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Toll, D., Lindgren, I., Melin, U. & Østergaard Madsen, C. (2019). Artificial Intelligence in Swedish Policies: Values, Benefits, Considerations and Risks. In: Lindgren, Ida; Janssen, Marijn; Lee, Habin; Polini, Andrea; Rodrígues Bolívar, Manuel Pedro; Jochen Scholl, Hans; Tamborious, Efthimios (Ed.), Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019 San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019 Proceedings. Paper presented at International Conference on Electronic Government (pp. 301-310). Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Artificial Intelligence in Swedish Policies: Values, Benefits, Considerations and Risks
2019 (English)In: Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019 San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019 Proceedings / [ed] Lindgren, Ida; Janssen, Marijn; Lee, Habin; Polini, Andrea; Rodrígues Bolívar, Manuel Pedro; Jochen Scholl, Hans; Tamborious, Efthimios, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2019, Vol. 18, p. 301-310Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Artificial intelligence (AI) is said to be the next big phase in digital- ization. There is a global ongoing race to develop, implement and make use of AI in both the private and public sector. The many responsibilities of governments in this race are complicated and cut across a number of areas. Therefore, it is important that the use of AI supports these diverse aspects of governmental commitments and values. The aim of this paper is to analyze how AI is portrayed in Swedish policy documents and what values are attributed to the use of AI. We analyze Swedish policy documents and map benefits, considerations and risks with AI into different value ideals, based on an established e-government value framework. We conclude that there is a discrepancy in the policy level discourse on the use of AI between different value ideals. Our findings show that AI is strongly associated with improving efficiency and service quality in line with previous e- government policy studies. Interestingly, few benefits are highlighted concerning engagement of citizens in policy making. A more nuanced view on AI is needed for creating realistic expectations on how this technology can benefit society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2019
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 11685
Keywords
Artificial intelligence, e-Government values, Public sector, Benefits, Risks
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Economic Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161904 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-27325-5_23 (DOI)978-3-030-27324-8 (ISBN)978-3-030-27325-5 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Electronic Government
Available from: 2019-11-12 Created: 2019-11-12 Last updated: 2019-11-12
Söderström, F. & Melin, U. (2019). Creating Local Government Innovation: Lessons Learned From An Institutional Theory Perspective. In: Lindgren, I., Janssen, M., Lee, H., Polini, A., Rodríguez Bolívar, M.P., Scholl, H.J., Tambouris, E (Ed.), Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019, Proceedings. Paper presented at 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019 (pp. 125-138). Cham: Springer, 11685
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creating Local Government Innovation: Lessons Learned From An Institutional Theory Perspective
2019 (English)In: Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Lindgren, I., Janssen, M., Lee, H., Polini, A., Rodríguez Bolívar, M.P., Scholl, H.J., Tambouris, E, Cham: Springer, 2019, Vol. 11685, p. 125-138Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The public sector is facing an equation that cannot be solved by continuingdoing business as usual. External demands of availability, quality andresilience of services, as well as internal demands of resource efficiency, areputting pressure on the public sector to seek for innovation. In this study, wefocus on local government innovation where high expectations are set on betterutilisation of employees’ creativity and innovative capacity. Based on a qualitativecase study of an innovation programme in a Swedish local governmentorganisation, this study applies institutional theory as a theoretical lens tofurther investigate and analyse the relationship between formal and informalstructures of local government innovation. The institutional structures related tonorms and values, legitimacy and decoupling as well as digital artefacts as institutionalcarriers are discussed. Implications for practice show that formal structures,processes and digital artefacts to support local government innovation areimportant in this work. However, to achieve government innovation, equal attentionshould also be given to informal institutional structures of innovation.For research, this implies that government innovation studies can benefit froman institutional theory perspective to develop a better understanding of how informalstructures affect related processes. We conclude by arguing that theneeded change towards the innovative bureaucracy is a transformative innovationin itself that needs to be acknowledged.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2019
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 11685
Keywords
Local Government Innovation, Public Sector Innovation, Institutional Theory, Public Sector ICT, Digitalisation
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159941 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-27325-5_10 (DOI)978-3-030-27324-8 (ISBN)
Conference
18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019
Available from: 2019-08-29 Created: 2019-08-29 Last updated: 2019-08-29
Melin, U., Sarkar, P. K. & Young, L. W. (2019). To couple or not to couple: A case study of institutional legitimacy relating to SaaS applications in two universities. Information Technology and People
Open this publication in new window or tab >>To couple or not to couple: A case study of institutional legitimacy relating to SaaS applications in two universities
2019 (English)In: Information Technology and People, ISSN 0959-3845, E-ISSN 1758-5813, ISSN 0959-3845Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The predominant narrative is that contemporary organisations, motivated by economic-rationalist aspirations, adopt cloud applications on the premise of achieving cost-savings and efficiency gains. However, how they actually adopt and rollover such new or emerging technologies may be influenced by acts, patterns and processes of institutional legitimacy. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the dynamics surrounding decisions on how specific cloud applications are adopted from the context of institutional theory, with a particular focus on the concepts of coupling and decoupling.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine this phenomenon, two qualitative case studies, using a reflexive research approach, of an Australian and a Swedish university have been undertaken, both of which adopted commercial cloud applications for e.g. e-mail, collaboration and storage (as examples of software as a service) at different points in time. One of the universities was known for its early adoption of cloud applications, but had decelerated further deployment of such services, while the other, despite its conservative reputation, has made rapid strides in this regard.

