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Gerasimov, J., Karlsson, R. H., Forchheimer, R., Stavrinidou, E., Simon, D. T., Berggren, M. & Fabiano, S. (2019). An Evolvable Organic Electrochemical Transistor for Neuromorphic Applications. ADVANCED SCIENCE, 6(7), Article ID 1801339.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Evolvable Organic Electrochemical Transistor for Neuromorphic Applications
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2019 (English)In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 6, no 7, article id 1801339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An evolvable organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), operating in the hybrid accumulation-depletion mode is reported, which exhibits short-term and long-term memory functionalities. The transistor channel, formed by an electropolymerized conducting polymer, can be formed, modulated, and obliterated in situ and under operation. Enduring changes in channel conductance, analogous to long-term potentiation and depression, are attained by electropolymerization and electrochemical overoxidation of the channel material, respectively. Transient changes in channel conductance, analogous to short-term potentiation and depression, are accomplished by inducing nonequilibrium doping states within the transistor channel. By manipulating the input signal, the strength of the transistor response to a given stimulus can be modulated within a range that spans several orders of magnitude, producing behavior that is directly comparable to short- and long-term neuroplasticity. The evolvable transistor is further incorporated into a simple circuit that mimics classical conditioning. It is forecasted that OECTs that can be physically and electronically modulated under operation will bring about a new paradigm of machine learning based on evolvable organic electronics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2019
Keywords
conducting polymers; evolvable electronics; neuromorphic; organic electrochemical transistors; organic electronics
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156560 (URN)10.1002/advs.201801339 (DOI)000463153100015 ()30989020 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061035781 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [2012.0302]; VINNOVA [2015-04859]; Swedish Research Council [2016-03979]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (BioCom Lab) [RIT15-0119]; Marie Sklodowska Curie Individual Fellowship (MSCA-IF-EF-ST, Trans-Plant) [702641]

Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2019-10-25Bibliographically approved
Abrahamsson, T., Poxson, D., Gabrielsson, E., Sandberg, M., Simon, D. T. & Berggren, M. (2019). Formation of Monolithic Ion-Selective Transport Media Based on "Click" Cross-Linked Hyperbranched Polyglycerol. Frontiers in Chemistry, 7, Article ID 484.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formation of Monolithic Ion-Selective Transport Media Based on "Click" Cross-Linked Hyperbranched Polyglycerol
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Chemistry, E-ISSN 2296-2646, Vol. 7, article id 484Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the emerging field of organic bioelectronics, conducting polymers and ion-selective membranes are combined to form resistors, diodes, transistors, and circuits that transport and process both electronic and ionic signals. Such bioelectronics concepts have been explored in delivery devices that translate electronic addressing signals into the transport and dispensing of small charged biomolecules at high specificity and spatiotemporal resolution. Manufacturing such "iontronic" devices generally involves classical thin film processing of polyelectrolyte layers and insulators followed by application of electrolytes. This approach makes miniaturization and integration difficult, simply because the ion selective polyelectrolytes swell after completing the manufacturing. To advance such bioelectronics/iontronics and to enable applications where relatively larger molecules can be delivered, it is important to develop a versatile material system in which the charge/size selectivity can be easily tailormade at the same time enabling easy manufacturing of complex and miniaturized structures. Here, we report a one-pot synthesis approach with minimal amount of organic solvent to achieve cationic hyperbranched polyglycerol films for iontronics applications. The hyperbranched structure allows for tunable pre multi-functionalization, which combines available unsaturated groups used in crosslinking along with ionic groups for electrolytic properties, to achieve a one-step process when applied in devices for monolithic membrane gel formation with selective electrophoretic transport of molecules.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019
Keywords
hyperbranched polyglycerol; polyelectrolyte; multi-functionalization; thiol-ene; cross-linking; ion-selective; electrophoretic transport
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159146 (URN)10.3389/fchem.2019.00484 (DOI)000474717900001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University; Onnesjo Foundation; Knut and AliceWallenberg Foundation

