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Sellenthin, Mark O.
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Publications (5 of 5) Show all publications
Sellenthin, M. O. (2006). Beyond the Ivory Tower: A Comparison of Patent Rights Regimes in Sweden and Germany. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond the Ivory Tower: A Comparison of Patent Rights Regimes in Sweden and Germany
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Bortom elfenbenstornet : En jämförelse av patenträttsregimer i Sverige och Tyskland
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this dissertation is to assess the impact of patent rights regulation in universities in Sweden and Germany. Two empirical studies were conducted in order to answer the research question What are the incentive effects of patent rights regimes in the university?. A qualitative study based on interviews with representatives from the public support infrastructure in both countries assessed the role of technology transfer offices and other intermediaries in both countries. The process of patenting and commercial exploitation in Sweden and Germany was presented in stylised models. A quantitative study based on a survey of researchers in Sweden and Germany was carried out in order to find out the factors that impact on the decision to apply for patents. The quantitative results together with the qualitative findings from the interview study allow us to draw a number of conclusions. First of all, the incentive effects of patent rights regimes in universities in Sweden and Germany are rather small. Despite two diametrically opposed patent rights regimes – Sweden with researcher-ownership and Germany with universityownership – the results indicate that patenting is rather unaffected by it. Researchers in both countries are similarly patent-active. Thus, the patent rights regime has only limited explanatory power. Other factors seem to have a stronger impact on the incentives to patent. The infrastructure for patenting and commercialisation has an important role. Researchers that received support were

more inclined to get their results patented and the results from the interview study indicate that it is mainly a well-working

infrastructure that increases incentives to patent and not the patent rights regime alone. When it comes to the public infrastructure

for patenting and commercial exploitation, the role of technology transfer offices etc. and the type of support is different in both

countries. Swedish public infrastructure provides primarily support with regard to patenting and financial support aiming at the

establishment and development of spin-offs. German public infrastructure focuses primarily on patenting and licensing. The

