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Päivärinne, Sofia
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Päivärinne, S. (2017). Utilisation of Excess Heat Towards a Circular Economy: Implications of interorganisational collaborations and strategic planning. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utilisation of Excess Heat Towards a Circular Economy: Implications of interorganisational collaborations and strategic planning
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to significantly lower the environmental impact from human activities, numerous efforts and approaches related to the transformation of human activities have developed during the last decades. Examples of such efforts are policies and strategies at different levels, some with a top-down approach focusing on extensive institutional changes, and some with a bottom-up approach focusing on industrial actors and industry-led activities.

One essential aspect of these efforts concerns the energy used producing the products and services provided within our society. This includes, for example, improved efficiency of processes in order to minimise the amount of energy used, or optimisation of efficiency by using energy with the lowest possible exergy value. It can also be about re-use of energy, which is the focus of this thesis. Heat, which is the main by-product of all energy systems, can be utilised for heating purposes to lower the primary energy demand for heating. Increased utilisation of excess heat, however, requires collaboration between normally unrelated actors, those with a supply of and those demanding excess heat.

In Sweden, which is a Northern European country with high demand for heat, the tradition of large energy-intensive manufacturing industries generating large amounts of excess heat, in combination with well-established district heating distribution systems, constitute good conditions for excess heat utilisation. Despite the fact that Sweden is among the world leaders in utilising excess heat, there is however, still a large unutilised potential.

From this background, the objective of this thesis is to identify challenges behind excess heat utilisation for heating purposes, and to propose practical suggestions to facilitate expanded excess heat utilisation. The overall objective is analysed with a focus on drivers and barriers behind interorganisational collaborations on excess heat utilisation, important components of interorganisational business models and how the technical conditions regarding supply and demand could be facilitated by strategic municipal spatial planning processes. The research is largely based on interviews conducted with societal actors with different perspectives on excess heat utilisation; energy companies, industries generating high-grade excess heat, facilities generating low-grade excess heat, facilities demanding low-grade excess heat, experts of utilisation of low-grade excess heat, branch organisations, municipal spatial planners, energy- and climate advisors, and developers. Document studies have been conducted in order to collect case specific knowledge. The research questions are explored based on literature studies on the principles of industrial symbiosis, business model perspective and strategic planning. Further, they are examined in a Swedish context.

It is concluded that the three perspectives complement each other by providing a system perspective on increased utilisation of excess heat as they seek to contribute both environmental and financial benefits at both a company and societal level. In order to facilitate further utilisation of excess heat it is important to focus on the organisational factors of humility, honesty, transparency, trust, fine-grained information transfer, joint problem solving, and shared visions of common goals, which are important conditions behind development of functional and long-term durable collaborations. Business models for collaboration could contribute to the creation of these organisationally important conditions. Such business models could also provide knowledge on how to create and capture joint values. For some collaborations involving actors lacking the technical knowledge related to the capturing and distribution of excess heat, a third-party providing services related to the technical knowledge required could be beneficial. Collaborations in which one of the actors consists of an energy company often entail the technical knowledge required. This implies that different collaborations involving different types of actors and under different prevailing financial, technical and organisational conditions require customised and flexible business solutions. Local authorities could, through their overall function, initiate interorganisational collaborations on excess heat within the framework of municipal spatial planning. The results do however show that the investigated planning processes could develop more extensive stakeholder participation to include further societal actors related to excess heat. More extensive stakeholder participation, have the potential to initiate new development of collaborations on excess heat between normally unrelated actors, both with and without involvements of third-party knowledge brokers. A broader participation is also expected to result in increased knowledge on how to plan to further facilitate the condition of excess heat utilisation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. p. 90
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1876
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143193 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-143193 (DOI)9789176854594 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-15, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Päivärinne, S. & Lindahl, M. (2016). Combining Integrated Product and Service Offerings with Industrial Symbiosis - a study of opportunities and challenges. Journal of Cleaner Production, 127, 240-248
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Integrated Product and Service Offerings with Industrial Symbiosis - a study of opportunities and challenges
2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 127, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article examines opportunities and challenges of combining Integrated Product and Service Offerings (IPSOs) (also known as PSS) with Industrial Symbiosis (IS) in order to facilitate an increased utilization of Excess Heat (EH). This is done by an investigation of ten different EH examples. The results indicate that the main opportunities are associated with how the IPSO and IS perspectives complement each other, and how this combination increases the understanding of both the practical and organizational factors related to EH supply collaborations. Since all EH supply collaborations are unique, they require customized solutions and thereby flexible IPSO providers. The results show that the need for an IPSO provider with knowledge of heat distribution is highest in examples where the district heating sector does not constitute one of the two original actors. Still, the benefits of a neutral third party have also proved to be desirable in examples where the district heating sector is involved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Business agreements, District heating, Industrial ecology (IE), Inter-organizational collaborations, Product Service Systems (PSS)
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143194 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.04.026 (DOI)000377311200021 ()
Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2017-11-22Bibliographically approved
Feiz, R., Fenton, P., Frändegård, P., Johansson, N., Kanda, W., Matschewsky, J., . . . Wallsten, B. (2015). A corridor striving for sustainability - Reflecting upon PhD education at a Swedish University. In: : . Paper presented at Global Cleaner Production & Sustainable Consumption Conference, Accelerating the Transition to Equitable Post Fossil-Carbon Societies, 1 - 4 November 2015, Sitges, Barcelona, Spain.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A corridor striving for sustainability - Reflecting upon PhD education at a Swedish University
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present an overview of interdisciplinary research from Ph.D. students working at the Division of Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping University, Sweden. Each of the Ph.D. students addresses the overall challenge of sustainability transitions in their research, although the themes and content of research varies considerably between individuals, encompassing research on actors, networks, products, materials, services and systems from the public and private sector, operating locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. The scientific literature and methods used to frame and conduct studies varies considerably within the group, as does the individual focus on immediate issues of sustainability.

