liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Altimiras, Jordi
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 36) Show all publications
Fallahsharoudi, A., Løtvedt, P., Beltéky, J., Altimiras, J. & Jensen, P. (2019). Changes in pituitary gene expression may underlie multiple domesticated traits in chickens.. Heredity, 122(2), 195-204
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in pituitary gene expression may underlie multiple domesticated traits in chickens.
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 195-204Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Domesticated animals share a unique set of morphological and behavioral traits, jointly referred to as the domesticated phenotype. Striking similarities amongst a range of unrelated domesticated species suggest that similar regulatory mechanisms may underlie the domesticated phenotype. These include color pattern, growth, reproduction, development and stress response. Although previous studies have focused on the brain to find mechanisms underlying domestication, the potential role of the pituitary gland as a target of domestication is highly overlooked. Here, we study gene expression in the pituitary gland of the domesticated White Leghorn chicken and its wild ancestor, the Red Junglefowl. By overlapping differentially expressed genes with a previously published list of functionally important genes in the pituitary gland, we narrowed down to 34 genes. Amongst them, expression levels of genes with inhibitory function on pigmentation (ASIP), main stimulators of metabolism and sexual maturity (TSHB and DIO2), and a potential inhibitor of broodiness (PRLR), were higher in the domesticated breed. Additionally, expression of 2 key inhibitors of the stress response (NR3C1, CRHR2) was higher in the domesticated breed. We suggest that changes in the transcription of important modulatory genes in the pituitary gland can account not only for domestication of the stress response in domestic chickens, but also for changes in pigmentation, development, and reproduction. Given the pivotal role of the pituitary gland in the regulation of multiple shared domesticated traits, we suggest that similar changes in pituitary transcriptome may contribute to the domesticated phenotype in other species as well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148742 (URN)10.1038/s41437-018-0092-z (DOI)000455217300005 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council (VR) [2015-05444]; Swedish Research Council Formas [2016-00645]; European Research Council (ERC) [322206 GENEWELL]

