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Dalal, Koustuv
Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Dalal, K. & Lindqvist, K. (2012). A National Study of the Prevalence and Correlates of Domestic Violence Among Women in India. ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, 24(2), 265-277
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A National Study of the Prevalence and Correlates of Domestic Violence Among Women in India
2012 (English)In: ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, ISSN 1010-5395, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 265-277Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article estimates the national prevalence rate of domestic violence in India and examines the demographic and socioeconomic status of the victims of domestic violence. The study used the Indian National Family Health Survey 3, a cross-sectional national survey of 124 385 ever-married women of reproductive age from all the 29 member states. chi(2) Analysis and logistic regression were used. Lifetime experiences of violence among respondents were as follows: emotional violence, 14%; less severe physical violence, 31%; severe physical violence, 10%; and sexual violence, 8%. Women of scheduled castes and Muslim religion were most often exposed to domestic violence. Womens poorer economic background, working status, and husbands controlling behavior emerged as strong predictors for domestic violence in India. Elimination of structural inequalities inherent in the indigenous oppressive institutions of religion, caste, and the traditional male hierarchy in society could prevent domestic violence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE Publications (UK and US), 2012
Keywords
controlling behavior, India, physical violence, representative sample, sexual abuse, verbal abuse
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77105 (URN)10.1177/1010539510384499 (DOI)000302590100004 ()
Available from: 2012-05-04 Created: 2012-05-04 Last updated: 2014-01-09Bibliographically approved
Lindqvist, K. & Dalal, K. (2012). Impact of social standing on traffic injury prevention in a WHO safe community. Health, 4(4), 216-221
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of social standing on traffic injury prevention in a WHO safe community
2012 (English)In: Health, ISSN 1949-4998, E-ISSN 1949-5005, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 216-221Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of the current study was to evalu- ate outcomes of a program to prevent traffic injuries among the different social strata under WHO Safe Community Program. A quasi-experi- mental design was used, with pre- and post- implementation registrations in the program im- plementation area (population 41,000) and in a neighbouring control municipality (population 26,000) in Östergötland County, Sweden. The traffic injury rate in the not vocationally active households was twice than employed or self- employed households in the intervention area. In the employed and not vocationally active households, males showed higher injury rates than females in both areas. In the self-employed households females exhibited higher injury rates than males in the intervention area. Males from not vocationally active households displayed the highest post-intervention injury rate in both the intervention and control areas. After 6 years of Safe Community program activity, the injury rates for males in employed category, injury rates for females in self-employed category, and males/females in non- vocationally active cate- gory displayed a decreasing trend in the inter- vention area. However, in the control area injury rate decreased only for males of employed households. The study indicated that there was almost no change in injury rates in the control area. Reduction of traffic injuries in the inter- vention area between 1983 and 1989 was likely to be attributable to the success of safety pro- motion program. Therefore, the current study concludes that Safe Community program seems to be successful for reducing traffic injuries in different social strata.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Irvine, USA: Scientific Research Publishing, 2012
Keywords
Traffic injury, socioeconomic
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77769 (URN)10.4236/health.2012.44033 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-05-29 Created: 2012-05-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Lindqvist, K. & Dalal, K. (2012). The impact of child safety promotion on different social strata in a WHO Safe Community. Journal of Injury and Violence Research, 4(1), 20-25
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of child safety promotion on different social strata in a WHO Safe Community
2012 (English)In: Journal of Injury and Violence Research, ISSN 2008-2053, E-ISSN 2008-4072, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 20-25Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to evaluate outcomes of a program to prevent severe and less severe unintentional child injuries among the different social strata under WHO Safe Community program. Specifically, the aim was to study effectiveness of Safe Community program for reducing child injury.

METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was used, with pre- and post-implementation registrations covering the children (0 -15 years) in the program implementation area (population 41,000) and in a neighboring control municipality (population 26,000) in Ostergotland County, Sweden.

RESULTS: Boys from not vocationally active households displayed the highest pre-intervention injury rate in both the control and intervention areas. Also in households in which the vocationally significant member was employed, boys showed higher injury rates than girls. Households in which the vocationally significant member was self-employed, girls exhibited higher injury rates than boys in the intervention area. After 6 years of program activity, the injury rates for boys and girls in employed category and injury rates for girls in self-employed category displayed a decreasing trend in the intervention area. However, in the control area injury rate decreased only for boys of employed families.

CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated that almost no changes in injury rates in the control area suggested that the reduction of child injuries in the intervention area between 1983 and 1989 was likely to be attributable to the safety promotion program. Therefore, the current study indicates that Safe Community program seems to be successful for reducing child injuries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2012
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77768 (URN)10.5249/jivr.v4i1.83 (DOI)21502791 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-05-29 Created: 2012-05-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Nilsen, P., Bendtsen, P., McCambridge, J., Karlsson, N. & Dalal, K. (2012). When is it appropriate to address patients alcohol consumption in health care-national survey of views of the general population in Sweden. Addictive Behaviours, 37(11), 1211-1216
Open this publication in new window or tab >>When is it appropriate to address patients alcohol consumption in health care-national survey of views of the general population in Sweden
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2012 (English)In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 37, no 11, p. 1211-1216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate the Swedish populations beliefs and attitudes on when it is appropriate to address patients alcohol in health care services and to identify the characteristics of those who are most supportive of this alcohol-preventive work. A cross-sectional study of 5981 nationally representative individuals (18-64 years) was done using confidential mail questionnaires. Alcohol consumption was assessed with AUDIT-C and respondents were classified into four levels of drinking status. Sociodemographic data were also collected. Thirty-four percent completely agreed that health care providers should routinely ask patients about their alcohol habits and 33% completely agreed that providers should ask but only if patients have consulted them with alcohol-related symptoms. There was limited support for a statement that alcohol conversations should be premised on the patient bringing up the issue and even less support for the notion that alcohol habits are peoples own business and not something that health care providers should address. Thirty-four percent believed that people did not answer honestly when asked about their alcohol habits in health care. There appears to be considerable support in the general population for alcohol prevention in Swedish health care services that involves questions being asked routinely about alcohol. This should be helpful in ongoing efforts to improve the implementation of alcohol screening and brief interventions in Sweden. Further studies on the views of hazardous and excessive drinkers appear particularly important.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
Alcohol, Hazardous drinking, Brief intervention, Prevention, Health care system, Screening
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84329 (URN)10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.05.024 (DOI)000307908400004 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish National Public Health Institute||

Available from: 2012-10-05 Created: 2012-10-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Dalal, K. (2011). Does economic empowerment protect women from intimate partner violence?. Journal of Injury and Violence Research, 3(1), 35-44
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does economic empowerment protect women from intimate partner violence?
2011 (English)In: Journal of Injury and Violence Research, ISSN 2008-2053, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The current study compared working and non-working groups of women in relation to intimate partner violence. The paper aims to explore the relationship between women's economic empowerment, their exposures to IPV and their help seeking behaviour using a nationally representative sample in India.

Methods: This was a cross sectional study of 124,385 ever married women of reproductive age from all 29 member states in India. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in proportions of dependent variables (exposure to IPV) and independent variables. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the independent contribution of the variables of economic empowerment in predicting exposure to IPV.

Results: Out of 124,385 women, 69432 (56%) were eligible for this study. Among those that were eligible 35% were working. In general, prevalence of IPV (ever) among women in India were: emotional violence 14%, less severe physical violence 31%, severe physical violence 10% and sexual violence 8%. For working women, the IPV prevalence was: emotional violence 18%, less severe physical violence 37%, severe physical violence 14% and sexual violence 10%; whilst for non-working women the rate was 12, 27, 8 and 8 percents, respectively. Working women seek more help from different sources.

Conclusions: Economic empowerment is not the sole protective factor. Economic empowerment, together with higher education and modified cultural norms against women, may protect women from IPV.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74088 (URN)10.5249/jivr.v3i1.76 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-01-18 Created: 2012-01-18 Last updated: 2012-01-26
Stenbacka, M., Leifman, A., Dalal, K. & Jansson, B. (2011). Early predictors of injury mortality among Swedish conscripts: a 35-year cohort study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(1), 228-234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early predictors of injury mortality among Swedish conscripts: a 35-year cohort study
2011 (English)In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 228-234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Injuries represent an important cause of mortality among young adults. We studied the associations between adolescents' family, psychological, behavioural and drug-related risk factors in relation to unintentional injury death. A population-based cohort of 49,411 Swedish conscripts aged 18-20 years was followed for 35 years. The end-point of study was injury death up to 2004. The relationship between two family, four psychological and eight behavioural risk factors and injury death were analysed with Cox proportional hazards analyses and X(2) tests. Among 485 unintentional injury deaths, 40% occurred in subjects aged 25 years or under. The incidence per 1000 person years was 0.29 (95% CI, 0.26-0.31) and the mean age of death was 33 years. Problem drinking at both adolescent and adulthood was more strongly associated with injury death (HR=5.40) than illicit drug use (HR=2.70) even after adjusted for behavioural risk factors: (HR=3.43) and (HR=1.75), respectively. Adolescent risk factors such as contact with police and juvenile authorities, low emotional control, conduct problems at school and low social maturity were significant predictors of injury death in multivariate analyses. Young adults with social, behavioural and psychological problems and especialla alcohol and drug use at both adolescent and adulthood have a high mortality rate due to road traffic injuries and all kind of injuries. Early identification of vulnerable groups of adolescents with psychological and behavioural problems including alcohol and drug use at local levels could make a difference.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74091 (URN)10.1016/j.aap.2010.08.014 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-01-18 Created: 2012-01-18 Last updated: 2017-12-08
Roback, K., Dalal, K. & Carlsson, P. (2011). Evaluation of health research: measuring costs and socioeconomic effects. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2(4), 203-215
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of health research: measuring costs and socioeconomic effects
2011 (English)In: International Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 2008-7802, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 203-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The topic of this work is health research evaluation including basic and clinical medical research, as well as healthcare research. The main objects are to explore possible approaches for valuing research in economic terms and to prepare an analytical model for evaluation of health research using the Swedish context. The study also aims to identify potential effects and their significance, and to provide a basis for discussions about the effects of research investments.

