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Rogström, L., Johansson, M. P., Pilemalm, R., Ghafoor, N., Johnson, L. J., Schell, N. & Odén, M. (2019). Decomposition routes and strain evolution in arc deposited TiZrAlN coatings. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 779, 261-269
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decomposition routes and strain evolution in arc deposited TiZrAlN coatings
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 779, p. 261-269Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Phase, microstructure, and strain evolution during annealing of arc deposited TiZrAlN coatings are studied using in situ x-ray scattering and ex situ transmission electron microscopy. We find that the decomposition route changes from nucleation and growth of wurtzite AlN to spinodal decomposition when the Zr-content is decreased and the Al-content increases. Decomposition of Ti0.31Zr0.24Al0.45N results in homogeneously distributed wurtzite AlN grains in a cubic, dislocation-dense matrix of TiZrN consisting of domains of different chemical composition. The combination of high dislocation density, variation of chemical composition within the cubic grains, and evenly distributed wurtzite AlN grains results in high compressive strains, -1.1%, which are retained after 3 h at 1100 degrees C. In coatings with higher Zr-content, the strains relax during annealing above 900 degrees C due to grain growth and defect annihilation. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2019
Keywords
Ti-Zr-Al-N; Hard coatings; Thermal stability; Strain evolution
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154526 (URN)10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.11.039 (DOI)000457154700032 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|VINNOVA (Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems) [2016-05156]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area (SFO Mat LiU) [2009 00971]; Swedish Research Council [2017-03813]; Rontgen-Angstrom Cluster frame grants [VR 2011-6505, VR 2017-06701]

Available from: 2019-02-20 Created: 2019-02-20 Last updated: 2019-05-07
Syed, B., Jöessar, M. J., Polcik, P., Kolozsvari, S., Håkansson, G., Johnson, L., . . . Odén, M. (2019). Effect of work function and cohesive energy of the constituent phases of Ti-50 at.% Al cathode during arc deposition of Ti-Al-N coatings. Surface & Coatings Technology, 357, 393-401
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of work function and cohesive energy of the constituent phases of Ti-50 at.% Al cathode during arc deposition of Ti-Al-N coatings
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2019 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 357, p. 393-401Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The differences in work function (W.F.) and cohesive energy (C.E.) of the phases constituting the cathode, plays an important role in the formation of the converted layer at its near-surface region during cathodic arc deposition. As a consequence, this also affects the deposition conditions for the coatings. In this study, we explore the effect of W.F. and C.E. of the constituent phases during arc evaporation by utilizing two kinds of customized Ti-50 at.% Al cathodes with different phase compositions. Our results show that during reactive arc evaporation the disparity in W.F. and C.E. among the constituent phases of Ti-50 at.% Al cathodes leads to preferential erosion of the phases with lower W.F. and C.E. The aforementioned preferential erosion begets higher surface roughness on the Ti-50 at.% Al cathode with a wider range of W.F. and C.E. disparity. It is also observed that the thermal conductivity of the Ti-50 at.% Al cathode plays a dominant role in the deposition rate of Ti-Al-N coating. This article also presents how the surface geometry of the cathode in the presence of arc guiding magnetic field significantly influences the microstructure of the deposited coatings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Cathodic arc, TiAlN, Work function, Reactive hot isostatic pressing, Coatings
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152247 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.10.027 (DOI)000455691100060 ()2-s2.0-85054904870 (Scopus ID)
Projects
FunMat-II
Funder
VINNOVA, 2016-05156
Note

Funding agencies: VINN Excelence Excellence Center in Research and Innovation on Functional Nanoscale Materials (FunMat-II) by the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems [2016-05156]