Findings

The findings of the dual case studies reveal that organisations, contrary to economic-rationalist claims, may or may not decide to adopt particular commercial cloud-based offerings for the support of core operations, on the basis of how they perceive their institutional legitimacy being affected by a complex network of influential actors, both internally and in the external spaces. Therefore, this paper offers an institutional theory-based discourse and rich illustrations on how the role of technology is played out in enhancing relationships between an organisation and such actors in terms of legitimacy focusing acts of coupling and decoupling.

Originality/value

In the analysis and findings the authors, in a novel way, illustrate how organisations strive for: institutional legitimacy through acts of coupling, and the revelations of consequential decoupling. The value is based on a rich case description, analysis and application of institutional theory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163293 (URN)10.1108/ITP-06-2018-0312 (DOI)2-s2.0-85075024052 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-24 Created: 2020-01-24 Last updated: 2020-02-03Bibliographically approved
Simonofski, A., Melin, U., Lindgren, I., Vanderose, B. & Snoeck, M. (2019). Towards a Decision Support Guide for User Participation in Public e-Service Development. In: : . Paper presented at Twenty-fifth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Cancun, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Decision Support Guide for User Participation in Public e-Service Development
Show others...
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

User participation is often reported as a success factor for public e-service development. However, in practice, project managers face challenges to involve users due to lack of methodology, time, or context awareness. In order to tackle this lack of context awareness, we describe a conceptual model summarizing the impact of four influencing factors on user participation decisions. From this model, we then derive a decision support guide that helps project managers from public organizations understand when and how to include users in the development process. Following the design science research approach, the conceptual model is built in an iterative manner based on several literature sources and validated through in-depth interviews and group discussions with project managers and researchers. This paper contributes to research as it helps to frame the conditions impacting participation and opens the discussion for the addition of other factors. Then, it also contributes to practice as project managers developing public e-services will be able to reach a better situated participation.

Keywords
User participation, Public e-service Development, Decision support guide
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161888 (URN)978-0-9966831-8-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Twenty-fifth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Cancun, 2019
Available from: 2019-11-11 Created: 2019-11-11 Last updated: 2019-11-11
Melin, U. & Wihlborg, E. (2018). Balanced and integrated e-government implementation – exploring the crossroad of public policy-making and information systems project management processes. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 12(2), 191-208
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Balanced and integrated e-government implementation – exploring the crossroad of public policy-making and information systems project management processes
2018 (English)In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 191-208Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This paper aims to identify and elaborate on the various interpretations and implications of e-government as a process of public policy-making and as an act of information systems (IS) project management. The paper contributes to the search for a theoretical conceptualization by bridging policy project management and policy-making in public sector organizations at a crossroad of e-government to improve sustainable e-government research. Design/methodology/approach: The research design of this paper focus on a model balancing the two research fields; public policy-making and analysis, and project management in the IS field. Through this model, four critical aspects of the processes are identified: objective, incentives/motivation, input/trigger and coordinative actor. These critical aspects are illustrated through findings from four case studies that are re-analyzed here. The cases show how the conceptual model through different dimensions can balance the two perspectives to reach a more sustainable outcome of e-government. Findings: The paper shows that the two perspectives on e-government – public policy-making and project management – can be balanced and thereby reach a more sustainable outcome at this crossroad. The case studies re-visited in this paper are compared and serves as illustrations of these perspectives and different configurations of them in search for the crossroad. Research limitations/implications: A main contribution of the paper is that e-government projects should be studied in, and taking both public policy-making and IS project management into account to be sustainable and successful. Even if the case studies have been conducted in Sweden, the conceptual results in this paper can be analytically generalized into other setting. However, there is a need for more comparative and conceptual studies in the field of e-government to shed light on the multi-faceted crossroads illustrated in this paper. Practical implications: The paper offers new insights on how to integrate, bridge and even balance the two aspects of e-government policy aspects and projects management to achieve more sustainable and successful e-government. Originality/value: The paper contributes to the literature by shedding light on the crossroad of policy aspects and IS project management approaches in the e-government field. The paper points at the need to further develop the understanding and design of e-government at the crossroad of information system models and political science concepts. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2018
Keywords
Digital government, Digitalization, e-government, Policy making, Project management, Sustainable implementation
National Category
Public Administration Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150592 (URN)10.1108/TG-12-2017-0080 (DOI)000442237500003 ()2-s2.0-85051515594 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2020-02-21Bibliographically approved
Söderström, F., Melin, U., Lindgren, I. & Galzie, Z. (2018). Coordinating Public E-services: Investigating Mechanisms and Practices in a Government Agency. In: Peter Parycek, Olivier Glassey, Marijn Janssen, Hans Jochen Scholl, Efthimios Tambouris, Evangelos Kalampokis, Shefali Virkar (Ed.), 17th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2018, Krems, Austria, September 3-5, 2018, Proceedings: . Paper presented at 17th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2018, Krems, Austria, September 3-5, 2018 (pp. 85-97). Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 11020
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coordinating Public E-services: Investigating Mechanisms and Practices in a Government Agency
2018 (English)In: 17th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2018, Krems, Austria, September 3-5, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Peter Parycek, Olivier Glassey, Marijn Janssen, Hans Jochen Scholl, Efthimios Tambouris, Evangelos Kalampokis, Shefali Virkar, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, Vol. 11020, p. 13p. 85-97Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Coordination is an important enabler when creating and managing coherent, integrated, secure and smart public electronic services (e-services). With an increased demand for such services, coordination as an internal organizational phenomenon is becoming increasingly important. Based on a qualitative case study, and informed by coordination theory, this paper investigates two different theoretical views applied on internal e-service coordination within a government agency in Sweden. At the outset, the agency is seeking one generic way to coordinate the current heterogeneous and fragmented internal e-service landscape in a more efficient way. Hence, our aim also includes investigating the prerequisites and potential for this type of coordination. We conduct this study in two stages. First, we apply a well-established theoretical lens from organizational theory on a set of coordination efforts, thereby perceiving coordination as a planned and anticipated activity based on a fixed set of mechanisms. Second, we apply a lens of coordinating as emergent practice, which allows for an in-depth investigation of more flexible and dynamic aspects of coordinating activities in daily work. By combining these two views, we argue that this approach can facilitate and increase understanding of the dynamics and flexibility needed to understand the type of coordination needed in public e-service contexts. This also implies that there is no single best practice or ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach to internal e-service coordination. Instead, organizations need to acknowledge the need for combined multi-dimensional views revealing the inherent complexity of coordination; as planned as well as emerging activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018. p. 13
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 11020
Keywords
Coordination, coordination mechanisms, e-government, e-services, public sector ICT
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154627 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-98690-6_8 (DOI)978-3-319-98690-6 (ISBN)978-3-319-98689-0 (ISBN)
Conference
17th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2018, Krems, Austria, September 3-5, 2018
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2019-02-22 Created: 2019-02-22 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
Holgersson, J., Melin, U., Lindgren, I. & Axelsson, K. (2018). Exploring User Participation Practice in Public E-Service Development: Why, How and in Whose Interest?. The Electronic Journal on e-government (EJEG), 16(1), 72-86
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring User Participation Practice in Public E-Service Development: Why, How and in Whose Interest?
2018 (English)In: The Electronic Journal on e-government (EJEG), ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 72-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

User participation is seen as an important enabler for successful public e-service development. However, at the same time development of public e-services is still often characterised by an internal government perspective with little consideration for external users’ perspectives. This paper challenges the overly positive attitude that is surrounding user participation in e-government research. The paper aims to illustrate and problematize various aspects that influence why, how, and in whose interest user participation is conducted in public e-service development. First, via a literature review, we identify a set of dimensions for critically exploring how, why, and in whose interest user participation is conducted in public e-service development projects. Second, we use these dimensions in order to characterise and analyse three empirical public e-service development cases in order to test the utility, usefulness, and feasibility of the identified dimensions. Our findings highlight the importance of questioning and elaborating on the motives behind user participation (the why) in public e-service development. We also identify two basic forms of how user participation is addressed in public e-service development projects: 1) veneered participation, and 2) ad-hoc participation. Furthermore, we argue that any decisions made regarding user participation in public e-service development should be based on conscious and informed choices concerning why user participation is needed and what it may bring for different stakeholders and their interests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2018
Keywords
E-government, User Participation, Public e-service development
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152236 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-23 Created: 2018-10-23 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
Hedström, K., Melin, U. & Söderström, F. (2018). Identitet arbete privatliv: användning av smarta ID-kort (1ed.). In: Lotta Gröning och Elin Whilborg (Ed.), Ett smartare samhälle?: Sju perspektiv på digitaliseringen av vår vardag (pp. 112-128). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identitet arbete privatliv: användning av smarta ID-kort
2018 (Swedish)In: Ett smartare samhälle?: Sju perspektiv på digitaliseringen av vår vardag / [ed] Lotta Gröning och Elin Whilborg, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018, 1, p. 112-128Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Sjuksköterskan Mikael kliver upp tidigt på morgonen för att åka till jobbet. Han jobbar på en mindre vårdcentral ungefär tre mil hemifrån och måste åka strax före halv sju på morgonen. På väg ut till bilen kommer han plötslig ihåg att han måste ha med sig sitt nya ID-kort. Utan kortet kan han inte jobba…

