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Helmfrid, I., Salihovic, S., van Bavel, B., Wingren, G. & Berglund, M. (2015). Exposure and body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and metals in a historically contaminated community.. Environment International, 76, 41-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure and body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and metals in a historically contaminated community.
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2015 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 76, p. 41-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are many small villages where environmental contamination is substantial due to historical industrial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate if long-term or current consumption of local foods, as reported in food frequency questionnaires, co-vary with measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in blood, urine and hair from a population living in a historically contaminated village. Blood, urine and hair were provided by men (n=38) and women (n=57), who had participated in a previous case-control study in the contaminated area, and were analyzed for PCB, OCPs, Pb, Cd and Hg. A detailed food frequency questionnaire, used in the previous epidemiological study, was repeated, and up-dated information of life-style, exposure factors and other covariates was collected. Associations between reported consumption of local foods and exposure biomarkers were explored in relation to age, gender, life-style factors and other covariates. A large part of the population in the area reported consumption of local food, and thus, was potentially exposed to the contaminants. Despite the limited number of participants and other weaknesses described, it was possible to link reported consumption of different foods to biomarker concentrations. Reported consumption of local vegetables, forest berries and mushrooms co-varied with urinary Cd, indicating an influence from the contaminated area on the Cd exposure. We found no associations between PCB plasma concentrations with reported consumption of local fish, but with consumption of herring (non-local sea fish) which is typically high in PCB. Pesticide (HCB, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor) exposure was mainly associated with agricultural work and having a private well the first five years of life, but we found no associations between pesticide concentrations in plasma and consumption of local vegetables or fish. Exposure to Hg was associated with consumption of fish, both local and non-local, and Pb exposure was associated with the consumption of game. Overall, the contaminant concentrations measured in blood, urine and hair varied substantially among study participants, but on average, the concentrations were similar to concentrations measured in other groups of the general Swedish population in the same age range. Larger studies are needed to evaluate health risks (and causality) associated with historical environmental contamination.

National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113646 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2014.12.004 (DOI)000349585600004 ()25529270 (PubMedID)
Note

We express our gratitude to the participating population. We thank the research nurse Louice Eskilsson for an excellent assistance in sample collection and for the dispatch of questionnaires together with Anna-Lena Hallsten. The study was partially financed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, grant no. 502-4531-09.

Available from: 2015-01-27 Created: 2015-01-27 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Brohede, S., Wingren, G., Wijma, B. & Wijma, K. (2015). Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder among Swedish women: A population-based study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 58, 108-115
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder among Swedish women: A population-based study
2015 (English)In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 58, p. 108-115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by a highly distressing and impairing preoccupation with nonexistent or slight defects in appearance. Patients with BDD present to both psychiatric and non-psychiatric physicians. A few studies have assessed BDD prevalence in representative samples of the general population and have demonstrated that this disorder is relatively common. Our primary objective was to assess the prevalence of BDD in the Swedish population because no data are currently available. Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, 2891 randomly selected Swedish women aged 18-60 years participated. The occurrence of BDD was assessed using the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ), which is a validated self-report measure derived from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria for BDD. In addition, symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: The prevalence of BDD among Swedish women was 2.1%. The women with BDD had significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than the women without BDD. Depression (HADS depression score greater than= 8) and anxiety (HADS anxiety score greater than= 8) were reported by 42% and 72% of the women with BDD, respectively. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that BDD is relatively common among Swedish women (2.1%) and that it is associated with significant morbidity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WB Saunders, 2015
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117368 (URN)10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.12.014 (DOI)000351807800015 ()25617963 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Linkoping University; Ostergotland County Council

Available from: 2015-04-24 Created: 2015-04-24 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Annerbäck, E.-M., Sahlqvist, L. & Wingren, G. (2014). A cross-sectional study of victimisation of bullying among schoolchildren in Sweden: Background factors and self-reported health complaints. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 42(3), 270-277
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A cross-sectional study of victimisation of bullying among schoolchildren in Sweden: Background factors and self-reported health complaints
2014 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 270-277Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIM:

To examine background factors for bullying and associations between bullying victimisation and health problems.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional study on all pupils in grades 7 and 9 in a Swedish county was conducted in 2011 (n=5248). Data have been analysed with bi- and multivariate models.

RESULTS:

14% of the children reported that they had been bullied during the past 2 months. Background factors for bullying were: gender (girls more often); age (younger students more often); disability/disease; high body mass index, and having parents born abroad. There were strong associations between being bullied and poor health and self-harm. Associations with poor general health for boys and girls and mental health problems for girls showed stronger associations with higher frequency of bullying than with lower. For boys, physical bullying had stronger correlations with poor general health than written-verbal bullying.

CONCLUSIONS:

Bullying is a serious public health problem among young people and healthcare professionals have an important task in identifying exposed children. Children who are "different" are more exposed to bullying, which implies that school personnel, parents, and other adults in these children's social networks can play an important role in paying attention to and preventing the risk of bullying.

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Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2014
Keyword
Bullying victimisation; mental health; physical health; prevention; risk factors; school; self-harm; Sweden
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108177 (URN)10.1177/1403494813514142 (DOI)000336795100008 ()24311537 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-06-26 Created: 2014-06-26 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Ljunggren, S. A., Helmfrid, I., Salihovic, S., van Bavel, B., Wingren, G., Lindahl, M. & Karlsson, H. (2014). Persistent organic pollutants distribution in lipoprotein fractions in relation to cardiovascular disease and cancer.. Environment International, 65, 93-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistent organic pollutants distribution in lipoprotein fractions in relation to cardiovascular disease and cancer.
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2014 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 65, p. 93-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are lipophilic environmental toxins that have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of POPs in human high and low/very low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL/VLDL) and the possible association with CVD and cancer occurrence in individuals living in a contaminated area. Lipoproteins from 28 individuals (7 healthy controls, 8 subjects with cancer, 13 subjects with CVD) were isolated and the fraction-specific concentration of 20 different POPs was analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. The activity of Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an anti-oxidant in HDL, was determined in plasma of these 28 subjects and additional 50 subjects from the same area excluding diseases other than cancer or CVD. Fourteen polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and three organochlorine pesticides were detected, and especially highly chlorinated PCBs were enriched in lipoproteins. Significantly higher concentrations of POPs were found among individuals with CVD or cancer compared to controls. Principal component analyses showed that POP concentrations in HDL were more associated with CVD, while POP concentrations in LDL/VLDL were more associated with cancer. PON1 activity was negatively correlated to sumPCB and a co-variation between decreased arylesterase-activity, increased PCB concentrations and CVD was found. This study shows that POPs are present in lipoproteins and were more abundant in individuals with CVD or cancer compared to healthy controls. The results also indicate that PCB exposure is accompanied by reduced PON1 activity that could impair the HDL function to protect against oxidation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
National Category
Clinical Medicine Other Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104755 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2013.12.017 (DOI)000334728500010 ()24472825 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-02-25 Created: 2014-02-25 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Morales-Suárez-Varela, M., Olsen, J., Villeneuve, S., Johansen, P., Kaerlev, L., Llopis-González, A., . . . Guénel, P. (2013). Occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and Mycosis Fungoides. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 55(8), 924-931
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and Mycosis Fungoides
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 924-931Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF).

Methods: A questionnaire on lifetime job history was administered to 100 patients diagnosed with MF and 2846 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated as the measure of the association between exposure to each specific solvent and MF.

Results: In the total sample and in men, cases and controls did not differ in relation to exposure to any of the solvents studied. In women, an association with MF was seen for the highest level of estimated exposure to perchloroethylene (OR = 11.38; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 124.85) and for exposure less than the median to kerosene/fuel/gasoil (OR = 8.53; 95% confidence interval: 1.11 to 65.62).

Conclusions: These results do not provide conclusive evidence that exposure to solvents may increase risk of MF because they were not found in men.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-107034 (URN)10.1097/JOM.0b013e3182941a1c (DOI)23887697 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-06-03 Created: 2014-06-03 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Brohede, S., Wingren, G., Wijma, B. & Wijma, K. (2013). Validation of the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire in a community sample of Swedish women. Psychiatry Research, 210(2), 647-652
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire in a community sample of Swedish women
2013 (English)In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 210, no 2, p. 647-652Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is characterized by a distressing and impairing preoccupation with a nonexistent or slight defect in appearance. Patients with the disorder present to both psychiatric and non-psychiatric physicians. A few studies have assessed BDD prevalence in the general population and have shown that the disorder is relatively common. To date, no BDD assessment instruments have been validated in the general population. Our aim was to validate a brief self-screening instrument, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ), in a female community sample. The BDDQ was translated into Swedish and filled out by 2891 women from a randomly selected community sample. The questionnaire was validated in a subsample of 88 women, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) together with clinical assessment as the gold standard. In the validation subsample, the BDDQ showed good concurrent validity, with a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 90% and a likelihood ratio of 9.4. The questionnaire can therefore be of value when screening for BDD in female populations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Self-report instrument; Measurement; Somatoform disorders; Appearance concerns; Body image
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103301 (URN)10.1016/j.psychres.2013.07.019 (DOI)000328518600044 ()
Available from: 2014-01-17 Created: 2014-01-16 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Annerbäck, E.-M., Sahlqvist, L., Svedin, C. G., Wingren, G. & Gustafsson, P. (2012). Child Physical Abuse and concurrence of other types of Child Abuse: associations with health and risk behaviors. International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, 36(7-8), 585-595
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Child Physical Abuse and concurrence of other types of Child Abuse: associations with health and risk behaviors
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2012 (English)In: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 36, no 7-8, p. 585-595Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse and health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teen-agers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking behaviors.

Methods: A population-based survey was carried out in 2008 among all the pupils in two different grades (15 respectively 17 years old) in Södermanland County, Sweden (N=7 262). The response rate was 81.8 %. The pupils were asked among other things about their exposure to child physical abuse, exposure to parental intimate violence, bullying and exposure to being forced to engage in sexual acts. Adjusted analyses were conducted to estimate associations between exposure and illhealth/risk-taking behaviors.

Results: Child physical abuse was associated with poor health and risk-taking behaviors with adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) ranging from 1.6 to 6.2. The associations were stronger when the pupils reported repeated abuse with OR ranging from 2.0 to 13.2. Also experiencing parental intimate partner violence, bullying and being forced to engage in sexual acts was associated with poor health and risk-taking behaviors with the same graded relationship to repeated abuse. Finally there was a cumulative effect of multiple abuse in the form of being exposed to child physical abuse plus other types of abuse and the associations increase with the number of concurrent abuse.

Conclusions: This study provides strong indications that child abuse is a serious public health problem based on the clear links seen between abuse and poor health and behavioral problems. Consistent with other studies showing a graded relationship between experiences of abuse and poor health/risk-taking behaviors our study shows poorer outcomes for repeated and multiple abuse. Thus, our study calls for improvement of methods of comprehensive assessments, interventions and treatment in all settings where professionals meet young people.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67219 (URN)10.1016/j.chiabu.2012.05.006 (DOI)000307913700004 ()
Available from: 2011-04-04 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Helmfrid, I., Berglund, M., Lofman, O. & Wingren, G. (2012). Health effects and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals in a contaminated community. Environment International, 44, 53-58
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health effects and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals in a contaminated community
2012 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 44, p. 53-58Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental measurements carried out by local authorities during the 1970s, 80s and 90s in an area contaminated by hundreds of years of industrial activities have revealed high levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in soil, vegetables, root crops, berries and mushrooms. In 1972, a large quantity of oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was accidentally spilled into the river running through the village. To investigate the possible health effects of exposure from local sources, all cancer diagnoses, registered in 1960-2003 for individuals living in the study area, were collected from the regional cancer register of southeast Sweden. The total cancer incidence was non-significantly decreased both among males and females as compared to national rates (SIR = 0.91) for each gender. Among males, increased risks, of border-line significance, were seen for testicular cancer and lymphomas as well as significantly decreased risks for cancer in the rectum, respiratory system and brain. Information on lifetime residence, occupation, smoking habits, diseases, childbirth and food consumption, was collected via questionnaires from cancer cases and randomly selected controls. In both genders combined, significant associations were found for total cancer and high consumption of local perch, and for lymphomas and high consumption of both perch and pikeperch. Female breast cancer was significantly associated with high consumption of local perch and pike as well as with work in metal production. Mothers residing in the parish before the age of five reported significantly more preterm child deliveries. In spite of study limitations, the results indicate that residing in a rural contaminated area may contribute to the development of certain cancers and reproductive effects. In females, high consumption of local fish was shown to be the strongest determinant for total cancer, while in males, the strongest determinant was residing in the study area the first five years of life. Further research including validation of exposure using biomarkers is required to verify the findings as well as future studies in other polluted areas in Sweden with larger population bases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
Contaminated area, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Heavy metals, Cancer, Reproduction
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79086 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2012.01.009 (DOI)000304745900007 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Cancer and Allergy Fund, Sweden||