Available from: 2018-06-18 Created: 2018-06-18 Last updated: 2019-01-29Bibliographically approved
Løtvedt, P., Fallahshahroudi, A., Bektic, L., Altimiras, J. & Jensen, P. (2017). Chicken domestication changes expression of stress-related genes in brain, pituitary and adrenals. Neurobiology of stress, 7, 113-121
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chicken domestication changes expression of stress-related genes in brain, pituitary and adrenals
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Neurobiology of stress, ISSN 2352-2895, Vol. 7, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Domesticated species have an attenuated behavioral and physiological stress response compared to their wild counterparts, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this change are not fully understood. We investigated gene expression of a panel of stress response-related genes in five tissues known for their involvement in the stress response: hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands and liver of domesticated White Leghorn chickens and compared it with the wild ancestor of all domesticated breeds, the Red Junglefowl. Gene expression was measured both at baseline and after 45 min of restraint stress. Most of the changes in gene expression related to stress were similar to mammals, with an upregulation of genes such as FKBP5, C-FOS and EGR1 in hippocampus and hypothalamus and StAR, MC2R and TH in adrenal glands. We also found a decrease in the expression of CRHR1 in the pituitary of chickens after stress, which could be involved in negative feedback regulation of the stress response. Furthermore, we observed a downregulation of EGR1 and C-FOS in the pituitary following stress, which could be a potential link between stress and its effects on reproduction and growth in chickens. We also found changes in the expression of important genes between breeds such as GR in the hypothalamus, POMC and PC1 in the pituitary and CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 in the adrenal glands. These results suggest that the domesticated White Leghorn may have a higher capacity for negative feedback of the HPA axis, a lower capacity for synthesis of ACTH in the pituitary and a reduced synthesis rate of corticosterone in the adrenal glands compared to Red Junglefowl. All of these findings could explain the attenuated stress response in the domesticated birds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Animal domestication, Chicken, Gene expression, Glucocorticoid receptor, HPA axis, Stress response
National Category
Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143054 (URN)10.1016/j.ynstr.2017.08.002 (DOI)28879214 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85028334770 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Zupan, M., Buskas, J., Altimiras, J. & Keeling, L. J. (2016). Assessing positive emotional states in dogs using heart rate and heartrate variability. Physiology and Behavior, 155, 102-111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing positive emotional states in dogs using heart rate and heartrate variability
2016 (English)In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 155, p. 102-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Since most animal species have been recognized as sentient beings, emotional state may be a good indicator ofwelfare in animals. The goal of this study was to manipulate the environment of nine beagle research dogs tohighlight physiological responses indicative of different emotional experiences. Stimuli were selected to be amore or a less positive food (meatball or food pellet) or social reward (familiar person or less familiar person).That all the stimuli were positive and of different reward value was confirmed in a runway motivation test.Dogs were tested individually while standing facing a display theatre where the different stimuli could beshown by lifting a shutter. The dogs approached and remained voluntarily in the test system. They were testedin four sessions (of 20 s each) for each of the four stimuli. A test session consisted of four presentation phases(1st exposure to stimulus, post exposure, 2nd exposure, and access to reward). Heart rate (HR) and heart ratevariability (HRV) responses were recorded during testing in the experimental room and also when lying restingin a quiet familiar room. A newmethod of ‘stitching’ short periods of HRV data together was used in the analysis.When testing different stimuli, no significant differenceswere observed in HR and LF:HF ratio (relative power inlow frequency (LF) and the high-frequency (HF) range), implying that the sympathetic tone was activated similarlyfor all the stimuli and may suggest that dogs were in a state of positive arousal. A decrease of HF was associatedwith the meatball stimulus compared to the food pellet and the reward phase (interacting with the personor eating the food) was associated with a decrease in HF and RMSSD (root mean square of successive differencesof inter-beat intervals) compared to the preceding phase (looking at the person or food). This suggests that parasympatheticdeactivation is associated with a more positive emotional state in the dog. A similar reduction in HFandRMSSDwas found in the test situation compared to the resting situation. This is congruentwith the expectedautonomic effects related to postural shift i.e. sympathetic activation and parasympathetic withdrawal, duringstanding versus lying, but it cannot explain the parasympathetic deactivation in response to the more positivestimuli since the dogs were always standing in the test situation.Wediscuss the systematic pattern of responses,which support that increased HRand LF:HF ratio are associatedwithemotional arousal, but add the newproposalthat a combined decrease inRMSSD and HFmay reflect a more positively valencedemotional state evenwhen anindividual is already in a positive psychological state.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Positive psychology Emotion Autonomic nervous system Welfare Dog Stimulus
National Category
Ecology Behavioral Sciences Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123379 (URN)10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.11.027 (DOI)000369455200013 ()26631546 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences [50200]; Swedish Research Council Formas [221-2010-35]

Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Joyce, W., Axelsson, M., Altimiras, J. & Wang, T. (2016). In situ cardiac perfusion reveals interspecific variation of intraventricular flow separation in reptiles. Journal of Experimental Biology, 219(pt 14), 2220-2227
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In situ cardiac perfusion reveals interspecific variation of intraventricular flow separation in reptiles
2016 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 219, no pt 14, p. 2220-2227Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ventricles of non-crocodilian reptiles are incompletely dividedand provide an opportunity for mixing of oxygen-poor blood andoxygen-rich blood (intracardiac shunting). However, both cardiacmorphology and in vivo shunting patterns exhibit considerableinterspecific variation within reptiles. In the present study, wedevelop an in situ double-perfused heart approach to characterisethe propensity and capacity for shunting in five reptile species: theturtle Trachemys scripta, the rock python Python sebae, the yellowanaconda Eunectes notaeus, the varanid lizard Varanusexanthematicus and the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps. Tosimulate changes in vascular bed resistance, pulmonary andsystemic afterloads were independently manipulated and changesin blood flow distribution amongst the central outflow tracts weremonitored. As previously demonstrated in Burmese pythons, rockpythons and varanid lizards exhibited pronounced intraventricularflow separation. As pulmonary or systemic afterload was raised, flowin the respective circulation decreased. However, flow in the othercirculation, where afterload was constant, remained stable. Thiscorrelates with the convergent evolution of intraventricular pressureseparation and the large intraventricular muscular ridge, whichcompartmentalises the ventricle, in these species. Conversely, inthe three other species, the pulmonary and systemic flows werestrongly mutually dependent, such that the decrease in pulmonaryflow in response to elevated pulmonary afterload resulted inredistribution of perfusate to the systemic circuit (and vice versa).Thus, in these species, the muscular ridge appeared labile and bloodcould readily transverse the intraventricular cava. We conclude thatrelatively minor structural differences between non-crocodilianreptiles result in the fundamental changes in cardiac function.Further, our study emphasises that functionally similar intracardiacflow separation evolved independently in lizards (varanids) andsnakes (pythons) from an ancestor endowed with the capacity forlarge intracardiac shunts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Company of Bologists, 2016
Keywords
Cardiovascular, Cardiac shunting, Reptile, Blood flow, Perfused heart
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130523 (URN)10.1242/jeb.139543 (DOI)000380141000021 ()27207643 (PubMedID)
External cooperation:
Note