Available from: 2019-07-30 Created: 2019-07-30 Last updated: 2019-11-14
Fahlman, M., Fabiano, S., Gueskine, V., Simon, D. T., Berggren, M. & Crispin, X. (2019). Interfaces in organic electronics. Nature Reviews Materials, 4(10), 627-650
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interfaces in organic electronics
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2019 (English)In: Nature Reviews Materials, E-ISSN 2058-8437, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 627-650Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Undoped, conjugated, organic molecules and polymers possess properties of semiconductors, including the electronic structure and charge transport, which can be readily tuned by chemical design. Moreover, organic semiconductors (OSs) can be n-doped or p-doped to become organic conductors and can exhibit mixed electronic and ionic conductivity. Compared with inorganic semiconductors and metals, organic (semi)conductors possess a unique feature: no insulating oxide forms on their surface when exposed to air. Thus, OSs form clean interfaces with many materials, including metals and other OSs. OS–metal and OS–OS interfaces have been intensely investigated over the past 30 years, from which a consistent theoretical description has emerged. Since the 2000s, increased attention has been paid to interfaces in organic electronics that involve dielectrics, electrolytes, ferroelectrics and even biological organisms. In this Review, we consider the central role of these interfaces in the function of organic electronic devices and discuss how the physico-chemical properties of the interfaces govern the interfacial transport of light, excitons, electrons and ions, as well as the transduction of electrons into the molecular language of cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160114 (URN)10.1038/s41578-019-0127-y (DOI)000489089600004 ()2-s2.0-85069828729 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies:  Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO Mat LiU) [2009 00971]; Wallenberg Wood Science Center; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundatio

Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-23 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Seitanidou, M. S., Tybrandt, K., Berggren, M. & Simon, D. T. (2019). Overcoming transport limitations in miniaturized electrophoretic delivery devices. Lab on a Chip, 19(8), 1427-1435
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overcoming transport limitations in miniaturized electrophoretic delivery devices
2019 (English)In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 1427-1435Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organic electronic ion pumps (OEIPs) have been used for delivery of biological signaling compounds, at high spatiotemporal resolution, to a variety of biological targets. The miniaturization of this technology provides several advantages, ranging from better spatiotemporal control of delivery to reduced invasiveness for implanted OEIPs. One route to miniaturization is to develop OEIPs based on glass capillary fibers that are filled with a polyelectrolyte (cation exchange membrane, CEM). These devices can be easily inserted and brought into close proximity to targeted cells and tissues and could be considered as a starting point for other fiber-based OEIP and iontronic technologies enabling favorable implantable device geometries. While characterizing capillary OEIPs we observed deviations from the typical linear current-voltage behavior. Here we report a systematic investigation of these irregularities by performing experimental characterizations in combination with computational modelling. The cause of the observed irregularities is due to concentration polarization established at the OEIP inlet, which in turn causes electric field-enhanced water dissociation at the inlet. Water dissociation generates protons and is typically problematic for many applications. By adding an ion-selective cap that separates the inlet from the source reservoir this effect is then, to a large extent, suppressed. By increasing the surface area of the inlet with the addition of the cap, the concentration polarization is reduced which thereby allows for significantly higher delivery rates. These results demonstrate a useful approach to optimize transport and delivery of therapeutic substances at low concentrations via miniaturized electrophoretic delivery devices, thus considerably broadening the opportunities for implantable OEIP applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157204 (URN)10.1039/c9lc00038k (DOI)000465283700008 ()30875418 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064156567 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Advanced Functional Materials SFO-center at Linkoping University; Onnesjo Foundation; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-11-01Bibliographically approved
Jakešová, M., Arbring, T., Đerek, V., Poxson, D., Berggren, M., Glowacki, E. & Simon, D. T. (2019). Wireless organic electronic ion pumps driven by photovoltaics. npj Flexible Electronics, 3(1), 14-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wireless organic electronic ion pumps driven by photovoltaics
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2019 (English)In: npj Flexible Electronics, ISSN 2397-4621, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 14-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) is an emerging bioelectronic technology for on-demand and local delivery of pharmacologically active species, especially targeting alkali ions, and neurotransmitters. While electrical control is advantageous for providing precise spatial, temporal, and quantitative delivery, traditionally, it necessitates wiring. This complicates implantation. Herein, we demonstrate integration of an OEIP with a photovoltaic driver on a flexible carrier, which can be addressed by red light within the tissue transparency window. Organic thin-film bilayer photovoltaic pixels are arranged in series and/or vertical tandem to provide the 2.5–4.5 V necessary for operating the high-resistance electrophoretic ion pumps. We demonstrate light-stimulated transport of cations, ranging in size from protons to acetylcholine. The device, laminated on top of the skin, can easily be driven with a red LED emitting through a 1.5-cm-thick finger. The end result of our work is a thin and flexible integrated wireless device platform.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160118 (URN)10.1038/s41528-019-0060-6 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-05 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Toss, H., Lönnqvist, S., Nilsson, D., Sawatdee, A., Nissa, J., Fabiano, S., . . . Simon, D. T. (2017). Ferroelectric Surfaces for Cell Release. Synthetic metals, 228, 99-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ferroelectric Surfaces for Cell Release
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2017 (English)In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 228, p. 99-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adherent cells cultured in vitro must usually, at some point, be detached from the culture substrate. Presently, the most common method of achieving detachment is through enzymatic treatment which breaks the adhesion points of the cells to the surface. This comes with the drawback of deteriorating the function and viability of the cells. Other methods that have previously been proposed include detachment of the cell substrate itself, which risks contaminating the cell sample, and changing the surface energy of the substrate through thermal changes, which yields low spatial resolution and risks damaging the cells if they are sensitive to temperature changes. Here cell culture substrates, based on thin films of the ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) co-polymer, are developed for electroactive control of cell adhesion and enzyme-free detachment of cells. Fibroblasts cultured on the substrates are detached through changing the direction of polarization of the ferroelectric substrate. The method does not affect subsequent adhesion and viability of reseeded cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Physical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Clinical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121804 (URN)10.1016/j.synthmet.2017.04.013 (DOI)000401599600015 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA) [2010-00507]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Onnesjo Foundation