Keywords
Sustainability Transition; Interdisciplinary Research; Academic Collaboration; Reflexive Research
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122812 (URN)
Conference
Global Cleaner Production & Sustainable Consumption Conference, Accelerating the Transition to Equitable Post Fossil-Carbon Societies, 1 - 4 November 2015, Sitges, Barcelona, Spain
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2016-08-24
Päivärinne, S., Hjelm, O. & Gustafsson, S. (2015). Excess heat supply collaborations within the district heating sector: Drivers and barriers. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 7(3), 033117
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Excess heat supply collaborations within the district heating sector: Drivers and barriers
2015 (English)In: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1941-7012, E-ISSN 1941-7012, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 033117-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article combines the theoretical field of Industrial Symbiosis (IS) with a business model perspective to increase the knowledge about drivers and barriers behind the emergence of excess heat supply collaborations between district heating companies and industrial firms. The increased knowledge is gained by identifying and examining drivers and barriers associated with collaborative efforts to funnel excess heat produced by industrial firms into district heating grids in Sweden. An increased recovery of excess heat has the potential to reduce the primary energy demands of district heating systems. This study examines both existing and potential developments of industrial collaborations of excess heat-based district heating systems. The focus of the study consists of two Swedish cases of existing collaboration between district heating companies and pulp and paper industries as well as 16 industrial firms that all produce unused excess heat as a by-product. Confirming earlier research results, this study shows that financial issues are both the main drivers and the main barriers behind the emergence and development of inter-organisational collaborations. In addition, this study confirms earlier research that found the trust, joint problem solving, and fine-grained information transfer are important elements of successful collaboration. This study complements and clarifies these three features by including honesty and shared visions on common goals as important qualities needed for well-functioning collaborations. Combining the IS and the business model perspective has made it possible to examine more factors related to collaboration. The business model perspective has contributed with knowledge about central components of the business agreement between the collaborating parties, and the IS-perspective has contributed knowledge of the important organisational factors behind the emergence and development of long-term sustainable business agreements between firms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2015
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120359 (URN)10.1063/1.4921759 (DOI)000357684800018 ()
Available from: 2015-07-31 Created: 2015-07-31 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Päivärinne, S. & Lindahl, M. (2015). Exploratory Study of Combining Integrated Product and Services Offerings with Industrial Symbiosis in Order to Improve Excess Heat Utilization. Procedia CIRP, 30, 167-172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploratory Study of Combining Integrated Product and Services Offerings with Industrial Symbiosis in Order to Improve Excess Heat Utilization
2015 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 30, p. 167-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the implications of combining an Integrated Product and Services Offering (IPSO) (also known as PSS) with Industrial Symbiosis (IS) in order to facilitate the increased utilization of Excess Heat (EH). To do so, five different EH cases originating from an IS perspective have been investigated. Based on an IPSO-focused literature review, those five EH cases are analyzed to identify potential pros and cons, if an IPSO perspective is applied, in order to further improve EH utilization. The results indicate that applying the IPSO concept, in combination with IS, has the potential to facilitate and improve EH utilization. However, also of importance is having a clear and well-formulated business agreement, as well as mutual trust and a well-functioning dialogue between the parties involved in the EH supply collaboration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Industrial ecology (IE) Inter-Organizational Collaborations Product Service Systems (PSS) Third Party Access (TPA).
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121587 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2015.02.101 (DOI)000361471300029 ()
Available from: 2015-09-26 Created: 2015-09-26 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Persson, S. (2013). Collaborative development of resource efficient district heating in Sweden. (Licentiate dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collaborative development of resource efficient district heating in Sweden
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An increased recovery of excess heat from industrial processes and thermal power generation could significantly reduce energy demands. Industrial excess heat-based district heating systems are generally considered resource efficient because they reduce the use of fossil fuels and the emissions of greenhouse gases. In addition, collaborating actors can gain financial benefits.