Available from: 2012-06-29 Created: 2012-06-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Samelius, C., Wijma, B., Wingren, G. & Wijma, K. (2010). Lifetime history of abuse, suffering, and psychological health. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 64(4), 227-232
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lifetime history of abuse, suffering, and psychological health
2010 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 227-232Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In a representative Swedish sample, we investigated lifetime prevalence of physical, sexual and psychological abuse of women and their current suffering. The relationship between current suffering from abuse and psychological health problems was also studied. Method: The study was cross-sectional and population-based. The Abuse Screening Inventory (ASI), measuring experiences of physical, sexual and psychological abuse and including questions on health and social situation, was sent by mail to 6000 women, randomly selected from the population register. The questionnaire was completed and returned by 4150 (70%) of 5896 eligible women. Results: 27.5% of the women reported abuse of any kind. Of those, 69.5% reported current suffering from abuse. Abused suffering women reported more anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances, and a less advantageous social situation than both non-abused and abused non-suffering women. Also, abused non-suffering women reported more depression than non-abused women. Somatization was reported more often by both abused suffering and non-suffering women than by non-abused women, with no difference between suffering and non-suffering women when adjusted for possible confounders. Conclusion: A majority of abused women, when investigating lifetime history of abuse, report current suffering thereof, which warrants considering abuse an important societal problem. Suffering could be a valuable construct, possibly useful to assess psychological health problems normally not captured by existing diagnostic instruments, although further investigations of the concept are needed.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14531 (URN)10.3109/08039480903478680 (DOI)20085432 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2007-05-23 Created: 2007-05-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Annerbäck, E.-M., Wingren, G., Göran Svedin, C. & Gustafsson, P. (2010). Prevalence and characteristics of child physical abuse in Sweden - findings from a population-based youth survey. Acta Paediatrica, 99(8), 1229-1236
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence and characteristics of child physical abuse in Sweden - findings from a population-based youth survey
2010 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 99, no 8, p. 1229-1236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To examine prevalence rates of child physical abuse perpetrated by a parent/caretaker, abuse characteristics and the extent of disclosures. Methods: A population-based survey was carried out in 2008 amongst all the pupils in three different grades (n = 8494) in schools in Sodermanland County, Sweden. The pupils were asked about their exposure to violence and their experiences of parental intimate-partner violence. Data were analysed with bi- and multivariate models and a comparison between means of accumulating risk factors between three groups were performed. Results: A total of 15.2% of the children reported that they had been hit. There were strong associations between abuse and risk factors and there was a dose-response relationship between risks and reported abuse. It was shown that children who reported parental intimate-partner violence were at a considerably higher risk for abuse than other children and that only 7% of the children exposed to violence had disclosed this to authorities. Conclusion: Even though child abuse in Sweden has decreased markedly during the last 40 years, violence against children is still a considerable problem. It is a challenge to develop methods of assessment and interventions that will ensure that the violence and its underlying causes are directly addressed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2010
Keyword
Child physical abuse; Prevalence; Risk factors; Parental intimate-partner violence; Sweden
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58283 (URN)10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.01792.x (DOI)000279438000024 ()
Available from: 2010-08-10 Created: 2010-08-09 Last updated: 2017-12-12
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8234-5461

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