Available from: 2015-10-07 Created: 2015-10-07 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved
Stavrinidou, E., Gabrielsson, R., Nilsson, K. P., Singh, S. K., Franco- Gonzalez, J. F., Volkov, A. V., . . . Berggren, M. (2017). In vivo polymerization and manufacturing of wires and supercapacitors in plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114(11), 2807-2812
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In vivo polymerization and manufacturing of wires and supercapacitors in plants
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 11, p. 2807-2812Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electronic plants, e-Plants, are an organic bioelectronic platform that allows electronic interfacing with plants. Recently we have demonstrated plants with augmented electronic functionality. Using the vascular system and organs of a plant, we manufactured organic electronic devices and circuits in vivo, leveraging the internal structure and physiology of the plant as the template, and an integral part of the devices. However, this electronic functionality was only achieved in localized regions, whereas new electronic materials that could be distributed to every part of the plant would provide versatility in device and circuit fabrication and create possibilities for new device concepts. Here we report the synthesis of such a conjugated oligomer that can be distributed and form longer oligomers and polymer in every part of the xylem vascular tissue of a Rosa floribunda cutting, forming long-range conducting wires. The plant’s structure acts as a physical template, whereas the plant’s biochemical response mechanism acts as the catalyst for polymerization. In addition, the oligomer can cross through the veins and enter the apoplastic space in the leaves. Finally, using the plant’s natural architecture we manufacture supercapacitors along the stem. Our results are preludes to autonomous energy systems integrated within plants and distribute interconnected sensor-actuator systems for plant control and optimization

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
National Academy of Sciences, 2017
National Category
Plant Biotechnology Condensed Matter Physics Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-135492 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1616456114 (DOI)000396094200029 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation Scholar Grant [KAW 2012.0302]; Linkoping University; Onnesjo Foundation; Wenner-Gren Foundations; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkping University [SFO-Mat-

Available from: 2017-03-16 Created: 2017-03-16 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, A., Inal, S., Uguz, I., Williamson, A., Kergoat, L., Rivnay, J., . . . Simon, D. T. (2016). Bioelectronic neural pixel: Chemical stimulation and electrical sensing at the same site. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(34), 9440-9445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioelectronic neural pixel: Chemical stimulation and electrical sensing at the same site
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2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, no 34, p. 9440-9445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Local control of neuronal activity is central to many therapeutic strategies aiming to treat neurological disorders. Arguably, the best solution would make use of endogenous highly localized and specialized regulatory mechanisms of neuronal activity, and an ideal therapeutic technology should sense activity and deliver endogenous molecules at the same site for the most efficient feedback regulation. Here, we address this challenge with an organic electronic multifunctional device that is capable of chemical stimulation and electrical sensing at the same site, at the single-cell scale. Conducting polymer electrodes recorded epileptiform discharges induced in mouse hippocampal preparation. The inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), was then actively delivered through the recording electrodes via organic electronic ion pump technology. GABA delivery stopped epileptiform activity, recorded simultaneously and colocally. This multifunctional “neural pixel” creates a range of opportunities, including implantable therapeutic devices with automated feedback, where locally recorded signals regulate local release of specific therapeutic agents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
National Academy of Sciences, 2016
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130851 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1604231113 (DOI)000381860800035 ()27506784 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies:We thank Gaelle Rondeau and the staff of the clean room in Centre Microelectronique de Provence (CMP) for technical support during fabrication. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement 602102 (EPITARGET) and Initiative of Excellence Aix-Marseilles project MIDOE (A_M-AAP-ID-13-24-130531-16.31-BERNARD-HLS). Funding was also provided by the Swedish Innovation Office (2010-00507), the Swedish Research Council (621-2011-3517), and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (KAW Scholar, 2012.0302). The authors also thank the National Science Foundation Grant DMR-1105253 for partial support of this work, the French National Research Agency (ANR) through the project PolyProbe (ANR-13-BSV5-0019-01), Fondation pour la Recherche Medicale under Grant Agreements DBS20131128446 and ARF20150934124, Fondation de l'Avenir, the Onnesjo Foundation, the Region Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, and Microvitae Technologies. J.R. and L.K. acknowledge support from Marie Curie Fellowships. The fabrication of the device was performed, in part, at CMP.