Available from: 2018-10-23 Created: 2018-10-23 Last updated: 2019-11-21Bibliographically approved
Broering Chaar, A. B., Syed, M. B., Hsu, T.-W., Johansson-Jöesaar, M., Andersson, J. M., Henrion, G., . . . Odén, M. (2019). The Effect of Cathodic Arc Guiding Magnetic Field on the Growth of (Ti0.36Al0.64)N Coatings. Coatings, 9(10), Article ID 660.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Cathodic Arc Guiding Magnetic Field on the Growth of (Ti0.36Al0.64)N Coatings
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2019 (English)In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 660Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We use a modified cathodic arc deposition technique, including an electromagnetic coil that introduces a magnetic field in the vicinity of the source, to study its influence on the growth of (Ti0.36Al0.64)N coatings. By increasing the strength of the magnetic field produced by the coil, the cathode arc spots are steered toward the edge of the cathode, and the electrons are guided to an annular anode surrounding the cathode. As a result, the plasma density between the cathode and substrate decreased, which was observed as a lateral spread of the plasma plume, and a reduction of the deposition rate. Optical emission spectroscopy shows reduced intensities of all recorded plasma species when the magnetic field is increased due to a lower number of collisions resulting in excitation. We note a charge-to-mass ratio decrease of 12% when the magnetic field is increased, which is likely caused by a reduced degree of gas phase ionization, mainly through a decrease in N2 ionization. (Ti0.36Al0.64)N coatings grown at different plasma densities show considerable variations in grain size and phase composition. Two growth modes were identified, resulting in coatings with (i) a fine-grained glassy cubic and wurtzite phase mixture when deposited with a weak magnetic field, and (ii) a coarse-grained columnar cubic phase with a strong magnetic field. The latter conditions result in lower energy flux to the coating’s growth front, which suppresses surface diffusion and favors the formation of c-(Ti,Al)N solid solutions over phase segregated c-TiN and w-AlN.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
physical vapor deposition, magnetic field, optical emission spectroscopy, coatings, grain size
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162141 (URN)10.3390/coatings9100660 (DOI)000498263900068 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council [621-2012-4401]; Swedish government strategic research area grant AFM-SFO MatLiU [2009-00971]; VINNOVA FunMat-IIVinnova [2016-05156]

Available from: 2019-11-20 Created: 2019-11-20 Last updated: 2019-12-09
Chen, Y.-H., Roa, J. J., Chen, Y.-H., Johansson-Jõesaar, M. P., Andersson, J. M., Anglada, M. J., . . . Rogström, L. (2018). Enhanced thermal stability and fracture toughness of TiAlN coatings by Cr, Nb and V-alloying. Surface & Coatings Technology, 342, 85-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced thermal stability and fracture toughness of TiAlN coatings by Cr, Nb and V-alloying
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2018 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 342, p. 85-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of metal alloying on mechanical properties including hardness and fracture toughness were investigated in three alloys, Ti 0.33Al0.50(Me) 0.17N (Me = Cr, Nb and V), and compared to Ti0.50Al0.50N, in the as-deposited state and after annealing. All studied alloys display similar as-deposited hardness while the hardness evolution during annealing is found to be connected to phase transformations, related to the alloy’s thermal stability. The most pronounced hardening was observed in Ti0.50Al0.50N, while all the coatings with additional metal elements sustain their hardness better and they are harder than Ti0.50Al0.50N after annealing at 1100 °C. Fracture toughness properties were extracted from scratch tests. In all tested conditions, as-deposited and annealed at 900 and 1100 °C, Ti0.33Al0.50Nb0.17N show the least surface and sub-surface damage when scratched despite the differences in decomposition behavior and h-AlN formation. Theoretically estimated ductility of phases existing in the coatings correlates well with their crack resistance. In summary, Ti0.33Al0.50Nb0.17N is the toughest alloy in both as-deposited and post-annealed states.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Thermal stability, Quaternary transition metal nitrides, Scratch test, Fracture toughness, Arc evaporation
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147842 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.02.059 (DOI)000440120700010 ()2-s2.0-85042726396 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-15 Created: 2018-05-15 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
Schramm, I. C., Pauly, C., Johansson Jõesaar, M. P., Slawik, S., Suarez, S., Mücklich, F. & Odén, M. (2017). Effects of nitrogen vacancies on phase stability and mechanical properties of arc deposited (Ti0.52Al0.48)Ny (y<1) coatings. Surface & Coatings Technology, 330(Supplement C), 77-86
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of nitrogen vacancies on phase stability and mechanical properties of arc deposited (Ti0.52Al0.48)Ny (y<1) coatings
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2017 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 330, no Supplement C, p. 77-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nitrogen sub-stoichiometric (Ti0.52Al0.48)Ny (0.92 ≥ y  ≥ 0.46) coatings were grown in a mixed Ar/N2 atmosphere by cathodic arc deposition on cemented carbide (WC/Co-based) substrates. The coatings present a columnar structure with decreasing column widths from 250 to 60nm, due to a corresponding reduced N content, accompanied by changes in preferred orientation from 200 to 111 to 220. Among these, coatings prepared with 0.92≥y≥0.75 exhibit spinodal decomposition and consequently age hardening at elevated temperatures. A reduced N content upshifts the hardness maximum by >300 °C. For these samples, the high temperature treatment resulted in interdiffusion of substrate elements, Co and C, mainly along column boundaries. Nevertheless, no detrimental effect in the hardness could be correlated. Conversely, a low N content sample (y=0.46) presents significant lattice diffusion of substrate elements Co, C, W, and Ta in the coating. In this case, the substrate elements are present throughout the coating, forming additional phases such as c-Ti(C,N), c-Co(Al,Ti,W), and c-(Ti,W,Ta)(C,N), with an observed increased hardness from 16 to 25GPa. We suggest that the substitution of nitrogen by carbon and the solution of W and Ta in c-TiN are responsible for the observed hardening. Our investigation shows the potential of sub-stoichiometric (Ti1-xAlx)Ny coatings for high temperature applications such as cutting tools and puts forth corresponding criteria for N content selection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
TiAlN, Thin films, Nitrogen vacancies, Spinodal decomposition, Age hardening
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142115 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2017.09.043 (DOI)000414819700010 ()2-s2.0-85030314026 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: European Unions Erasmus Mundus doctoral program DocMASE; Swedish Research Council [621-2012-4401]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area grant AFM - SFO MatLiU [2009-00971]; VINNOVA (M - Era.net project MC2 grant) [2013-02355]; DFG [INST 256/298-1 FU

Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2018-01-03Bibliographically approved
Yang, J., Roa, J. J., Schwind, M., Odén, M., Johansson-Jõesaar, M. P., Esteve, J. & Llanes, L. (2016). Thermally induced surface integrity changes of ground WC-Co hardmetals. In: 3RD CIRP CONFERENCE ON SURFACE INTEGRITY: . Paper presented at 3rd CIRP Conference on Surface Integrity, JUN 08-10, 2016, Charlotte, NC (pp. 91-94). Elsevier, 45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermally induced surface integrity changes of ground WC-Co hardmetals
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2016 (English)In: 3RD CIRP CONFERENCE ON SURFACE INTEGRITY, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 45, p. 91-94Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Ground hardmetals are exposed to high temperatures during both processing (e.g. coating deposition) and use (e.g. as a cutting tool). However, studies on thermally induced changes of surface integrity are limited. Here we address this by means of FIB/FESEM and EBSD investigation, with special focus on the binder phase characterization. Our findings indicate that thermal treatment causes two main surface modifications. First, an unexpected microporosity appears in the binder within the subsurface layer when ground surfaces are heated. Second, the metallic phase underneath the ground surface experiences metallurgical changes, in terms of grain and crystallographic phase structures. The mechanisms responsible for these modifications of the binder are discussed in terms of grinding-induced and thermally-reversed phase transformation as well as recrystallization phenomena. We also note that no additional heat treatment related changes such as microcracking and carbide fragmentation in the subsurface layer, are discerned. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Series
Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271
Keywords
Grinding; Thermal effect; Surface integrity; Cemented Carbides
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144007 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.02.092 (DOI)000417326500023 ()2-s2.0-84978715614 (Scopus ID)
Conference
3rd CIRP Conference on Surface Integrity, JUN 08-10, 2016, Charlotte, NC
Note

Funding Agencies|Spanish MINECO [MAT 2012-34602]; EUs Erasmus Mundus joint European Doctoral Programme DocMASE

Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-01-16Bibliographically approved
Yang, J., Garcia Marro, F., Trifonov, T., Odén, M., Johansson-Jöesaar, M. P. & Llanes, L. (2015). Contact damage resistance of TiN-coated hardmetals: Beneficial effects associated with substrate grinding. Surface & Coatings Technology, 275, 133-141
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contact damage resistance of TiN-coated hardmetals: Beneficial effects associated with substrate grinding
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2015 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 275, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Contact loading is a common service condition for coated hardmetal tools and components. Substrate grinding represents a key step within the manufacturing chain of these coated systems. Within this context, the influence of surface integrity changes caused by abrasive grinding of the hardmetal substrate, prior to coating, is evaluated with respect to contact damage resistance. Three different substrate surface finish conditions are studied: ground (G), mirror-like polished (P) and ground plus heat-treated (GTT). Tests are conducted by means of spherical indentation under increasing monotonic load and the contact damage resistance is assessed. Substrate grinding enhances resistance against both crack nucleation at the coating surface and subsequent propagation into the hardmetal substrate. Hence, crack emergence and damage evolution is effectively delayed for the coated G condition, as compared to the reference P one. The observed system response is discussed on the basis of the beneficial effects associated with compressive residual stresses remnant at the subsurface level after grinding, ion-etching and coating. The influence of the stress state is further corroborated by the lower contact damage resistance exhibited by the coated GTT specimens. Finally, differences observed on the interaction between indentation-induced damage and failure mode under flexural testing points in the direction that substrate grinding also enhances damage tolerance of the coated system when exposed to contact loads.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Substrate grinding; Contact damage resistance; Coated hardmetal; Surface integrity
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120327 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.05.028 (DOI)000357753900020 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Spanish MINECO [2012-34602]; Erasmus Mundus joint European Doctoral Programme DocMASE

Available from: 2015-07-31 Created: 2015-07-31 Last updated: 2018-01-03
Zhu, J., Syed, M. B., Polcik, P., Håkansson, G., Johansson Jöesaar, M. P., Ahlgren, M. & Odén, M. (2014). Effects of cathode grain size and substrate fixturing on the microstructure evolution of arc evaporated Cr-cathodes and Cr-N coating synthesis. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 32(2), 021515
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of cathode grain size and substrate fixturing on the microstructure evolution of arc evaporated Cr-cathodes and Cr-N coating synthesis
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 021515-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of the cathode grain size and the substrate fixturing on the microstructure evolution of the Cr cathodes and the resulting Cr-N coating synthesis is studied. Hot isostatic pressed Cr cathodes with three different grain sizes were arc evaporated in a nitrogen atmosphere and Cr-N coatings were deposited on cemented carbide substrate at 2 and 4 Pa nitrogen pressure, respectively. The Cr cathodes before and after arc discharging are composed of polycrystalline α-Cr regardless of the grain size. A converted layer forms on the Cr cathode surface and its microstructure differs with the cathode grain size. A stationary substrate fixturing results in ditches covering the cathode surface while a single rotating fixturing does not. The increased grain size of the virgin Cr cathodes enhances the quantities of the ditches. The possible causes are addressed. At 2 Pa nitrogen pressure, the Cr-N coatings deposited with the single rotating fixturing comprise only cubic CrN phase while the ones deposited with the stationary fixturing contain a mixture of hexagonal Cr2N and cubic CrN phases. By the increasing grain size of the Cr cathode, the droplet density of the Cr-N coatings increase somewhat while the hardness decreases for the Cr-N coatings deposited with stationary fixturing at 2 Pa nitrogen pressure.

Keywords
Cathodic arc deposition, cathode surface evolution, substrate fixturing, wormlike ditches, grain size
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96789 (URN)10.1116/1.4865923 (DOI)000335964200056 ()
Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2019-11-21Bibliographically approved
Lind, H., Pilemalm, R., Rogström, L., Tasnadi, F., Ghafoor, N., Forsén, R., . . . Abrikosov, I. (2014). High temperature phase decomposition in TixZryAlzN. AIP Advances, 4(12), 127147-1-127147-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High temperature phase decomposition in TixZryAlzN
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2014 (English)In: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 4, no 12, p. 127147-1-127147-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Through a combination of theoretical and experimental observations we study the high temperature decomposition behavior of c-(TixZryAlzN) alloys. We show that for most concentrations the high formation energy of (ZrAl)N causes a strong tendency for spinodal decomposition between ZrN and AlN while other decompositions tendencies are suppressed. In addition we observe that entropic  effects due to configurational disorder favor a formation of a stable Zr-rich (TiZr)N phase with increasing temperature. Our calculations also predict that at high temperatures a Zr rich (TiZrAl)N disordered phase should become more resistant against the spinodal decomposition despite its high and positive formation energy due to the specific topology of the free energy surface at the relevant concentrations. Our experimental observations confirm this prediction by showing strong tendency towards decomposition in a Zr-poor sample while a Zr-rich alloy shows a greatly reduced decomposition rate, which is mostly attributable to binodal decomposition processes. This result highlights the importance of considering the second derivative of the free energy, in addition to its absolute value in predicting decomposition trends of thermodynamically unstable alloys.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2014
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110682 (URN)10.1063/1.4905138 (DOI)000347170100078 ()
Note

On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-09-18 Created: 2014-09-18 Last updated: 2019-05-07Bibliographically approved
Norrby, N., Johansson Jöesaar, M. P. & Odén, M. (2014). Improved metal cutting performance with biasmodulated textured Ti0.50Al0.50N multilayers. Surface & Coatings Technology, 257, 102-107
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved metal cutting performance with biasmodulated textured Ti0.50Al0.50N multilayers
2014 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 257, p. 102-107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work we present the cutting performance of Ti0.50Al0.50N coatings which have been deposited with both a fixed and an alternating bias of -35 V and -70 V together with a Ti0.33Al0.67N reference coating grown at -35 V. The bias-modulated coatings were grown with different bias-layer periods, from 200 to 1200 nm. For the layers deposited with a fixed bias, a transition from a (100) to a (111) preferred orientation was observed with the change in bias from -35 V to -70 V. The coatings grown with an alternating bias, however, showed a (111) preferred orientation with an intensity that slightly depends on bias-layer period. Metal cutting performance in terms of crater and flank wear resistance show an improvement for all bias-layered coatings. This is attributed to a (111) oriented refined grain structure in combination with low residual stresses in the coating.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106505 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2014.05.045 (DOI)000344423100013 ()
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2014-05-09 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2018-01-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4577-0976

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