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Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Seitanidou, M. S., Tybrandt, K., Berggren, M. & Simon, D. T. (2019). Overcoming transport limitations in miniaturized electrophoretic delivery devices. Lab on a Chip, 19(8), 1427-1435
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overcoming transport limitations in miniaturized electrophoretic delivery devices
2019 (English)In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 1427-1435Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organic electronic ion pumps (OEIPs) have been used for delivery of biological signaling compounds, at high spatiotemporal resolution, to a variety of biological targets. The miniaturization of this technology provides several advantages, ranging from better spatiotemporal control of delivery to reduced invasiveness for implanted OEIPs. One route to miniaturization is to develop OEIPs based on glass capillary fibers that are filled with a polyelectrolyte (cation exchange membrane, CEM). These devices can be easily inserted and brought into close proximity to targeted cells and tissues and could be considered as a starting point for other fiber-based OEIP and iontronic technologies enabling favorable implantable device geometries. While characterizing capillary OEIPs we observed deviations from the typical linear current-voltage behavior. Here we report a systematic investigation of these irregularities by performing experimental characterizations in combination with computational modelling. The cause of the observed irregularities is due to concentration polarization established at the OEIP inlet, which in turn causes electric field-enhanced water dissociation at the inlet. Water dissociation generates protons and is typically problematic for many applications. By adding an ion-selective cap that separates the inlet from the source reservoir this effect is then, to a large extent, suppressed. By increasing the surface area of the inlet with the addition of the cap, the concentration polarization is reduced which thereby allows for significantly higher delivery rates. These results demonstrate a useful approach to optimize transport and delivery of therapeutic substances at low concentrations via miniaturized electrophoretic delivery devices, thus considerably broadening the opportunities for implantable OEIP applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157204 (URN)10.1039/c9lc00038k (DOI)000465283700008 ()30875418 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064156567 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Advanced Functional Materials SFO-center at Linkoping University; Onnesjo Foundation; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Simon, D. T., Gabrielsson, E., Tybrandt, K. & Berggren, M. (2016). Organic Bioelectronics: Bridging the Signaling Gap between Biology and Technology. Chemical Reviews, 116(21), 13009-13041
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic Bioelectronics: Bridging the Signaling Gap between Biology and Technology
2016 (English)In: Chemical Reviews, ISSN 0009-2665, E-ISSN 1520-6890, Vol. 116, no 21, p. 13009-13041Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The electronics surrounding us in our daily lives rely almost exclusively on electrons as the dominant charge carrier. In stark contrast, biological systems rarely use electrons but rather use ions and molecules of varying size. Due to the unique combination of both electronic and ionic/molecular conductivity in conducting and semiconducting organic polymers and small molecules, these materials have emerged in recent decades as excellent tools for translating signals between these two realms and, therefore, providing a means to effectively interface biology with conventional electronics-thus, the field of organic bioelectronics. Today, organic bioelectronics defines a generic platform with unprecedented biological recording and regulation tools and is maturing toward applications ranging from life sciences to the clinic. In this Review, we introduce the field, from its early breakthroughs to its current results and future challenges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2016
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130629 (URN)10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00146 (DOI)000387625200006 ()27367172 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; VINNOVA; Swedish Research Council; EU Seventh Framework Programme; Onnesjo Foundation; Linkoping Universitys Forum Scientium; Advanced Functional Materials Center at Linkopin

Available from: 2016-08-19 Created: 2016-08-19 Last updated: 2017-11-28
Persson, K., Lönnqvist, S., Tybrandt, K., Gabrielsson, R., Nilsson, D., Kratz, G. & Berggren, M. (2015). Matrix Addressing of an Electronic Surface Switch Based on a Conjugated Polyelectrolyte for Cell Sorting. Advanced Functional Materials, 25(45), 7056-7063
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Matrix Addressing of an Electronic Surface Switch Based on a Conjugated Polyelectrolyte for Cell Sorting
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2015 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 25, no 45, p. 7056-7063Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Spatial control of cell detachment is potentially of great interest when selecting cells for clonal expansion and in order to obtain a homogeneous starting population of cells aimed for tissue engineering purposes. Here, selective detachment and cell sorting of human primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts is achieved using thin films of a conjugated polymer. Upon electrochemical oxidation, the polymer film swells, cracks, and finally detaches taking cells cultured on top along with it. The polymer can be patterned using standard photolithography to fabricate a cross-point matrix with polymer pixels that can be individually addressed and thus detached. Detachment occurs above a well-defined threshold of +0.7 V versus Ag/AgCl, allowing the use of a relatively simple and easily manufactured passive matrix-addressing configuration, based on a resistor network, to control the cell-sorting device.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2015
National Category
Clinical Medicine Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123754 (URN)10.1002/adfm.201503542 (DOI)000366502900010 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; VINNOVA (the OBOE center) [2010-00507]; Onnesjo foundation (Holmen); Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]

Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Gabrielsson, E. O., Janson, P., Tybrandt, K., Simon, D. T. & Berggren, M. (2014). A Four-Diode Full-Wave Ionic Current Rectifier Based on Bipolar Membranes: Overcoming the Limit of Electrode Capacity. Advanced Materials, 26(30), 5143-5147
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Four-Diode Full-Wave Ionic Current Rectifier Based on Bipolar Membranes: Overcoming the Limit of Electrode Capacity
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2014 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 30, p. 5143-5147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Full-wave rectification of ionic currents is obtained by constructing the typical four-diode bridge out of ion conducting bipolar membranes. Together with conjugated polymer electrodes addressed with alternating current, the bridge allows for generation of a controlled ionic direct current for extended periods of time without the production of toxic species or gas typically arising from electrode side-reactions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2014
Keywords
bioelectronics, ionics, ion transport, bipolar membranes, conjugated polymer electrodes
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110403 (URN)10.1002/adma.201401258 (DOI)000340546300010 ()24863171 (PubMedID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2010–00507EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, iONE-FP7Swedish Research Council, 621–2011–3517EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, OrgBIO
Available from: 2014-09-10 Created: 2014-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Volkov, A., Tybrandt, K., Berggren, M. & Zozoulenko, I. (2014). Modeling of Charge Transport in Ion Bipolar Junction Transistors. Langmuir, 30(23), 6999-7005
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling of Charge Transport in Ion Bipolar Junction Transistors
2014 (English)In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 23, p. 6999-7005Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Spatiotemporal control of the complex chemical microenvironment is of great importance to many fields within life science. One way to facilitate such control is to construct delivery circuits, comprising arrays of dispensing outlets, for ions and charged biomolecules based on ionic transistors. This allows for addressability of ionic signals, which opens up for spatiotemporally controlled delivery in a highly complex manner. One class of ionic transistors, the ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs), is especially attractive for these applications because these transistors are functional at physiological conditions and have been employed to modulate the delivery of neurotransmitters to regulate signaling in neuronal cells. Further, the first integrated complementary ionic circuits were recently developed on the basis of these ionic transistors. However, a detailed understanding of the device physics of these transistors is still lacking and hampers further development of components and circuits. Here, we report on the modeling of IBJTs using Poissons and Nernst-Planck equations and the finite element method. A two-dimensional model of the device is employed that successfully reproduces the main characteristics of the measurement data. On the basis of the detailed concentration and potential profiles provided by the model, the different modes of operation of the transistor are analyzed as well as the transitions between the different modes. The model correctly predicts the measured threshold voltage, which is explained in terms of membrane potentials. All in all, the results provide the basis for a detailed understanding of IBJT operation. This new knowledge is employed to discuss potential improvements of ion bipolar junction transistors in terms of miniaturization and device parameters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2014
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109131 (URN)10.1021/la404296g (DOI)000337644200044 ()24854432 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-08-13 Created: 2014-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Tybrandt, K., Babu Kollipara, S. & Berggren, M. (2014). Organic electrochemical transistors for signal amplification in fast scan cyclic voltammetry. Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, 195, 651-656
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic electrochemical transistors for signal amplification in fast scan cyclic voltammetry
2014 (English)In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 195, p. 651-656Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical method commonly used in neuroscience for spatiotemporal measurement of the concentration of dopamine and other electroactive species. Since FSCV involves wide bandwidth measurements of low currents, the technique is normally very sensitive to electrical noise and is typically performed inside a Faraday cage. In order to reduce the electrical noise and to enable measurements in an unshielded environment, we take use of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) to amplify the FSCV signals. OECTs based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) were microfabricated and characterized. A patterned 10 mu m gold microelectrode was used as the sensing electrode and the FSCV signal was amplified by the OECT. With this approach, successful measurements of dopamine concentrations in the 10 mu m range were performed in a completely unshielded measurement setup. Our results demonstrate how OECTs can successfully be used in an on-site amplification application to characterize biochemical signals, thus open up new trails for flexible multifunctional organic bioelectronics systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Organic electrochemical transistor; Fast scan cyclic voltammetry; Bioelectronics; Dopamine; Onsite amplification
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105894 (URN)10.1016/j.snb.2014.01.097 (DOI)000332417600086 ()
Available from: 2014-04-14 Created: 2014-04-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Gabrielsson, E. O., Tybrandt, K. & Berggren, M. (2014). Polyphosphonium-Based Ion Bipolar Junction Transistors. Biomicrofluidics, 8(6), 064116
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polyphosphonium-Based Ion Bipolar Junction Transistors
2014 (English)In: Biomicrofluidics, ISSN 1932-1058, E-ISSN 1932-1058, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 064116-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons, but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e. ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2 μm, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example addressable drug-delivery devices.

Keywords
WATER DISSOCIATION; NANOFLUIDIC DIODE; MEMBRANES; CIRCUITS
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110400 (URN)10.1063/1.4902909 (DOI)000347160400018 ()
Note

This research was financed by VINNOVA (OBOE Miljo and AFM), the Swedish Research Council, and the Onnesjo foundation.

Available from: 2014-09-10 Created: 2014-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Persson, K. M., Lönnqvist, S. L., Tybrandt, K., Gabrielsson, R., Nilsson, D., Kratz, G. & Berggren, M. (2014). Selective Detachment of Human Primary Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts Using an Addressable Conjugated Polymer Matrix.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selective Detachment of Human Primary Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts Using an Addressable Conjugated Polymer Matrix
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2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Conjugated polymers have been used in several applications for electronic control of cell cultures over the last years. We have shown detachment of human endothelial cells using a thin film of a self-doped water-soluble conjugated polymer. Upon electrochemical oxidation, the film swells, cracks and finally detaches taking cells cultured on top along with it. The polymer can be patterned using standard photolithography. The detachment only occurs above a threshold potential of +0.7 V and this fact has been used to create a simple actively addressed matrix, based on a resistor network placed in an encapsulated back plane. The matrix has individually detachable pixels. In this paper we have evaluated detachment of human primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts using PEDOT-S:H. In addition, we have studied effects of serum proteins, added as nutrients to the cell culture medium, on the detachment properties. It was found that at prolonged incubation times protein adhesion effectively stopped the detachment. Using shorter incubation times before detachment, both keratinocytes and fibroblasts can be detached using a regular planar device as well as the matrix device for selective detachment. Spatial control of detachment could be of use when selecting cells for clonal expansion and in order to obtain a homogeneous starting population of cells aimed for tissue engineering purposes.

National Category
Polymer Chemistry Cell Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106252 (URN)
Available from: 2014-04-30 Created: 2014-04-30 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
Gabrielsson, E. O., Tybrandt, K. & Berggren, M. (2012). Ion diode logics for pH control. Lab on a Chip, 12(14), 2507-2513
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion diode logics for pH control
2012 (English)In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 12, no 14, p. 2507-2513Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electronic control over the generation, transport, and delivery of ions is useful in order to regulate reactions, functions, and processes in various chemical and biological systems. Different kinds of ion diodes and transistors that exhibit non-linear current versus voltage characteristics have been explored to generate chemical gradients and signals. Bipolar membranes (BMs) exhibit both ion current rectification and water splitting and are thus suitable as ion diodes for the regulation of pH. To date, fast switching ion diodes have been difficult to realize due to accumulation of ions inside the device structure at forward bias – charges that take a long time to deplete at reverse bias. Water splitting occurs at elevated reverse voltage bias and is a feature that renders high ion current rectification impossible. This makes integration of ion diodes in circuits difficult. Here, we report three different designs of micro-fabricated ion bipolar membrane diodes (IBMDs). The first two designs consist of single BM configurations, and are capable of either splitting water or providing high current rectification. In the third design, water-splitting BMs and a highly-rectifying BM are connected in series, thus suppressing accumulation of ions. The resulting IBMD shows less hysteresis, faster off-switching, and also a high ion current rectification ratio as compared to the single BM devices. Further, the IBMD was integrated in a diode-based AND gate, which is capable of controlling delivery of hydroxide ions into a receiving reservoir.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2012
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78002 (URN)10.1039/C2LC40093F (DOI)000305532600009 ()
Available from: 2012-06-04 Created: 2012-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Tybrandt, K. (2012). Ionic Circuits for Transduction of Electronic Signals into Biological Stimuli. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ionic Circuits for Transduction of Electronic Signals into Biological Stimuli
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Modern electronics has revolutionized the way information is processed and stored in our society. In health care and in biology it is of great interest to utilize technology to regulate physiology and to control the signaling pathways. Therefore, the coupling of electronic signals to biological functions is of great importance to many fields within the life sciences. In addition to the conventional inorganic electronics, a new branch of electronics based on organic materials has emerged during the last three decades. Some of these organic materials are very attractive for interacting with living systems since they are soft, flexible and have benevolent chemical properties.

This thesis is focused on the development of ionic circuits for transduction of electronic signals into biological stimuli. By developing such an intermediate system technology between traditional electronics and biology, signals with chemical specificity may be controlled and addressed electronically. First, a technology is described that enables direct conversion of electronic signals into ionic ones by the use biocompatible conductive polymer electrodes. The ionic bio-signals are transported in lateral channel configurations on plastic chips and precise spatiotemporal delivery of neurotransmitter, to regulate signaling in cultured neuronal cells, is demonstrated. Then, in order to achieve more advanced ionic circuit functionality, ion bipolar junction transistors were developed. These ion transistors comprise three terminals, in which a small ion current through one terminal modulates a larger ion current between the other two terminals. The devices are functional at physiological salt concentrations and are utilized to modulate neurotransmitter delivery to control Ca2+ signaling in neuronal cells. Finally, by integrating two types of transistors into the same chip, complementary NOT and NAND ion logic gates were realized for the first time. Together, the findings presented in this thesis lay the groundwork for more complex ionic circuits, such as matrix addressable delivery circuits, in which dispensing of chemical and biological signals can be directed at high spatiotemporal resolution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. p. 60
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1460
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80390 (URN)978-91-7519-857-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-09-21, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 11:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-08-24 Created: 2012-08-24 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9845-446X

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