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018 Edition: 1
National Category
Globalisation Studies Media and Communications Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149548 (URN)9789176852460 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-07-05 Created: 2018-07-05 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Crusoe, J. & Melin, U. (2018). Investigating open government data barriers: A literature review and conceptualization. In: Parycek P. (Ed.), Electronic Government: EGOV 2018. Paper presented at EGOV 2018, Electronic Government (pp. 169-183). Springer Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating open government data barriers: A literature review and conceptualization
2018 (English)In: Electronic Government: EGOV 2018 / [ed] Parycek P., Springer Verlag , 2018, p. 169-183Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When focusing on open government data (OGD) publishing and related barriers, there are several complexities present. Largely, current research is focused on publishing and usage of OGD; and we argue that there are a need to investigate and to systematise OGD barrier research in order to understand and outline an expanded scope of the phenomenon. We expand by clarifying barriers linked to the release decision and the data’s organisational context. To investigate the OGD barriers, we conduct a systematic literature review, identifying 34 articles as a point of departure for our analysis. From these articles we create, present and discuss illustrations on historical development, barrier types, and different research focuses on OGD. When analysing the articles, we identify a focus on technical, organisational, and legal barrier types, while studies on open data usage and systems are less frequent. Our analysis also identifies some possible open data research barriers. In the article we also relate barriers to an expanded OGD process (Suitability, Release, Publish, Use, and Evaluation), identifying 46 barriers with possible linkages. The results is an expanded scope and a conceptual illustration of OGD barriers. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2018.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 11020
Keywords
Barriers, Challenges, Impediments, Literature review, Myths, OGD, Open data, Open government data, Process, Risks, Government data processing, Processing, Literature reviews, Open datum, Reviews
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151311 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-98690-6_15 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052893750 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-98689-0 (ISBN)978-3-319-98690-6 (ISBN)
Conference
EGOV 2018, Electronic Government
Available from: 2018-09-17 Created: 2018-09-17 Last updated: 2019-04-02
Melin, U., Axelsson, K. & Löfstedt, T. (2018). Understanding an Integrated Management System in a Government Agency – Focusing Institutional Carriers: Focusing Institutional Carriers. In: Parycek, Peter; Glassey, Olivier; Janssen, Marijn; Scholl, Hans Jochen; Tambouris, Efthimios; Kalampokis, Evangelos; Virkar, Shefali (Ed.), Electronic Government. EGOV 2018: . Paper presented at Electronic Government. EGOV 2018 (pp. 15-28). Springer International Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding an Integrated Management System in a Government Agency – Focusing Institutional Carriers: Focusing Institutional Carriers
2018 (English)In: Electronic Government. EGOV 2018 / [ed] Parycek, Peter; Glassey, Olivier; Janssen, Marijn; Scholl, Hans Jochen; Tambouris, Efthimios; Kalampokis, Evangelos; Virkar, Shefali, Springer International Publishing , 2018, p. 15-28Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Working with an integrated management system (IMS) is a challenging task. In public organizations, the formalization of an IMS including the communication of control mechanisms, rules, goals and culture are crucial. Several types of carriers are used in order to communicate the content in an IMS – both human actors and artefacts. An artefact studied in this paper is an intranet, as one carrier of the IMS. The purpose of this paper is to explore how institutional theory – focusing institutional carriers – can help us to understand how an IMS is represented through human actors and technology in a government agency. The conclusion is that the application of an institutional carrier perspective on an IMS can help us to understand the past and present, the role, and the relative success of such a system. An IMS can be aligned or misaligned related to three dimensions of structure, process and people. Achieving an aligned and legitimate IMS is crucial in order to achieve goals in an organization. The implications of this study are that further research and practice should give more attention to institutional carriers when studying and improving IMS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer International Publishing, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 11020
Keywords
Integrated management systems Governance Institutional theory Institutional carriers Government
National Category
Public Administration Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150962 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-98690-6_2 (DOI)978-3-319-98690-6 (ISBN)978-3-319-98689-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Electronic Government. EGOV 2018
Note

This study is partially financially supported by anonymized government agency.

Available from: 2018-09-06 Created: 2018-09-06 Last updated: 2018-09-06
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2784-863X

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