Available from: 2016-08-26 Created: 2016-08-26 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
Berggren, M., Simon, D., Nilsson, D., Dyreklev, P., Norberg, P., Nordlinder, S., . . . Hentzell, H. (2016). Browsing the Real World using Organic Electronics, Si-Chips, and a Human Touch.. Advanced Materials, 28(10), 1911-1916
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Browsing the Real World using Organic Electronics, Si-Chips, and a Human Touch.
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2016 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1911-1916Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organic electronics have been developed according to an orthodox doctrine advocating "all-printed, "all-organic and "ultra-low-cost primarily targeting various e-paper applications. In order to harvest from the great opportunities afforded with organic electronics potentially operating as communication and sensor outposts within existing and future complex communication infrastructures, high-quality computing and communication protocols must be integrated with the organic electronics. Here, we debate and scrutinize the twinning of the signal-processing capability of traditional integrated silicon chips with organic electronics and sensors, and to use our body as a natural local network with our bare hand as the browser of the physical world. The resulting platform provides a body network, i.e., a personalized web, composed of e-label sensors, bioelectronics, and mobile devices that together make it possible to monitor and record both our ambience and health-status parameters, supported by the ubiquitous mobile network and the resources of the "cloud".

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH, 2016
National Category
Communication Systems Other Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125994 (URN)10.1002/adma.201504301 (DOI)000372308700001 ()26742807 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies:  Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Onnesjo Foundation; VINNOVA; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research

Available from: 2016-03-11 Created: 2016-03-11 Last updated: 2018-11-08
Iandolo, D., Ravichandran, A., Liu, X., Wen, F., Chan, J. K., Berggren, M., . . . Simon, D. T. (2016). Development and Characterization of Organic Electronic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 5(12), 1505-1512
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and Characterization of Organic Electronic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering
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2016 (English)In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 1505-1512Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bones have been shown to exhibit piezoelectric properties, generating electrical potential upon mechanical deformation and responding to electrical stimulation with the generation of mechanical stress. Thus, the effects of electrical stimulation on bone tissue engineering have been extensively studied. However, in bone regeneration applications, only few studies have focused on the use of electroactive 3D biodegradable scaffolds at the interphase with stem cells. Here a method is described to combine the bone regeneration capabilities of 3D-printed macroporous medical grade polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with the electrical and electrochemical capabilities of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). PCL scaffolds have been highly effective in vivo as bone regeneration grafts, and PEDOT is a leading material in the field of organic bioelectronics, due to its stability, conformability, and biocompatibility. A protocol is reported for scaffolds functionalization with PEDOT, using vapor-phase polymerization, resulting in a conformal conducting layer. Scaffolds' porosity and mechanical stability, important for in vivo bone regeneration applications, are retained. Human fetal mesenchymal stem cells proliferation is assessed on the functionalized scaffolds, showing the cytocompatibility of the polymeric coating. Altogether, these results show the feasibility of the proposed approach to obtain electroactive scaffolds for electrical stimulation of stem cells for regenerative medicine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2016
Keywords
Bioelectronics, Stem cells, Tissue engineering, 3D scaffolds
National Category
Biomaterials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128840 (URN)10.1002/adhm.201500874 (DOI)000379550400013 ()27111453 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [KAW 2012.0302]; Nanyang Technological University

Available from: 2016-06-01 Created: 2016-06-01 Last updated: 2017-11-22
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2799-3490

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