||Swedish Research Council||Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping, Sweden||

Available from: 2013-01-18 Created: 2013-01-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Hagblad, J., Lindberg, L.-G., Kaisdotter Andersson, A., Bergstrand, S., Lindgren, M., Ek, A.-C., . . . Linden, M. (2010). A technique based on laser Doppler flowmetry and photoplethysmography for simultaneously monitoring blood flow at different tissue depths. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 48(5), 415-422
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A technique based on laser Doppler flowmetry and photoplethysmography for simultaneously monitoring blood flow at different tissue depths
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2010 (English)In: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 415-422Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to validate a non-invasive optical probe for simultaneous blood flow measurement at different vascular depths combining three photoplethysmography (PPG) channels and laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF). Wavelengths of the PPG were near-infrared 810 nm with source-to-detector separation of 10 and 25 mm, and green 560 nm with source-to-detector separation of 4 mm. The probe is intended for clinical studies of pressure ulcer aetiology. The probe was placed over the trapezius muscle, and depths from the skin to the trapezius muscle were measured using ultrasound and varied between 3.8 and 23 mm in the 11 subjects included. A provocation procedure inducing a local enhancement of blood flow in the trapezius muscle was used. Blood flows at rest and post-exercise were compared. It can be concluded that this probe is useful as a tool for discriminating between blood flows at different vascular tissue depths. The vascular depths reached for the different channels in this study were at least 23 mm for the near-infrared PPG channel (source-to-detector separation 25 mm), 10-15 mm for the near-infrared PPG channel (separation 10 mm), and shallower than 4 mm for both the green PPG channel (separation 4 mm) and LDF.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science Business Media, 2010
Keywords
PPG, LDF, Perfusion, Vascular depth, Pressure ulcer
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-55514 (URN)10.1007/s11517-010-0577-2 (DOI)000276771800002 ()
Available from: 2010-04-30 Created: 2010-04-30 Last updated: 2013-09-10
Bergstrand, S., Länne, T., Linden, M. & Lindgren, M. (2010). Existence of Tissue Blood Flow in Response to External Pressure in the Sacral Region of Elderly Individuals - Using an Optical Probe Prototype. MICROCIRCULATION, 17(4), 311-319
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Existence of Tissue Blood Flow in Response to External Pressure in the Sacral Region of Elderly Individuals - Using an Optical Probe Prototype
2010 (English)In: MICROCIRCULATION, ISSN 1073-9688, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 311-319Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pandgt;Objective: The aim was to investigate the existence of sacral tissue blood flow at different depths in response to external pressure and compression in elderly individuals using a newly developed optical probe prototype. Methods: The tissue blood flow and tissue thickness in the sacral area were measured during load in 17 individuals using laser Doppler flowmetry and photoplethysmography in a combined probe, and digital ultrasound. Results: The mean age was 68.6 +/- 7.0 years. While loading, the mean compression was 60.3 +/- 11.9%. The number of participants with existing blood flow while loading increased with increased measurement depth. None had enclosed blood flow deep in the tissue and at the same time an existing more superficial blood flow. Correlation between tissue thickness and BMI in unloaded and loaded sacral tissue was shown: r = 0.68 (P = 0.003) and r = 0.68 (P = 0.003). Conclusions: Sacral tissue is highly compressed by external load. There seems to be a difference in responses to load in the different tissue layers, as occluded blood flow in deeper tissue layers do not occur unless the blood flow in the superficial tissue layers is occluded.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor and Francis, 2010
Keywords
pressure ulcer, photoplethysmography, laser Doppler flowmetry, non-invasive, tissue blood flow
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-56449 (URN)10.1111/j.1549-8719.2010.00027.x (DOI)000277123800008 ()
Note
This is an electronic version of an article published in: Sara Bergstrand, Toste Länne, Maria Linden and Margareta Lindgren, Existence of Tissue Blood Flow in Response to External Pressure in the Sacral Region of Elderly Individuals - Using an Optical Probe Prototype, 2010, MICROCIRCULATION, (17), 4, 311-319. MICROCIRCULATION is available online at informaworldTM: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1549-8719.2010.00027.x Copyright: Taylor and Francis http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/default.asp Available from: 2010-05-17 Created: 2010-05-17 Last updated: 2017-03-27
Källman, U., Bergstrand, S., Ek, A.-C., Engström, M. & Lindgren, M. (2010). Pressure ulcer prevention: The effect of different lying positions on tissue blood flow, temperature and interface pressure in elderly patients - an ongoing study. In: Pressure ulcer prevention: The effect of different lying positions on tissue blood flow, temperature and interface pressure in elderly patients: . Paper presented at EPUAP 2010 Annual Conference Birmingham, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pressure ulcer prevention: The effect of different lying positions on tissue blood flow, temperature and interface pressure in elderly patients - an ongoing study
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2010 (English)In: Pressure ulcer prevention: The effect of different lying positions on tissue blood flow, temperature and interface pressure in elderly patients, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54994 (URN)
Conference
EPUAP 2010 Annual Conference Birmingham, UK
Available from: 2010-04-26 Created: 2010-04-26 Last updated: 2015-06-09
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9663-3720

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