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Öberg, Gunilla
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Publications (10 of 37) Show all publications
de Boer, W., Folman, L. B., Klein Gunnewiek, P. J. .., Svensson, T., Bastviken, D., Öberg, G., . . . Boddy, L. (2010). Mechanism of antibacterial activity of the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare colonizing wood. Canadian journal of microbiology (Print), 56(5), 380-388
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanism of antibacterial activity of the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare colonizing wood
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2010 (English)In: Canadian journal of microbiology (Print), ISSN 0008-4166, E-ISSN 1480-3275, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 380-388Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

In a previous study it was shown that the number of wood-inhabiting bacteria was drastically reduced after colonization of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood blocks by the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare, or sulfur tuft (Folman et al. 2008). Here we report on the mechanisms of this fungal-induced antibacterial activity. Hypholoma fasciculare was allowed to invade beech and pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood blocks that had been precolonized by microorganisms from forest soil. The changes in the number of bacteria, fungal biomass, and fungal-related wood properties were followed for 23 weeks. Colonization by the fungus resulted in a rapid and large reduction in the number of bacteria (colony-forming units), which was already apparent after 4 weeks of incubation. The reduction in the number of bacteria coincided with fungal-induced acidification in both beech and pine wood blocks. No evidence was found for the involvement of toxic secondary metabolites or reactive oxygen species in the reduction of the number of bacteria. Additional experiments showed that the dominant bacteria present in the wood blocks were not able to grow under the acidic conditions (pH 3.5) created by the fungus. Hence our research pointed at rapid acidification as the major factor causing reduction of wood-inhabiting bacteria upon colonization of wood by H. fasciculare.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NRC Research Press, 2010
Keywords
white rot, antibacterial activity, acidification, lignocellulolytic enzymes, organic chlorine, pyrolysis
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-56778 (URN)10.1139/W10-023 (DOI)
Available from: 2010-06-03 Created: 2010-06-03 Last updated: 2018-10-05
Bengtson, P., Bastviken, D., de Boer, W. & Öberg, G. (2009). Possible role of reactive chlorine in microbial antagonism and organic matter chlorination in terrestrial environments. Environmental Microbiology, 11(6), 1330-1339
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Possible role of reactive chlorine in microbial antagonism and organic matter chlorination in terrestrial environments
2009 (English)In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 1330-1339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several studies have demonstrated that extensive formation of organically bound chlorine occurs both in soil and in decaying plant material. Previous studies suggest that enzymatic formation of reactive chlorine outside cells is a major source. However, the ecological role of microbial-induced extracellular chlorination processes remains unclear. In the present paper, we assess whether or not the literature supports the hypothesis that extracellular chlorination is involved in direct antagonism against competitors for the same resources. Our review shows that it is by no means rare that biotic processes create conditions that render biocidal concentrations of reactive chlorine compounds, which suggest that extracellular production of reactive chlorine may have an important role in antagonistic microbial interactions. To test the validity, we searched the UniprotPK database for microorganisms that are known to produce haloperoxidases. It appeared that many of the identified haloperoxidases from terrestrial environments are originating from organisms that are associated with living plants or decomposing plant material. The results of the in silico screening were supported by various field and laboratory studies on natural chlorination. Hence, the ability to produce reactive chlorine seems to be especially common in environments that are known for antibiotic-mediated competition for resources (interference competition). Yet, the ability to produce haloperoxidases is also recorded, for example, for plant endosymbionts and parasites, and there is little or no empirical evidence that suggests that these organisms are antagonistic.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28234 (URN)10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.01915.x (DOI)1462-2912 (ISBN)
Note

Bengtson, Per Bastviken, David de Boer, Wietse Oberg, Gunilla

Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-05
Svensson, T., Laturnus, F., Sandén, P. & Öberg, G. (2007). Chloroform in runoff water: a two-year study in a small catchment in southeast Sweden. Biogeochemistry, 82(2), 139-151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chloroform in runoff water: a two-year study in a small catchment in southeast Sweden
2007 (English)In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 139-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chloroform concentrations were observed and input and output fluxes estimated over a 2-yr period in a small coniferous catchment (0.22 km2) in southeast Sweden. Water discharge was measured daily, and runoff water was sampled bi-weekly for chloroform analysis. An approximate chloroform budget was calculated, which indicated that the annual output of 6 μg m−2 yr−1 was approximately six times higher than the input, inferring an internal source of chloroform in the catchment. To the best of our knowledge, neither flux estimates nor mass balances have previously been made for chloroform on a catchment scale, nor have data regarding natural runoff variation with time been gathered. Concentrations of chloroform in runoff were found to be generally high during wet periods, such as spring, but also peaked during summer rain events. The observed pattern suggests that chloroform is formed in surface soil layers and transported to the outlet under high-flow conditions and during dry-period rain events; it is lost through degradation or evaporation during drier periods due to longer soil water residence times. The data suggest that the variation among replicates increases with concentration; this emphasizes the need to know what the degree of on-site variation is, so one can collect a sufficient number of replicates to permit detection of spatial or temporal changes.

Keywords
Biogeochemistry, Catchment, Chloroform, Water, VOCl
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13821 (URN)10.1007/s10533-006-9059-x (DOI)
Available from: 2006-04-21 Created: 2006-04-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Wibeck, V., Abrandt Dahlgren, M. & Öberg, G. (2007). Learning in focus groups: An analytical dimension for enhancing focus group research. Qualitative Research, 7(2), 249-267
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning in focus groups: An analytical dimension for enhancing focus group research
2007 (English)In: Qualitative Research, ISSN 1468-7941, E-ISSN 1741-3109, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 249-267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The focus group is a research methodology in which a small group of participants gathers to discuss a specified issue under the guidance of a moderator. The discussions are tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed. Notably, the interaction between focus group participants has seldom been evaluated, analysed or discussed in empirical research. We argue that considering the focus group in light of current research into interaction in problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial groups would facilitate the deliberate exploitation of group processes in designing focus groups, staging data collection and analysing and interpreting data. When the analytical focus shifts from mere content analysis to an analysis of what the participants themselves are trying to learn, one can explore not only what the participants are talking about, but also how they are trying to understand and conceptualise the issue under discussion. © 2007 Sage Publications.

National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-41925 (URN)10.1177/1468794107076023 (DOI)59377 (Local ID)59377 (Archive number)59377 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2019-03-22Bibliographically approved
Bastviken, D., Sandén, P., Svensson, T., Ståhlberg, C., Magounakis, M. & Öberg, G. (2006). Chloride retention and release in a boreal forest soil: effects of soil water residence time and nitrogen and chloride loads. Environmental Science and Technology, 40(9), 2977-2982
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chloride retention and release in a boreal forest soil: effects of soil water residence time and nitrogen and chloride loads
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2006 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, no 9, p. 2977-2982Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The common assumption that chloride (Cl-) is conservative in soils and can be used as a groundwater tracer is currently being questioned, and an increasing number of studies indicate that Cl- can be retained in soils. We performed lysimeter experiments with soil from a coniferous forest in southeast Sweden to determine whether pore water residence time and nitrogen and Cl- loads affected Cl- retention. Over the first 42 days there was a net retention of Cl- with retention rates averaging 3.1 mg Cl- m-2 d-1 (68% of the added Cl- retained over 42 days). Thereafter, a net release of Cl- at similar rates was observed for the remaining experimental period (85 d). Longer soil water residence time and higher Cl- load gave higher initial retention and subsequent release rates than shorter residence time and lower Cl- load did. Nitrogen load did not affect Cl transformation rates. This study indicates that simultaneous retention and release of Cl- can occur in soils, and that rates may be considerable relative to the load. The retention of Cl- observed was probably due to chlorination of soil organic matter or ion exchange. The cause of the shift between net retention and net release is unclear, but we hypothesize that the presence of O2 or the presence of microbially available organic matter regulates Cl- retention and release rates.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13822 (URN)10.1021/es0523237 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-04-21 Created: 2006-04-21 Last updated: 2018-10-05Bibliographically approved
Wibeck, V., Johansson, M., Larsson, A. & Öberg, G. (2006). Communicative aspects of environmental management by objectives: Examples from the Swedish context. Environmental Management, 37(4), 461-469
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communicative aspects of environmental management by objectives: Examples from the Swedish context
2006 (English)In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 461-469Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Management by objectives (MBO) is a technique for integrating ecological concerns into national political and administrative structures. Politicians determine environmental objectives and interim targets to be implemented and assessed by civil servants in national, regional, and local contexts. Well-developed organizational communication is a prerequisite for MBO. However, communication-related obstacles can arise when using MBO in public environmental management. We examine communicative aspects of environmental MBO, looking specifically at the implementation, administration, and assessment of Swedish environmental quality objectives. Our argument is illustrated by quotations from individual and focus group interviews. We conclude that communicative problems may arise, because different actors interpret messages from different perspectives, depending on their agendas, prior knowledge and experience, and positions in the administrative system. It is crucial to recognize the dialogical aspects of communication, by involving the receiver of a message in a process of response. In addition, the different timeframes underlying different arguments could contribute to misunderstandings between actors involved in handling environmental issues. In assessing the achievement of environmental objectives, indicators are used as communicative tools. It is important to investigate whether and how these indicators contribute to the de- and recontextualization of environmental objectives. © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Keywords
management by objectives (MBO), environmental quality objectives, communication, recontextualization, indicators
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36619 (URN)10.1007/s00267-004-0386-1 (DOI)31865 (Local ID)31865 (Archive number)31865 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Lovbrand, E. & Öberg, G. (2005). Comment on "How science makes environmental controversies worse" by Daniel Sarewitz, Environmental Science and Policy, 7, 385-403 and "When Scientists politicise science: Making sense of the controversy over The Skeptical Environmentalist" by Roger A. Pielke Jr., Environmental Science and Policy, 7, 405-417. Environmental Science and Policy, 8(2), 195-197
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comment on "How science makes environmental controversies worse" by Daniel Sarewitz, Environmental Science and Policy, 7, 385-403 and "When Scientists politicise science: Making sense of the controversy over The Skeptical Environmentalist" by Roger A. Pielke Jr., Environmental Science and Policy, 7, 405-417
2005 (English)In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 195-197Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

[No abstract available]

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-45472 (URN)10.1016/j.envsci.2004.12.007 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Öberg, G. & Sandén, P. (2005). Retention of chloride in soil and cycling of organic matter-bound chlorine. Hydrological Processes, 19(11), 2123-2136
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Retention of chloride in soil and cycling of organic matter-bound chlorine
2005 (English)In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 2123-2136Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chloride (Cl-inorg) is generally considered to be a hydrologically and chemically inert substance. Past research suggests that Cl-inorg participates in a complex biogeochemical cycle involving the formation of organically bound chlorine (Cl-org). The present study examines whether Cl-org cycling is sufficiently extensive as to influence the geochemical cycling Of Cl-inorg- Undisturbed soil cores were collected in a coniferous forest soil in SE Sweden. The cores were stored in climate chambers for three months, irrigated with artificial rain, and the leachate was collected and analysed. The water balance of the lysimeters could be well described, and we found that 20-50% of the chlorine leached from the lysimeters was organically bound and that the amounts lost did not decrease with time. This strongly suggests that a substantial amount of Cl-inorg forms in topsoil, and that subsequent leaching to deeper layers causes a considerable withdrawal of Cl-inorg. The concentration of both organic carbon and Cl-inorg in the leachate was considerably higher than concentrations observed in the runoff in the actual catchment, suggesting that organic matter precipitates or is mineralized on its way through the soil. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keywords
organic chlorine, organochlorine, chlorinated organic matter, chloride, withdrawal, cycling, biogeochemistry
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46049 (URN)10.1002/hyp.5680 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Öberg, G., Holm, M., Sandén, P., Svensson, T. & Parikka, M. (2005). The role of organic matter bound chlorine in the chlorine cycle: a case study of the Stubbetorp catchment, Sweden. Biogeochemistry, 75(2), 241-269
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of organic matter bound chlorine in the chlorine cycle: a case study of the Stubbetorp catchment, Sweden
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2005 (English)In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 241-269Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study is to construct a balanced chlorine budget for a small forested catchment, focusing on the interaction between chloride (Clinorg) and organic-matter-bound chlorine (Clorg). Data from the actual catchment are combined with secondary data from other sites to elucidate more clearly which parts of the cycle are fairly well known and which are more or less unknown. The budget calculations show that the principal input and output fluxes of Cl in the catchment are inorganic but that the main pool is Clorg in the soil. In addition, the budget calculations suggest that a considerable portion of Clinorg in soil is transformed to Clorg and subsequently leached to deeper soil layers, that net mineralization of Clorg takes place in soil, preferably in deeper soil layers, and that degrading organic matter is a major source of Clinorg in runoff. The loss of Clorg through runoff is small to negligible in relation to other fluxes. It appears as if dry deposition of Clinorg is at risk of being underestimated if Clinorg is assumed to be conservative in soil. The pool of organic-matter-bound chlorine in soil is considerably larger than the annual flux of chloride through the system. The estimates suggest that the amount of Clorg in the upper 40 cm of the soil at the investigated site is approximately twice as large as the Clinorg. Furthermore, the amount of Clorg biomass is small in relation to the occurrence of Clorg in soil. Finally, the estimates indicate that the transport of volatile Clorg from the soil to the atmosphere may influence the chlorine cycle.

Keywords
Biogeochemistry, Chloride, Cycling, Organic chlorine
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13819 (URN)10.1007/s10533-004-7259-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-04-21 Created: 2006-04-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13
Öberg, G. & Lövbrand, E. (2005). Towards reflexive scientization of environmental policy. Environmental Science and Policy, 8(2), 195-197
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards reflexive scientization of environmental policy
2005 (English)In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 195-197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29397 (URN)14735 (Local ID)14735 (Archive number)14735 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2018-01-13
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