Funding agencies: Danish Research Council (Det Frie Forskningsrad \ Natur og Univers); Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsradet)

Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Lindholm, C. & Altimiras, J. (2016). Point-of-care devices for physiological measurements in field conditions. A smorgasbord of instruments and validation procedures. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Comparative Physiology, 202, 99-111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Point-of-care devices for physiological measurements in field conditions. A smorgasbord of instruments and validation procedures
2016 (English)In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Comparative Physiology, ISSN 0300-9629, Vol. 202, p. 99-111Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Point-of-care (POC) devices provide quick diagnostic results that increase the efficiency of patient care. Many POC devices are currently available to measure metabolites, blood gases, hormones, disease biomarkers or pathogens in samples as diverse as blood, urine, feces or exhaled breath. This diversity is potentially very useful for the comparative physiologist in field studies if proper validation studies are carried out to justify the accuracy of the devices in non-human species under different conditions. Our review presents an account of physiological parameters that can be monitored with POC devices and surveys the literature for suitable quantitative and statistical procedures for comparing POC measurements with reference “gold standard” procedures. We provide a set of quantitative tools and report on different correlation coefficients (Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient or the more widespread Pearson correlation coefficient), describe the graphical assessment of variation using Bland–Altman plots and discuss the difference between Model I and Model II regression procedures. We also report on three validation datasets for lactate, glucose and hemoglobin measurements in birds using the newly proposed procedures. We conclude the review with a haphazard account of future developments in the field, emphasizing the interest in lab-on-a-chip devices to carry out more complex experimental measurements than the ones currently available in POC devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128105 (URN)10.1016/j.cbpa.2016.04.009 (DOI)000389110800009 ()27083239 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish research council FORMAS [2013-293]; Linkoping University; FORMAS Centre of Excellence in Animal Welfare Science and European Research Council