In Sweden, although collaboration around heat supply has increased recently, the amount of excess heat that is utilized is low compared to the amount created by industrial processes. Using excess-heat recovery in district heating grids is currently one of the most cost-effective ways of providing additional heat to district heating systems.

Expansion and new construction of district heating systems in new residential areas can be seen as an opportunity to further use industrial excess heat. Sweden’s local authorities can influence the development of energy systems used for new residential developments. Increased knowledge about how collaborations evolve could be used to develop strategies that could encourage the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating.

This licentiate thesis examines the role of organisational collaboration when it comes to the emergence of resource efficient district heating. The thesis summarises results from three articles and investigates the preconditions for, drivers behind, and barriers to the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating in Sweden. These investigations focus on both the district heating companies’ and industries’ points of view. The thesis also discusses how Swedish spatial planning practice could improve the conditions for resource efficient district heating.

Important preconditions for excess-heat collaborations to develop, from the actors’ points of view, are mainly financial. However, relationships based on trust, honesty, shared goals, information transfer, and joint problem solving are also necessary for such collaborations to evolve and develop into long-term successful excess-heat collaborations. These features are also important when it comes to the decision-making process, because knowledge gained through the participation of stakeholders is required to understand common goals and objectives and to put these into practice.

As for the development of new excess heat-based district heating systems, results show that the district heating companies generally participate late in the spatial planning process. An earlier dialogue between local authority planners and district heating companies could facilitate the emergence and development of new excess heat-based district heating systems. Furthermore, to facilitate the use of excess heat-based systems, planning should also take into account any nearby industry that produces excess heat. In addition, investment subsidies could encourage the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating and provide long-term environmental benefits for collaborating actors as well as for society at large.

Abstract [sv]

En ökad återvinning av restvärme från industriprocesser är önskvärt då det har potential att avsevärt minska behovet av primär energi. Fjärrvärmesystem baserade på industriell restvärme kan i allmänhet anses som resurseffektiva då de bidrar till en minskad användning av fossila bränslen och utsläpp av växthusgaser. Dessutom finns det ekonomiska fördelar att vinna för de aktörer som ingår restvärmesamarbete.

Sverige har restvärmesamarbeten mellan fjärrvärmeföretag och industrin ökat det senaste decenniet. Trots detta är dock den outnyttjade potentialen stor i relation till de befintliga mängder restvärme de industriella processerna i landet ger upphov till. Tillvaratagande av industriell restvärme i fjärrvärmenät är i dagsläget ett av de mest kostnadseffektiva sätten att tillhandahålla värmeenergin.

Expansion och nybyggnation av fjärrvärme i nya områden öppnar upp för möjligheten att ytterligare utnyttja industriell restvärme. En viktig aktör för att möjliggöra detta är Sveriges kommuner som har befogenhet att påverka den framtida utvecklingen av energisystemen genom planeringen av nya områden. Även ökad kunskap om hur samarbeten över organisationsgränser utvecklas är önskvärd för att ytterligare öka förutsättningarna för utvecklingen av restvärmebaserade fjärrvärmesystem.

Denna licentiatavhandling undersöker vikten av organisatorisk samverkan rörande uppkomsten av resurseffektiv fjärrvärme. Avhandlingen sammanfattar resultaten från tre artiklar och undersöker, mer specifikt; förutsättningarna, drivkrafterna och hindren bakom uppkomsten och utvecklingen av restvärmebaserade fjärrvärmesystem i Sverige, både utifrån fjärrvärmeföretagens och industrins perspektiv. Avhandlingen diskuterar även hur den svenska kommunala planeringspraktiken kan tillämpas för att förbättra förutsättningarna utvecklingen av resurseffektiv fjärrvärme.

Från de inblandade aktörernas synvinkel är det främst ekonomiska aspekter som lyfts fram som viktiga bakom utvecklingen av restvärmesamarbeten. Andra aspekter av organisatorisk karaktär som visat sig vara viktiga för utvecklingen är relationer baserade på förtroende, ärlighet, gemensamma mål, informationsutbyten och gemensam problemlösning. Dessa aspekter har visat sig vara nödvändiga för utvecklingen av långsiktigt hållbara och framgångsrika restvärmesamarbeten. Organisatoriska aspekter är också viktiga vad gäller beslutsprocessen eftersom kunskap genom deltagande av samtliga aktörer krävs för förståelse av de gemensamma målen, vilket i sin tur är en förutsättning för att kunna omsätta målen i praktiken.

Rörande utveckling av nya restvärmebaserade fjärrvärmesystem visar studierna, inom ramarna för denna avhandling, att fjärrvärmeföretagen generellt bjuds in att delta sent i den fysiska planeringsprocessen. En tidigare dialog mellan de kommunala fysiska planerarna och fjärrvärmeföretagen skulle kunna underlätta utvecklingen av nya restvärmebaserade fjärrvärmesystem. Vidare, för att öka förutsättningarna för  restvärmebaserade fjärrvärmesystem bör man inom ramar na för den fysiska planeringen även ta närliggande befintlig industri med överskottsvärme som en biprodukt av sin produktion i beaktning.

Införande av investeringsstöd skulle förmodligen främja utvecklingen av restvärmebaserade fjärrvärmesystem ytterligare, vilket också potentiellt skulle innebära långsiktiga miljövinster för de aktörer som deltar i samarbete, liksom för samhället i stort.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. p. 43
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1621
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96885 (URN)LiU-TEK- LiC 2013:55 (Local ID)978-91-7519-546-9 (ISBN)LiU-TEK- LiC 2013:55 (Archive number)LiU-TEK- LiC 2013:55 (OAI)
Presentation
2013-09-20, Sal A30, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

The series number (111) on the cover and title pages is incorrect. The correct number is 1621. The ISSN is incorrect. The correct ISSN in the title page is 0280-7971.

Available from: 2013-09-11 Created: 2013-08-28 Last updated: 2013-09-12Bibliographically approved
Persson, S., Hjelm, O. & Gustafsson (Emilsson), S. (2012). Development of excess heat-based district heating: A case study of the development of excess heat-based district heating in two Swedish communities. Paper presented at GIN2012, 22-24 October 2012, Linköping, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of excess heat-based district heating: A case study of the development of excess heat-based district heating in two Swedish communities
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This article identifies and elaborates on preconditions, drivers and barriers behind the development of excess heat based systems of district heating in Sweden. Industrial excess heat based district heating systems are considered generally resource-efficient since it could reduce the use of fossil fuels and emissions of greenhouse gases by saving primary energy for district heating companies supplying heat to their heating customers. An increased recovery of excess heat from industrial processes and thermal power generation has great potential to reduce primary energy demands.

Collaboration around heat supply is relatively rare. There is an increase but still, the increase is low compared to the supply of excess heat from the industrial processes within the country. Increased knowledge of the important aspects necessary for the collaborations to evolve could mean greater opportunities to facilitate the development of excess heat based systems of district heating.

The aim of the study is to investigate important preconditions behind the development of excess heat based systems of district heating. It includes two existing cases of excess heat-based district heating systems in two different Swedish communities. The results are analyzed based on previous findings of the emergence and development of industrial collaborations within the research field of Industrial Symbiosis (IS).

The results from the study show that relations based on; trust, honesty, shared visions on common goals, information transfer and joint problem solving are necessary for these collaborations to develop.

These features are also important when it comes to the decision making process. This since knowledge through participation from relevant stakeholders within the collaboration is required to understand and translate the common goals and objectives into practice.

