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Lindell, Linda
Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Lindell, L., Vahlberg, C., Uvdal, K., Fahlman, M. & Braun, S. (2015). Self-assembled monolayer engineered interfaces: Energy level alignment tuning through chain length and end-group polarity. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, 204, 140-144
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-assembled monolayer engineered interfaces: Energy level alignment tuning through chain length and end-group polarity
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, ISSN 0368-2048, E-ISSN 1873-2526, Vol. 204, p. 140-144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We explore the different mechanisms through which self-assembled monolayers can tailor energy level alignment at metal-organic semiconductor interfaces. We show that the large work function variation that can be induced by the self-assembled monolayer on gold has limited ability to tailor the interface energy level alignment of a subsequent organic semiconductor overlayer. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2015
Keywords
Self-assembled monolayer; SAM; F4-TCNQ; Interfaces; Energy level alignment
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122663 (URN)10.1016/j.elspec.2015.04.006 (DOI)000363078400017 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency, STEM; Swedish Research Council [2013-4022]; Goran Gustafsson Foundation

Available from: 2015-11-16 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Sinno, H., Nguyen, H. T., Hägerström, A., Fahlman, M., Lindell, L., Coulembier, O., . . . Berggren, M. (2013). Amphiphilic semiconducting copolymer as compatibility layer for printing polyelectrolyte-gated OFETs. Organic electronics, 14(3), 790-796
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amphiphilic semiconducting copolymer as compatibility layer for printing polyelectrolyte-gated OFETs
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2013 (English)In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 790-796Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report a method for inkjet-printing an organic semiconductor layer on top of the electrolyte insulator layer in polyelectrolyte-gated OFETs by using a surface modification treatment to overcome the underlying wettability problem at this interface. The method includes depositing an amphiphilic diblock copolymer (P3HT-b-PDMAEMA). This material is designed to have one set of blocks that mimics the hydrophobic properties of the semiconductor (poly(3-hexylthiophene) or P3HT), while the other set of blocks include polar components that improve adhesion to the polyelectrolyte insulator. Contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm formation of the desired surface modification film. Successful inkjet printing of a smooth semiconductor layer allows us to manufacture complete transistor structures that exhibit low-voltage operation in the range of 1 V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88980 (URN)10.1016/j.orgel.2012.12.031 (DOI)000316660200012 ()
Available from: 2013-02-19 Created: 2013-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Lindell, L., Cakir, D., Brocks, G., Fahlman, M. & Braun, S. (2013). Role of intrinsic molecular dipole in energy level alignment at organic interfaces. Applied Physics Letters, 102(22), 223301 -1-223301-4
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Role of intrinsic molecular dipole in energy level alignment at organic interfaces
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2013 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 22, p. 223301 -1-223301-4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The energy level alignment in metal-organic and organic-organic junctions of the widely used materials tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) and 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA) is investigated. The measured alignment schemes for single and bilayer films of Alq3 and NTCDA are interpreted with the integer charge transfer (ICT) model. Single layer films of Alq3 feature a constant vacuum level shift of ∼0.2–0.4 eV in the absence of charge transfer across the interface. This finding is attributed to the intrinsic dipole of the Alq3 molecule and (partial) ordering of the molecules at the interfaces. The vacuum level shift changes the onset of Fermi level pinning, as it changes the energy needed for equilibrium charge transfer across the interface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2013
Keywords
charge exchange, Fermi level, interface states, organic semiconductors
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96473 (URN)10.1063/1.4809567 (DOI)000320621600081 ()
Available from: 2013-08-23 Created: 2013-08-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Davis, R. J., Lloyd, M. T., Ferreira, S. R., Bruzek, M. J., Watkins, S. E., Lindell, L., . . . Hsu, J. W. (2011). Determination of energy level alignment at interfaces of hybrid and organic solar cells under ambient environment. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, 21(6), 1721-1729
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of energy level alignment at interfaces of hybrid and organic solar cells under ambient environment
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2011 (English)In: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, ISSN 0959-9428, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 1721-1729Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Device function in organic electronics is critically governed by the transport of charge across interfaces of dissimilar materials. Accurate measurements of energy level positions in organic electronic devices are therefore necessary for assessing the viability of new materials and optimizing device performance. In contrast to established methods that are used in solution or vacuum environments, here we combine Kelvin probe measurements performed in ambient environments to obtain work function values with photoelectron spectroscopy in air to obtain ionization potential, so that a complete energy level diagram for organic semiconductors can be determined. We apply this new approach to study commonly used electron donor and acceptor materials in organic photovoltaics (OPV), including poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and ZnO, as well as examine new materials. Band alignments across the entire OPV devices are constructed and compared with actual device performance. The ability to determine interfacial electronic properties in the devices enables us to answer the outstanding question: why previous attempts to make OPV devices using 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS)-pentacene as the electron donor were not successful.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2011
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-65942 (URN)10.1039/c0jm02349c (DOI)000286614100014 ()
Available from: 2011-02-28 Created: 2011-02-28 Last updated: 2015-05-13
Lindell, L. (2011). Interface Engineering in Organic Electronics. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interface Engineering in Organic Electronics
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Organic electronics is a field covering all applications and devices where one or several of the active components are made of organic material, such as organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells, organic thin film transistors, organic magnets for spintronics etc. In all of the applications mentioned above, transport of charges across both inorganic/organic and organic/organic interfaces play a key role for device performance. In order to achieve high efficiencies and longer life-times, proper matching of the electronic energy levels of the different materials is needed.

The aim of the research presented in this thesis has been to explore different routes to optimize interface energetics and gain deeper knowledge of the mechanisms that govern charge transport over the interface. Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a method well suited to study both interactions between different materials taking place at surfaces as well as interface energetics.

One way to achieve proper matching of interfaces energy levels is by adding a dipole layer. In the three first papers presented in the thesis, the method of adding a monolayer of small organic molecules to change the work function of the surface is investigated. We start with a model system consisting of a nickel surface and PPDA molecules where we have strong interaction and mixing of orbitals between the molecule and the metal surface. The second system consists of a gold surface and TDAE molecules with weaker interaction with integer electron transfer and finally in the third paper an organic surface VPP-PEDOT-Tos is modified, with TDAE, to create a transparent low work function organic electrode. In the fourth paper, we focus on gaining deeper understanding of the Integer Charge Transfer (ICT) model and the mechanisms governing the alignment of energy levels at organic/(in)organic interfaces and in the fifth paper we continue to challenge this model by using it to predict the behavior of a bilayer device, in terms of energy level alignment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011. p. 38
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1411
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72236 (URN)978-91-7393-018-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-14, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-23 Created: 2011-11-23 Last updated: 2013-09-12Bibliographically approved
Sehati, P., Braun, S., Lindell, L., Liu, X., Andersson, L. M. & Fahlman, M. (2010). Energy-Level Alignment at Metal-Organic and Organic-Organic Interfaces in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 16(6), 1718-1724
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy-Level Alignment at Metal-Organic and Organic-Organic Interfaces in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells
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2010 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, ISSN 1077-260X, E-ISSN 1558-4542, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1718-1724Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements in combination with the integer charge transfer (ICT) model is used to obtain the energy-level alignment diagrams for two common types of bulk-heterojunction solar cell devices based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) or poly(2-methoxy-5-(3,7 -dimethyloctyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene vinylene) as the donor polymer and (6,6)phenyl- C61-butric-acid as the acceptor molecule. A ground-state interface dipole at the donor/acceptor heterojunction is present for both systems, but the origin of the interface dipole differs, quadrupole-induced in the case of poly(2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyl-octyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene), and ICT state based for poly(3-hexylthiophene). The presence of bound electron-hole charge carriers (CT states) and/or interface dipoles are expected to enhance exciton dissociation into free charge carriers, thus reducing the probability that charges become trapped by Coulomb forces at the interface followed by recombination.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2010
Keywords
Interfaces, organic electronics, photoelectron, spectroscopy, solar cells
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67163 (URN)10.1109/JSTQE.2010.2042684 (DOI)000288488400027 ()
Note

©2011 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. Parisa Sehati, Slawomir Braun, Linda Lindell, Xianjie Liu, Lars Mattias Andersson and Mats Fahlman, Energy-Level Alignment at Metal-Organic and Organic-Organic Interfaces in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells, 2010, IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, (16), 6, 1718-1724. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2010.2042684

Available from: 2011-04-01 Created: 2011-04-01 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Lindell, L., Unge, M., Osikowicz, W., Stafström, S., Salaneck, W. R., Crispin, X. & de Jong, M. P. (2008). Integer charge transfer at the tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene/Au interface. Applied Physics Letters, 92(16), 163302-1-163302-3
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integer charge transfer at the tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene/Au interface
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2008 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 92, no 16, p. 163302-1-163302-3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In organic-based electronics, interfacial properties have a profound impact on device performance. The lineup of energy levels is usually dependent on interface dipoles, which may arise from charge transfer reactions. In many applications, metal-organic junctions are prepared under ambient conditions, where direct overlap of the organic system from the metal bands is prevented due to presence of oxides and/or hydrocarbons. We present direct experimental and theoretical evidence showing that the interface energetic for such systems is governed by exchange of an integer amount of electrons.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20776 (URN)10.1063/1.2912818 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-09-18 Created: 2009-09-18 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Lindell, L. (2007). Molecular scale interface engineering. (Licentiate dissertation). Linköping: Linköpings universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular scale interface engineering
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2007
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-38476 (URN)44536 (Local ID)44536 (Archive number)44536 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10
Jakobsson, F. L. E., Crispin, X., Lindell, L., Kanciurzewska, A., Fahlman, M., Salaneck, W. R. & Berggren, M. (2006). Towards all-plastic flexible light emitting diodes. Chemical Physics Letters, 433(1-3), 110-114
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards all-plastic flexible light emitting diodes
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2006 (English)In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 433, no 1-3, p. 110-114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

All-plastic light emitting diodes require the design and fabrication of low work function plastic electrodes. Here, we show that the work function of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT-PSS) can be decreased from 4.8 eV to 3.9 eV by surface reaction with the strong electron-donor tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene (TDAE). The surface modification was characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. The low work function plastic electrode was used in a first prototype for all-plastic light emitting diodes.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14831 (URN)10.1016/j.cplett.2006.11.007 (DOI)
Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-09-25 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Lindell, L., Burquel, A., Jakobsson, F., Lemaur, V., Berggren, M., Lazzaroni, R., . . . Crispin, X. (2006). Transparent, plastic, low-work-function poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) electrodes. Chemistry of Materials, 18(18), 4246-4252
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transparent, plastic, low-work-function poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) electrodes
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2006 (English)In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 18, no 18, p. 4246-4252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Novel applications for flexible electronics, e.g., displays and solar cells, require fully flexible, transparent, stable, and low-work-function electrodes that can be manufactured via a low-cost process. Here, we demonstrate that surface chemistry constitutes a route to producing transparent low-work-function plastic electrodes. The work function of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-tosylate, or PEDOT-Tos, is decreased by submonolayer surface redox reaction with a strong electron donor, tetrakis-(dimethylamino)ethylene (TDAE), allowing it to reach a work function of 3.8 eV. The interface formed between TDAE and PEDOT is investigated in a joint experimental and theoretical study using photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. © 2006 American Chemical Society.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-50130 (URN)10.1021/cm061081m (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
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