Available from: 2016-05-17 Created: 2016-05-17 Last updated: 2018-02-21
Österman, H., Lindgren, I., Lindström, T. & Altimiras, J. (2015). Chronic hypoxia during development does not trigger pathologic remodeling of the chicken embryonic heart but reduces cardiomyocyte number. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 309(10), R1204-R1214
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chronic hypoxia during development does not trigger pathologic remodeling of the chicken embryonic heart but reduces cardiomyocyte number
2015 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, ISSN 0363-6119, E-ISSN 1522-1490, Vol. 309, no 10, p. R1204-R1214Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fetal growth restriction programs an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood, but the actual mechanisms of this developmental programming are not fully understood. Previous studies in mammalian models suggest that hearts of growth-restricted fetuses have reduced cardiomyocyte number due to reduced proliferation and premature cardiomyocyte maturation. Chicken embryos incubated under chronic hypoxia are also growth-restricted, have smaller hearts, and show signs of cardiac insufficiency posthatching. The aim of the present study was to investigate how chronic hypoxia (14% O-2) during development affects cardiomyocyte mass and how myocardial structure is altered. Hypoxic incubation reproduced the well-characterized embryonic growth restriction and an increased ventricle-to-body mass ratio (at E11, E15, E17, and E19) with reduced absolute heart mass only at E19. Cell density, apoptosis, and cardiomyocyte size were insensitive to hypoxia at E15 and E19, and no signs of ventricular wall remodeling or myocardial fibrosis were detected. Bayesian modeling provided strong support for hypoxia affecting absolute mass and proliferation rates at E15, indicating that the growth impairment, at least partly, occurs earlier in development. Neither E15 nor E19 hearts contained binucleated cardiomyocytes, indicating that fetal hypoxia does not trigger early maturation of cardiomyocytes in the chicken, which contrasts with previous results from hypoxic rat pups. In conclusion, prenatal hypoxia in the chick embryo results in a reduction in the number of cardiomyocytes without inducing ventricular remodeling, cell hypertrophy, or premature cardiomyocyte maturation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC, 2015
Keywords
prenatal hypoxia; cardiomyocyte endowment; heart growth; hyperplasia; hypertrophy
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123806 (URN)10.1152/ajpregu.00499.2014 (DOI)000365878700002 ()26423711 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|FORMAS Centre of Excellence in Animal Welfare Science; Linkoping university

Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Elfwing, M., Lindgren, I., Jensen, P. & Altimiras, J. (2015). Domestication Affected Heart Rate Regulation in Juvenile Chickens.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Domestication Affected Heart Rate Regulation in Juvenile Chickens
2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The domestication process in chickens has involved strong selection for productive traits. There is a broad understanding of phenotypic differences between domestic breeds and their ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF), on fear related behaviors, genetic architecture, physiology and productive traits. Some of these characters can potentially be explained by changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system. To address these questions we measured heart rate as a proxy for autonomic activity in the Red Junglefowl and compared it with two domestic strains, a broiler (BRO) (meat production) and a White Leghorn strain (HY) (egg production) at two and six weeks of age. Autonomic tones were pharmacologically manipulated in broilers to assess heart rate regulation during maturation. To investigate the dynamics of  autonomic control animals were measured during baseline conditions and during acute stress.

At two weeks of age baseline heart rate was high in all strains (RJF: 541.2±18.3, HY: 506.8±38.8, BRO: 456.0±22.3) and progressively decreased with age (RJF: 491.3±10.9, HY: 386.8±25.1, BRO:_296.8±26.9). BRO had a lower heart rate compared to RJF and HY, and the differences could not be explained by allometry alone. There was a domestication effect in BRO but not HY, which were in general more similar to RJF. These findings suggest that positive selection for somatic growth has changed heart rate regulation in broilers. During acute stress heart rate did not decrease with age in the same way than baseline values, which means that there is an increased scope for raising heart rate above baseline with age. At least in broilers the increased heart rate scope is due to a recruitment in adrenergic control in absence of a patent cholinergic tone.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117422 (URN)
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2015-04-27Bibliographically approved
Agnvall, B., Katajamaa, R., Altimiras, J. & Jensen, P. (2015). Is domestication driven by reduced fear of humans? Boldness, metabolism and serotonin levels in divergently selected red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). Biology Letters, 11(9), Article ID 20150509.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is domestication driven by reduced fear of humans? Boldness, metabolism and serotonin levels in divergently selected red junglefowl (Gallus gallus)
2015 (English)In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 20150509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Domesticated animals tend to develop a coherent set of phenotypic traits. Tameness could be a central underlying factor driving this, and we therefore selected red junglefowl, ancestors of all domestic chickens, for high or low fear of humans during six generations. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR), feed efficiency, boldness in a novel object (NO) test, corticosterone reactivity and basal serotonin levels (related to fearfulness) in birds from the fifth and sixth generation of the high- and low-fear lines, respectively (44-48 individuals). Corticosterone response to physical restraint did not differ between selection lines. However, BMR was higher in low-fear birds, as was feed efficiency. Low-fear males had higher plasma levels of serotonin and both low-fear males and females were bolder in an NO test. The results show that many aspects of the domesticated phenotype may have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans, an essential trait for successful domestication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROYAL SOC, 2015
Keywords
genetics; domestication; stress
National Category
Zoology Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123162 (URN)10.1098/rsbl.2015.0509 (DOI)000364772300009 ()26382075 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|research council Formas; ERC [322206]