patent rights regime has limited power to explain patenting. Structural factors of research organisations and personal characteristics of the researcher are more important. Structural factors such as research orientation (applied vs. basic) can explain patenting behaviour. Researchers that have previous experience with patenting show a greater propensity to patent. The survey results about hindrances to patenting have shown that a lot of researchers did not apply because they lacked knowledge, regarded the patenting process to be too time-consuming or too costly. This illustrates the importance of experience and infrastructure. Since the university wants the researcher to accomplish all three missions (research, teaching and transfer), it has to induce the researchers to do so. Nevertheless, the analysis of the reward system has shown that this is rarely the case. The empirical results in Sweden and Germany show that salary either directly or indirectly is determined by publications and the extent to which researchers acquire external funding. In addition to career concerns and salary, researchers have the possibility to earn a bonus. This bonus is related to the third mission (knowledge transfer) of universities and can take different forms. It can include honoraria for books or lectures, income from consulting assignments, or income from patents. It is therefore important to acknowledge that there is a broad range of means to transfer knowledge and technology. Consulting seems particularly important. The bonus associated with consulting seems to be less risky than the potential bonus of patenting. The maximum bonus with regard to patents is determined by the patent rights regime. In Sweden, the university teachers can receive the entire bonus, whereas this share is limited to 30% in Germany. The chances that a bonus materialises are uncertain. The basic role of technology transfer offices and other actors that support patenting and commercialisation is to reduce the risks associated with patenting. If the risks can be reduced the chances that a bonus will materialise are larger, which increases the incentives of researchers to exert effort with regard to patenting.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med avhandlingen är att analysera inflytandet av patenträttsregleringen i universitet i Sverige och Tyskland. Två empiriska studier har genomförts för att få ett svar på forskningsfrågan Vad är incitamentseffekterna av patenträttsregimer i universiteten?. En kvalitativ studie baserad på intervjuer med representanter för den offentliga infrastrukturen i båda länder analyserade tekniköverföringsaktörernas roll. Processen för patentering och kommersialisering i Sverige och Tyskland har illustrerats i grafiska modeller. En kvantitativ studie baserad på en enkätundersökning av forskare i båda länder har genomförts för att veta mer om de faktorer som påverkar beslutet att söka patent. De kvantitativa resultaten tillsammans med de kvalitativa resultaten från intervjustudien gör det möjligt att dra slutsatser. Först och främst så är incitamentseffekterna av patenträttsregimer i universiteten ganska små. Trots två motsatta patenträttsregimer – i Sverige äger forskaren forskningsresultaten (”Lärarundantaget”) i Tyskland universiteten – visar resultaten att patentering inte berörs av detta. Forskarna i båda länderna är lika patent aktiva. Patenträttsregimer har därför begränsad förklaringskraft. Andra faktorer har starkare påverkan på incitament att söka patent. Infrastrukturen för patentering och kommersialisering spelar en viktig roll. Forskare som fått stöd visade en större sannolikhet att söka patent och resultaten från intervjustudien visar att det är främst en väl fungerande infrastruktur som ökar incitament att söka patent och inte bara patenträttsregimen. Den offentliga infrastrukturen i båda länder har lika roller. Den svenska offentliga infrastrukturen stödjer patentering och nystartandet av företag genom finansiellt stöd. Den tyska offentliga infrastrukturen stödjer framförallt patentering och licensiering. Patenträttsregimer har begränsat förklaringskraft. Strukturella faktorer, såsom forskningsorientering (tillämpad vs. grundforskning) kan delvis förklara patentbenägenheten. Forskare som har erfarenhet av patentsystemet har större patentbenägenhet. Enkätresultaten om hinder att patentera har visat att många forskare avstår att söka patent på grund av begränsad kunskap eller på grund av tidsbrist. Detta illustrerar hur viktig erfarenhet och infrastruktur är. Universitet som vill att forskare ska fullfölja alla tre uppgifter (forskning, undervisning och kunskapsöverföring) borde uppmuntra forskarna att satsa på alla tre uppgifter. Ändå har analysen av belöningssystemen visat att så är sällan fallet. De empiriska resultaten i Sverige och Tyskland visar att lönen är direkt eller indirekt beroende av publikationer och i vilken mån forskarna lyckas att attrahera externa medel. Utöver karriären och lönen har forskarna möjlighet att tjäna en bonus. Bonusen är relaterad till tredje uppgiften (kunskapsöverföring) och kan ta olika former. Det kan inkludera arvode för böcker eller föreläsningar, inkomster från konsultverksamhet eller inkomster från patent. Därför är det viktigt att erkänna att det finns olika kanaler för kunskaps- och tekniköverföring. Konsultverksamhet har visat sig särskild viktigt eftersom bonusen i relation till konsultverksamhet är mindre riskabelt än bonusen relaterad till patent. Maximala bonus i relation till patent påverkas av patenträttsregimen. I Sverige kan forskaren få alla intäkter från ett patent. I Tyskland är andelen begränsat till 30 procent av alla bruttoinkomster från patentet. Chansen att en bonus kommer till stånd är osäkert. Tekniköverföringsorganisationer kan reducera riskerna som är relaterad till patent och kommersiell exploatering. Om riskerna kan reduceras och om chanserna att en bonus erhålls ökar, ökar incitamenten för forskarna att anstränga sig att patentera.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2006. p. 169 + appendices 1-3
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 355
Keywords
Patent Rights, University Patents, Incentives, Sweden, Germany, Hochschullehrerprivileg, Lärarundantaget, Universitet, Forskning, Forskningspolitik, Patenträtt, Sverige, Tyskland, Lärarundantaget
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-6656 (URN)91-85523-75-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-09-26, Elysion, Hus T, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-06-08 Created: 2006-06-08 Last updated: 2014-10-07Bibliographically approved
Sellenthin, M. (2004). Who should own university research?: An exploratory study of the impact of patent rights regimes in Sweden and Germany on the incentives to patent research results. Östersund, Sweden: Institutet för tillväxtpolitiska studier (ITPS)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who should own university research?: An exploratory study of the impact of patent rights regimes in Sweden and Germany on the incentives to patent research results
2004 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of patent regulation in universities in Germany and Sweden on the incentives to patent research results. This paper presents a comparative analysis of patent rights regimes in universities in Germany and Sweden.

Two research questions will be addressed:

  1. What are the incentive effects of patent regimes in the university? In case of Germany this means in particular: Does the abolishment of the university teachers´ privilege decrease or increase incentives to invent and patent? In the case of Sweden this means: Does the university teachers´ privilege give positive or negative incentives to individual researchers to invent and patent?
  2. What is the role of technology transfer offices? Particularly important in Germany is whether the technology transfer offices12 are able to patent and commercialise university research in a successful way as compared to researchers in a patent regime with university teachers´ privilege. In Sweden, the objective is to elaborate on the role of technology transfer offices in a regime with university teachers´ privilege.

In sum, this paper presents a comparative analysis of patent rights regimes in universities in Germany and Sweden. This covers a descriptive qualitative analysis of technology transfer processes, a qualitative analysis of the effects of patent rights regimes in universities on technology transfer, and an identification of factors that are important for technology transfer.13 Furthermore, the analysis leads to policy implications that recommend how to improve the process of technology transfer.

It has to be mentioned that there are a number of different ways to transfer knowledge and results from university research. As Czarnitzki et al. (2000, p. 18) have shown, there are different mechanisms and means for knowledge and technology transfer, such as, publications, collaborative research, educating students, spin-offs. This paper assesses the impact of patent regulation on the incentives to patent research results and, as such, it focuses in particular on patents.14 It focuses thus on a rather small share of university research. Most of the research results can be published in scientific journals but the extent to which research results can be patented varies. Only tangible products can be patented which limits the analysis to university departments in which patenting is an option such as engineering or biotechnology. Furthermore, the patenting procedure is quite time-consuming which decreases the importance of patents in industries with short product life-cycles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund, Sweden: Institutet för tillväxtpolitiska studier (ITPS), 2004. p. 113
Series
Rapport / Institutet för tillväxtpolitiska studier, ISSN 1652-0483 ; A2004:013
Keywords
patents, universities
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24413 (URN)6516 (Local ID)6516 (Archive number)6516 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Sellenthin, M. (2003). The Impact of Patent Rights Regimes on the Commercialisation of Research in Sweden and Germany. In: Wolfram Elsner (Ed.), Neuartige Netzwerke und nachhaltige Entwicklung :: Komplexität und Koordination in Industrie, Stadt und Region (pp. 197-229). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact of Patent Rights Regimes on the Commercialisation of Research in Sweden and Germany
2003 (English)In: Neuartige Netzwerke und nachhaltige Entwicklung :: Komplexität und Koordination in Industrie, Stadt und Region / [ed] Wolfram Elsner, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag , 2003, p. 197-229Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The commercial exploitation of academic knowledge has become increasingly important. New forms for coordinating the knowledge flow from university to industry are being used, such as licensing agreements after patenting of research results or spin-off enterprises whose founders use knowledge developed in the university to start their own businesses. But the efficiency of the different modes of knowledge and technology transfer can differ since norms and institutions influence in many cases the networking capabilities of the agents involved. This chapter analyses the incentive structures in universities that impact on knowledge and technology transfer in Sweden and Germany. In particular, the patent rights regime, defining who has the legal right to exploit the resource -academic knowledge- influences the incentives for networking between different agents involved in the commercialisation of academic research, such as researchers, universities, technology transfer offices, financing organisations, and private industry. The theoretical reasoning concludes that besides the patent rights regime, other major factors influencing commercialisation efforts are the academic reward system, supporting agents, and the funding system. In Sweden where a major share of university research is funded by external sources, the university teachers- privilege can provide incentives towards the commercialisation of academic research. In Germany, where a large share of research is financed by base funding, the patent rights regime seems to be of minor importance for commercialisation. Technology transfer offices are important mediators in both regimes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag, 2003
Series
Institutionelle und Sozial-Ökonomie
Keywords
patents, universities
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24410 (URN)6513 (Local ID)3-631-52218-5 (ISBN)978-3-6315-2218-9 (ISBN)6513 (Archive number)6513 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Sellenthin, M. & Hommen, L. (2002). How innovative is Swedish industry? A factor and cluster analysis of CIS II. International review of applied economics, 16(3), 319-331
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How innovative is Swedish industry? A factor and cluster analysis of CIS II
2002 (English)In: International review of applied economics, ISSN 0269-2171, E-ISSN 1465-3486, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 319-331Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article provides a description and analysis of innovation in Swedish manufacturing, based on data generated by the second Community Innovation Survey (CIS II). Following a brief introduction, CIS II, which is the first CIS survey ever conducted in Sweden, is discussed. The purpose is to indicate the relevance and significance of data from CIS II. Methodology is then addressed and a sectoral analysis of the data from CIS II is presented. The important dimension of the direction of innovative effort in different sectors is addressed by means of a cluster analysis that distinguishes between strategies regarding markets and competitors. A summary and a section on policy implications conclude.

Keywords
innovation, CIS II, firm strategies
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24407 (URN)10.1080/02692170210136145 (DOI)6510 (Local ID)6510 (Archive number)6510 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13
Sellenthin, M. & Skogh, G. (2001). Kan äganderätt rädda utrotningshotade djur? Exemplet den svenska järven. Ekonomisk debatt / utgiven av Nationalekonomiska föreningen, 29(8), 559-564
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kan äganderätt rädda utrotningshotade djur? Exemplet den svenska järven
2001 (English)In: Ekonomisk debatt / utgiven av Nationalekonomiska föreningen, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 559-564Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Vi föreslår införandet av privat äganderätt till den utrotningshotade svenska järven. Förslaget ger de renägande samerna jakträtten. Samtidigt skall svenska staten betala för skydd av de järvar som lever inom respektive samebys område. Uppfödning av ren och skydd av järv blir därmed en kombinerad näring för samerna samtidigt som incitamentet till tjuvjakt försvinner. Dagens system med politiskt bestämd ersättning till Sametinget för rivna renar minskar inte tjuvjakten. Skadestånd till enskilda renägare fungerar inte heller, eftersom rovdjurens skadeverkningar inte kan uppskattas tillräckligt exakt. En anledning till varför vårt förslag är genomförbart är att antalet järvar inom ett område är mätbart till relativt låga kostnader. Systemet kan finansieras via omfördelning av dagens bidrag till samerna.

Keywords
äganderätt, utrotningshotade djur, järv
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24414 (URN)6517 (Local ID)6517 (Archive number)6517 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13
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