In addition, we argue that investment subsidies are important for the future development of excess heat based systems of district heating, as a way to facilitate and encourage the long-time environmental benefits for the parties involved as well as the society at large.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86283 (URN)
Conference
GIN2012, 22-24 October 2012, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2012-12-18 Created: 2012-12-12 Last updated: 2013-01-10Bibliographically approved
Persson, S., Hjelm, O. & Gustafsson (Emilsson), S. (2012). Industry's Perspective on Preconditions, Drivers and Barriers behind Excess Het Supply Collaborations with the District heating sector.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industry's Perspective on Preconditions, Drivers and Barriers behind Excess Het Supply Collaborations with the District heating sector
2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This article identifies and examines the preconditions, drivers, and barriers associated with collaborative efforts to funnel excess heat produced by industry into district heating grids in Sweden. Large energy-intensive manufacturing industries generating large amounts of excess heat could use this otherwise-wasted industrial excess heat in systems of district heating. Using excess heat recovery in district heating grids is currently one of the most cost effective ways of providing additional heat to district heating systems. This study examines what is required for industries with excess heat production to collaborate with the district heating sector. Specifically, we analyse the preconditions behind the development of successful heat supply collaborations from an Industrial Symbiosis (IS) perspective by examine 16 industries that all produce excess heat as a by-product that is not externally used. For the industries to be willing to  enter excess heat collaboration with the district heating sector, we found that the important preconditions are mainly financial. However, we also found that there are certain organizational issues, such as relationships based on trust and personal ties that play an important role in the development of long-term successful excess heat collaborations between companies or other organizations and the district heating sector.

Keywords
District heating, Industrial excess heat, Inter-organizational collaboration, Organizational preconditions
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97393 (URN)
Available from: 2013-09-11 Created: 2013-09-11 Last updated: 2013-09-11Bibliographically approved
Persson, S., Hjelm, O. & Gustafsson (Emilsson), S. (2012). Preconditions, Drivers and Barriers behind the Development of Excess Heat-Based Systems for District heating. In: : . Paper presented at The 18th Greening of Industry Network Conference, 21-24 October, 2012, Linköping, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preconditions, Drivers and Barriers behind the Development of Excess Heat-Based Systems for District heating
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This article identifies and elaborates on the preconditions, drivers, and barriers behind the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating in Sweden. Industrial excess heat-based district heating systems are generally considered resource-efficient because they reduce the use of fossil fuels and the emissions of greenhouse gases. An increased recovery of excess heat from industrial processes and thermal power generation could significantly reduce primary energy demands.

Although collaboration around heat supply in Sweden has increased, the utilization is low compared to the supply of excess heat produced as the result of industrial processes. Increased knowledge about how collaborations evolve could mean greater opportunities for the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating.

The study includes two Swedish cases of excess heat-based district heating systems. Using approaches developed within Industrial Symbiosis (IS), we analyse how industrial collaborations with respect to excess heat-based systems emerge and develop. For these collaborations to develop, relationships based on trust, honesty, shared goals, information transfer, and joint problem solving were necessary. These features are also important when it comes to the decision making process because knowledge gained through the participation of stakeholders is required to understand common goals and objectives and to translate them into practice. The organisational features are also important in order to overcome financial and technical barriers to such collaboration.

In addition, we argue that investment subsidies can encourage the development of excess heat-based systems for district heating and can provide long-term environmental benefits for industry as well as for society at large.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97392 (URN)
Conference
The 18th Greening of Industry Network Conference, 21-24 October, 2012, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2013-09-11 Created: 2013-09-11 Last updated: 2013-09-11Bibliographically approved
Persson, S., Hjelm, O., Gustafsson (Emilsson), S. & Ivner, J. (2012). Spatial planning as a tool to facilitate district heating expansion.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial planning as a tool to facilitate district heating expansion
2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper examines the importance of strategic spatial planning associated with the existence and development of district heating. Within the planning of new residential developments in Sweden, local authorities have the authority to influence the future development of the energy systems. The aim of this study is two-fold: to examine whether and how district heating issues are addressed in municipal spatial planning of new residential areas and to discuss how Swedish planning legislation can improve the conditions for resource efficient district heating. The study includes an investigation of the planning process in six Swedish municipalities. The results show that the district heating companies generally participate late in the planning process. This delay means that important information often fails to be exchanged between the local authorities and the district heating companies, a lack of communication that undermines a widened systemic approach and long-term planning which are important preconditions for effective decision-making.

Keywords
Collaboration, Communication, District heating, Municipal spatial planning, Sustainable energy systems
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97394 (URN)
Available from: 2013-09-11 Created: 2013-09-11 Last updated: 2013-09-11Bibliographically approved
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