Available from: 2015-12-07 Created: 2015-12-04 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Nyman, E., Lindgren, I., Lövfors, W., Lundengård, K., Cervin, I., Arbring, T., . . . Cedersund, G. (2015). Mathematical modeling improves EC50 estimations from classical dose–response curves. The FEBS Journal, 282(5), 951-962
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mathematical modeling improves EC50 estimations from classical dose–response curves
Show others...
2015 (English)In: The FEBS Journal, ISSN 1742-464X, E-ISSN 1742-4658, Vol. 282, no 5, p. 951-962Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The beta-adrenergic response is impaired in failing hearts. When studying beta-adrenergic function in vitro, the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) is an important measure of ligand response. We previously measured the in vitro contraction force response of chicken heart tissue to increasing concentrations of adrenaline, and observed a decreasing response at high concentrations. The classical interpretation of such data is to assume a maximal response before the decrease, and to fit a sigmoid curve to the remaining data to determine EC50. Instead, we have applied a mathematical modeling approach to interpret the full dose–response curvein a new way. The developed model predicts a non-steady-state caused by a short resting time between increased concentrations of agonist, which affect the dose–response characterization. Therefore, an improved estimate of EC50 may be calculated using steady-state simulations of the model. The model-based estimation of EC50 is further refined using additional time resolved data to decrease the uncertainty of the prediction. The resulting model-based EC50 (180–525 nM) is higher than the classically interpreted EC50 (46–191 nM). Mathematical modeling thus makes it possible to reinterpret previously obtained datasets, and to make accurate estimates of EC50 even when steady-state measurements are not experimentally feasible.

Keywords
adrenaline; cardiac b-adrenergic signaling; dynamic mathematical modeling; EC50; ordinary differential equations
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114788 (URN)10.1111/febs.13194 (DOI)000350650200010 ()25586512 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-03-04 Created: 2015-03-04 Last updated: 2019-03-04
Lindholm, C., Calais, A., Jönsson, J., Yngwe, N., Berndtson, E., Hult, E. & Altimiras, J. (2015). Slow and steady wins the race? No signs of reduced welfare in smallerbroiler breeder hens at four weeks of age. Animal Welfare, 24(4), 447-454
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Slow and steady wins the race? No signs of reduced welfare in smallerbroiler breeder hens at four weeks of age
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Animal Welfare, ISSN 0962-7286, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 447-454Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Broiler breeder chickens are commonly reared under strict feed-restriction regimes to reduce obesity-induced health and fertilityproblems during adult life, and are assumed to experience a reduced welfare due to the resulting hunger. In these conditions, feedcompetition could influence the growth rate, so that the individuals falling behind in growth would experience more stress and hunger.We hypothesised that these chickens are poor competitors due to a reactive coping style and experience a further reduced welfaresituation before size-sorting (‘grading’) at four weeks of age. Our results from open field, tonic immobility and home pen activity monitoringshow signs of lower fear and higher home-pen activity levels in smaller hens and do not support the idea of reactive coping.H/L ratios of smaller hens were also found to be lower, indicating less stress in these birds. Dissections of smaller and larger fourweekbreeder hens may offer an explanation in the form of a relatively larger gastrointestinal tract in smaller birds. We argue thatthis is a form of habituation to restricted feeding, offering these birds a physiological stress coping mechanism, and that low earlygrowth rate may not always be a sign of poorer welfare in broiler breeders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, 2015
Keywords
animal welfare, broiler breeders, chicken, feed restriction, growth, stress
National Category
Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122024 (URN)10.7120/09627286.24.4.447 (DOI)000363898500009 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish research council Formas [2013-293]

Available from: 2015-10-16 Created: 2015-10-16 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications