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Langstrand, J. (2016). An introduction to value stream mapping and analysis. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An introduction to value stream mapping and analysis
2016 (English)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Value stream mapping (VSM) is a method for illustrating and analyzing the logic of a production process. The terminology stems  from the metaphor of the production process as a steady stream of products where value is added for each step that the products take down stream. This metaphor and the  terminology also strengthen the notion of continuous flow as the ultimate form of production–at least in terms of efficiency...

Place, publisher, year, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. p. 28
Keywords
Value stream mapping, Lean, värdeflödesanalys, lean
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129946 (URN)
Available from: 2016-07-01 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2016-07-05Bibliographically approved
Langstrand, J. & Eklund Teivik, R. (2016). Kvalitet i upphandling: En studie vid tekniska kontoret i Norrköpings kommun. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kvalitet i upphandling: En studie vid tekniska kontoret i Norrköpings kommun
2016 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Offentlig upphandling syftar till att genom konkurrensutsättning av inköp i offentlig verksamhet generera goda affärer med skattefinansierade medel. Uppföljning av offentliga upphandlingsavtal är dock eftersatt hos många upphandlande myndigheter. Otydliga och otillräckliga krav på anbudsgivare, resursbrist samt bristande rutiner bidrar till bristande uppföljning och detta får allvarliga konsekvenser eftersom uppföljning av de krav som ställts i upphandlingar är förutsättningar för att erhålla god upphandlingskvalitet.

Denna studie undersöker hur upphandlingskvaliteten i offentlig upphandling kan säkerställas och förbättras samt hur uppföljningen av denna kvalitet kan understödja detta arbete. Rapporten undersöker även hur användning av nyckeltal kan understödja uppföljningarbetet och därmed bidra en bättre upphandlingskvalitet. Flertalet intervjuer har använts för att samla djupgående information från upphandlingsverksamheten, vilka faktorer som är viktiga att ta hänsyn till i upphandlingarna för att generera god kvalitet och vilka problem som finns. En enkätundersökning har också genomförts för att styrka de argument som framkom vid intervjuerna.

Med stöd i den litteraturstudie som genomförts identifierades flera faktorer som påverkar kvaliteten i offentliga upphandlingar. Centralt är att möjliggöra för en optimal användning av de resurser som finns och att prioritera uppföljningsarbetet i större utsträckning. Detta kräver fler stickprov för att samla information från upphandlingarna och för att återfå kontroll över upphandlingsavtalen. Fler stickprovskontroller kan i sin tur generera en direkt positiv påverkan på kvaliteten i upphandlingarna eftersom incitamenten för leverantörerna att hålla en god kvalitet på sitt arbete därmed blir fler. Med fler kontroller följer också värdefull information om processen som kan användas internt för att öka det organisatoriska lärandet samt inleda en god spiral som möjliggör kontinuerliga förbättringar av såväl upphandlingskvalitet som uppföljningsarbete.

Utifrån detta har förslag på tio konkreta nyckeltal tagits fram. Nyckeltalen relateras till fyra mätperspektiv vilka kallas Goda affärer, Relationer, Interna processer samt Lärande och utveckling. Mätetalen bör sammanställas på regelbunden basis, exempelvis varje vecka eller månad. Dessa nyckeltal kompletterar varandra och flera av dem kan med fördel presenteras tillsammans vid jämförelser över tid för att illustrera resultatet av förändringar och för att skapa motivation genom visualisering av åstadkomna förbättringar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. p. 62
Keywords
Offentlig upphandling, kvalitet, uppföljning
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126553 (URN)
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2016-03-30Bibliographically approved
Langstrand, J. & Drotz, E. (2016). The rhetoric and reality of Lean: A multiple case study. Total quality management and business excellence (Online), 27(3-4), 398-412
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The rhetoric and reality of Lean: A multiple case study
2016 (English)In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 27, no 3-4, p. 398-412Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we analyse the similarities and differences between the descriptions of Lean found in the extant literature and how it is applied in practice. Using a multiple case study with seven cases from different sectors, we offer seven propositions about Lean as applied in reality and its relation to descriptions in literature. Our results indicate that organisations adopt the general rhetoric, and repeat the message conveyed by Lean proponents, in terms of the rationale for, and expected outcomes of, applying Lean. Furthermore, we see that the decision to implement Lean often precedes the identification of problems in the organisation, which causes a risk of an unfocused change process. Lean initiatives also tend to have a rather narrow scope, which contradicts the holistic view advocated in the literature. This, together with the variation in operationalisation, makes it difficult to predict the outcomes of a Lean initiative. Our study suggests that our findings do not depend on organisation size, sector or industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keywords
Lean, rhetoric, practice, case study, Lean, retorik, praktik, fallstudie
National Category
Work Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113675 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2015.1004307 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-01-27 Created: 2015-01-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Langstrand, J. & Lundqvist, D. (2015). Att leda förändring: från förhandling till realisering. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att leda förändring: från förhandling till realisering
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Att leda förändring är bland de svåraste uppgifterna en ledare kan ta sig an, och ungefär två tredjedelar av alla förändringsinitiativ misslyckas. Vår ambition med den här rapporten är att bidra till att förmedla några råd som vi har hämtat från erfarna förändringsledare och därmed bidra till att hjälpa presumtiva förändringsledare att förutse och planera för de utmaningar som kommer under förändringsarbetets gång.

Rapporten bygger på en intervjustudie där 14 erfarna förändringsledare har delat med sig av sina erfarenheter av att leda förändringsprocesser i olika verksamheter – både offentligt och privat. Vi har identifierat gemensamma mönster i deras beskrivningar och sammanfattat dessa genom att beskriva en generisk förändringsprocess som bestående av fyra olika faser som vi har kallat initiering, förankring, genomförande och uppföljning.

En central slutsats från den här studien är att ledarbeteenden behöver anpassas till den fas som förändringsarbetet befinner sig i. Detta innebär att förändringsarbete kräver ledare som är flexibla i sitt ledarskap och har en förmåga att ta olika roller allt eftersom förändringen fortskrider. Till exempel krävs ett konsensussökande ledarskap inledningsvis, och senare i processen går kraven över till ett mer resultatorienterat och ibland auktoritärt ledarskap.

Vi presenterar en modell som ger en övergripande beskrivning av vilka ledarbeteenden som bör kopplas till respektive förändringsfas. Modellen är tänkt att fungera som ett verktyg för att uppmärksamma vilka situationer som kan uppkomma i en förändringsprocess och vilka roller och ledarbeteenden som en ledare bör vara beredd på. Vår modell kan därmed hjälpa ledare att bli bättre förberedda för förändringsarbetet, och förhoppningsvis bidra till att öka sannolikheten för lyckade förändringsinsatser.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. p. 49
Series
HELIX working papers, ISSN 1654-8213 ; 2015:2
National Category
Work Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119554 (URN)
Available from: 2015-06-22 Created: 2015-06-22 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Langstrand, J., Cronemyr, P. & Poksinska, B. (2015). Practise what you preach: quality of education in education on quality. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 26(11-12), 1202-1212
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Practise what you preach: quality of education in education on quality
2015 (English)In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 26, no 11-12, p. 1202-1212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The quality of teaching should be the central theme in the education on quality management (QM). Delivering bad courses about QM would reduce the legitimacy of the subject, since we do not practise what we preach. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the quality of education can be enhanced through effective course design based on quality thinking and higher education theory. The study covers three university courses in the field of QM; an introductory course in QM, and courses in Six Sigma and Lean Production, respectively. Each course has been analysed and described in terms of factors affecting student learning and the perceived quality of the courses. The impact of course design on examination results and student evaluation has been studied and compared to historical data. The study demonstrates that course design can have a profound impact on student learning as well as course evaluation. Analysis of the three examples provided in this paper indicates that the QM principles can effectively be used in course design processes. Attention to the principles presented in this paper facilitates the design of courses that enhance learning and ensure higher student satisfaction. The application of QM principles in higher education has a long theoretical tradition. This paper provides three strong examples of how this can be done in practise.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2015
Keywords
quality, education, course design, kvalitet, utbildning, undervisning, kursdesign, kursutveckling
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109049 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2014.925290 (DOI)000364562700007 ()
Available from: 2014-08-04 Created: 2014-08-04 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Bergquist, B., Garvare, R., Eriksson, H., Hallencreutz, J., Langstrand, J., Vanhatalo, E. & Zobel, T. (2012). Alive and kicking – but will quality management be around tomorrow?: A Swedish academia perspective. Quality Innovation Prosperity, 16(2), 1-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alive and kicking – but will quality management be around tomorrow?: A Swedish academia perspective
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2012 (English)In: Quality Innovation Prosperity, ISSN 1335-1745, E-ISSN 1338-984X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this article is to describe how Quality Management (QM) is perceived today by scholars at three Swedish universities, and into what QM is expected to develop into in twenty years. Data were collected through structured workshops using affinity diagrams with scholars teaching and performing research in the QM field. The results show that QM currently is perceived as consisting of a set of core of principles, methods and tools. The future outlook includes three possible development directions for QM are seen: [1] searching for a “discipline X” where QM can contribute while keeping its toolbox, [2] focus on a core based on the traditional quality technology toolbox with methods and tools, and [3] a risk that QM, as it is today, may seize to exist and be diffused into other disciplines.

Keywords
Quality Management; Business Excellence; Change Management; Total Quality; Management; Future
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88747 (URN)10.12776/qip.v16i2.53 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-02-18 Created: 2013-02-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Langstrand, J. (2012). Exploring organizational translation: A case study of changes toward Lean Production. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring organizational translation: A case study of changes toward Lean Production
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Lean Production has received massive attention during recent years, and many organizations attempt to introduce it with an ambition to reach the radical improvement effects that are promised in the popular management literature. However, introducing a management concept can be a very challenging task, and research has shown that the majority of such initiatives fail. A common observation is that the outcome of a change initiative differs from its initial intentions, which indicates that the content of the change is somehow transformed during the process. This kind of transformation can be described as organizational translation.

The purpose of the thesis is to provide an account of how processes of organizational translation transpire and to analyze and identify the main determinants of their outcome.

The thesis is based on a longitudinal case study that has focused on the introduction of the management concept Lean in a large Swedish manufacturing company. The study has been performed in two phases. In the first phase, a series of retrospective interviews have been performed with employees at all hierarchical levels within the company. The second phase of the study has been based on a prospective approach. This phase has comprised a combination of interviews, observations and document studies, with focus on a pilot project within the company. The study was performed between 2007 and 2011 and covers events between 2003 and 2011.

By analyzing the changes from a translation perspective, the thesis contributes to explore the meaning of organizational translation and the mechanisms through which Lean is materialized and developed into organizational practice.

Three types of organizational translation are presented in the thesis. These are defined as the activities and processes through which Lean is translated to a local set of ideas, practices and objects, respectively. It is suggested that these three entities and the corresponding forms of translation interact and together influence how people behave, which in turn will affect the results of the change initiative. This implies that all three types of organizational translation need to be addressed for a change initiative to be successful. Further, the suggested change must be translated so that it is represented in physical objects, people’s understanding and organizational practice. Lack of alignment between these three entities will create tension, which will likely hinder change and increase the risk of failure.

Abstract [sv]

Lean Production är ett koncept som har fått mycket uppmärksamhet under de senaste åren, och många organisationer försöker att införa det utifrån en ambition att uppnå de radikala förbättringseffekterna som utlovas i den populära managementlitteraturen. Att föra in ett managementkoncept kan vara en mycket svår uppgift, och forskning har visat att majoriteten av sådana initiativ misslyckas. En vanlig observation är att utfallet av ett förändringsinitiativ ofta avviker från de ursprungliga målsättningarna, vilket antyder att förändringens innehåll på något sätt har omvandlats under processen. Denna sorts omvandling kan beskrivas som organisatorisk översättning.

Syftet med avhandlingen är att ge en bild av hur organisatorisk översättning kan gå till samt analysera och identifiera de viktigaste drivkrafterna i sådana processer.

Avhandlingen baseras på en longitudinell fallstudie som har fokuserat på införandet av managementkonceptet Lean i ett stort svenskt tillverkningsföretag. Studien har genomförts i två faser. I den första fasen har en serie retrospektiva intervjuer genomförts med anställda på samtliga hierarkiska nivåer inom företaget. Studiens andra fas har baserats på en prospektiv ansats. Denna fas har innefattat en kombination av intervjuer, observationer och dokumentstudier, med fokus på ett pilotprojekt inom företaget. Studien har genomförts mellan 2007 och 2011, och behandlar händelser mellan 2003 och 2011.

Tre former för organisatorisk översättning presenteras i avhandlingen. Dessa definieras som de aktiviteter och processer varigenom Lean översätts till en lokal uppsättning av idéer, praktiker samt objekt. Det föreslås att dessa tre enheter och deras motsvarande former för översättning interagerar och tillsammans påverkar människors beteende, vilket i sin tur påverkar resultaten av förändringsinsatsen. Detta innebär att alla tre former för organisatorisk översättning måste tas i beaktning för att en förändringsinsats ska lyckas. De föreslagna förändringarna måste översättas så att de representeras i fysiska objekt, människors förståelse samt organisatorisk praktik. Brist på överensstämmelse mellan dessa tre enheter kommer leda till spänningar, vilka sannolikt kommer att hindra förändringen och öka risken för misslyckande.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. p. 181
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1422
Keywords
Organizational change, Lean Production, Organizational translation, Organisatorisk förändring, lean, organisatorisk översättning
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74621 (URN)978-91-7519-974-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-03-16, C3, Hus C, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-02-27 Created: 2012-02-02 Last updated: 2015-02-05Bibliographically approved
Ugochukwu, P., Engström, J. & Langstrand, J. (2012). Lean in the supply chain: A literature review. Management and Production Engineering Review, 3(4), 87-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lean in the supply chain: A literature review
2012 (English)In: Management and Production Engineering Review, ISSN 2082-1344, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

“Lean” is a management philosophy that enhances customer value through waste elimination and continuous improvement in a system, by applying lean principles, practices and techniques. The focus on lean implementations and research had been on a single company without extension to the entire supply chain. When the lean concept is implemented across the entire supply chain, however, it is referred to as a lean supply chain. The purpose of this paper is to review literature on lean in the supply chain and identify research trends and issues within the field. The paper involves a comprehensive review of articles on lean in the supply chain using structured content analysis. The reviewed articles were classified based on the basic characteristics and contextual issues of the articles.The researchers in the field agree that the identified benefits of lean in the supply chain, which include reduced cost, improved quality, faster delivery and flexibility, are linked to the implementation of certain lean principles, practices and techniques in the supply chain. Most of the reviewed articles are case studies, and evidence for the benefits of lean in the supply chain is anecdotal. While the empirical work done in the field is encouraging, quantitative studies to substantiate the claims for the efficiency of lean in the supply chain are lacking. In the reviewed articles, the manufacturing sector received much attention, while the service sector received little attention from researchers in the field. It was generally suggested that the supply chain members, suppliers and manufacturers should be considered in the implementation of lean in the supply chain, while the inclusion of distributors and end customers was not discussed in detail in many of the reviewed articles.

Keywords
Lean, supply chain, literature review, principles, practices, techniques
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88744 (URN)
Note

DOI does not work: 10.2478/v10270-012-0037-6

Available from: 2013-02-18 Created: 2013-02-18 Last updated: 2018-03-09
Langstrand, J. & Elg, M. (2012). Non-human resistance in changes towards lean. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 25(6), 853-866
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-human resistance in changes towards lean
2012 (English)In: Journal of Organizational Change Management, ISSN 0953-4814, E-ISSN 1758-7816, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 853-866Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The importance of social issues is well established in the literature on resistance to change. However, much can be gained by including physical objects in the analysis. Using actor-network theory, this paper aims to explore the resistance of non-human actors in organizational change and contribute to an expanded understanding of resistance to change. Design/methodology/approach: The article is based on a longitudinal case study of the introduction of lean in a large Swedish manufacturing company. The empirical basis consists of interviews, observations and document studies. Actor-network theory is used as a theoretical lens to identify non-human resistance to change. Findings: The paper proposes that non-human actors can inhibit change through a lack of alignment with the overall change initiative. This may cause large variation in the interpretation of the proposed change and a lengthy process of construction and negotiation. The paper provides examples of four different types of non-human resistance that result from this lack of alignment. Practical implications: It is proposed that change initiatives need to be aligned with existing practice and anchored in objects that are integrated in organizational routines. The four types of non-human resistance presented in the paper may be used as a checklist to reduce the risk of failure. Originality/value: The predominant focus on social issues tends to disregard the impact of the physical environment in change processes. Actor-network theory and the inclusion of the physical environment will help to expand and improve the understanding of resistance to change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012
Keywords
Actor-network theory; Change; Change management; Lean production; Manufacturing industries; Resistance; Sociotechnical change; Sweden
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75353 (URN)10.1108/09534811211280609 (DOI)
Note

On the day of the defence day the status of this article was: Manuscript

Available from: 2012-02-27 Created: 2012-02-27 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Langstrand, J., Cronemyr, P. & Poksinska, B. (2012). Practice what you preach: Quality of education in education on quality. In: . Paper presented at 15th QMOD Conference on Quality & Service Sciences (ICQSS), 5-7 September 2012, Poznan, Poland.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Practice what you preach: Quality of education in education on quality
2012 (English)In: , 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88750 (URN)
Conference
15th QMOD Conference on Quality & Service Sciences (ICQSS), 5-7 September 2012, Poznan, Poland
Available from: 2013-02-18 Created: 2013-02-18 Last updated: 2015-02-05
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9155-189X

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