Methods: The study has reviewed ten articles indicating positive effects, in the form of improved health and economic growth. The study also developed a model applied to Swedish health research.

Results: The review indicates that positive effects, in the form of improved health and economic growth, have a value that greatly exceeds the costs of the research investments. The tentative model applied to Swedish health research also indicates predominantly positive returns, but in a lower range than the review would imply. Methodological problems, however, entail major uncertainty in the cited results.

Conclusions: Accurate determination of the economic value of research would require significantly better basic data and better knowledge of relationships between research, implementation of new knowledge, and health effects. Information in support of decisions about future allocation of research resources is preferably produced by a combination of general analyses and strategically  selected case studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Medknow Publications, 2011
Keywords
Medical research, Policy-making, Social impact, Innovation
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74079 (URN)
Available from: 2012-01-18 Created: 2012-01-18 Last updated: 2012-08-29Bibliographically approved
Bendtsen, P., Karlsson, N., Dalal, K. & Nilsen, P. (2011). Hazardous Drinking Concepts, Limits and Methods: Low Levels of Awareness, Knowledge and Use in the Swedish Population.. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 46(5), 638-645
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hazardous Drinking Concepts, Limits and Methods: Low Levels of Awareness, Knowledge and Use in the Swedish Population.
2011 (English)In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 638-645Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: To investigate the awareness and knowledge of hazardous drinking limits among the general population in Sweden and the extent to which people estimate their alcohol consumption in standard drinks to assess their level of drinking.

Methods: A population-based study involving 6000 individuals selected from the total Swedish population was performed. Data were collected by means of a postal questionnaire. The mail survey response rate was 54.3% (n = 3200) of the net sample of 5891 persons.

Results: With regard to drinking patterns, 10% of the respondents were abstainers, 59% were sensible drinkers and 31% were classified as hazardous drinkers. Most of the abstainers (80%), sensible drinkers (64%) and hazardous drinkers (56%) stated that they had never heard about the standard drink method. Familiarity with the hazardous drinking concept also differed between the three categories although ∼61% of sensible and hazardous drinkers expressed awareness of the concept (46% of the abstainers). Knowledge about the limits for sensible drinking was very poor. Between 94 and 97% in the three categories did not know the limit. There was a statistically significant association between having visited health care within the last 12 months and being aware of the standard drink method and the hazardous drinking concept, but not with knowing the hazardous drinking limits. Similarly, there was a significant association between having had at least one alcohol conversation in health care within the last 12 months and being aware of the standard drink method and the hazardous drinking concept, but not with knowing the hazardous drinking limits.

Conclusion: The results can be seen as a major challenge for the health-care system and public health authorities because they imply that a large proportion of the Swedish population does not know when alcohol consumption becomes a threat to their health. The current strategy to disseminate knowledge about sensible drinking limits to the population through the health-care system seems to have failed and new means of informing the population are warranted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2011
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70022 (URN)10.1093/alcalc/agr065 (DOI)000294066300021 ()21665870 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-08-15 Created: 2011-08-15 Last updated: 2017-12-08
Wang, S., Zou, J., Yin, M., Yuan, D. & Dalal, K. (2011). Injury Epidemiology in a Safe Community Health Service Center in Shanghai, China. HEALTHMED, 5(3), 479-485
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Injury Epidemiology in a Safe Community Health Service Center in Shanghai, China
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2011 (English)In: HEALTHMED, ISSN 1840-2291, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 479-485Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current study has investigated the injury epidemiology in a community health service center (CHSC) under a Safe Community in Shanghai, China. It was a cross sectional study with data generated from hospital records and Injury Report Card (IRC). Open wounds constituted 571 (50.8%) injuries. Majority of the injuries (99.64%) did not need any hospitalization. Among the injured victims, 59.16% were floating population and occupied in the manufacturing or transportation sector (31.49% of the injury), commercial services and farms. Finger, toes, head and face were most affected part of the body due to injuries. Mechanical objects and falls constituted nearly 95% causes of injuries. During start of working hours (9am) and during Wednesday and Thursday the frequencies of injuries were highest. In a WHO Safe Community program, injury epidemiology has great emphasize as it dwelled with proper scientific evidences of the injury etiologies. The study had identified some important issues within its objected framework. Education and supervision of the floating workers can be effective for reducing injuries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
DRUNPP-SARAJEVO, BOLNICKA BB, SARAJEVO, 71000, BOSNIA and HERCEG, 2011
Keywords
injury epidemiology, injury report card, China
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68821 (URN)000290567700001 ()
Available from: 2011-06-08 Created: 2011-06-08 Last updated: 2012-01-18
Aremu, O., Lawoko, S. & Dalal, K. (2011). Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, individual wealth status and patterns of delivery care utilization in Nigeria: a multilevel discrete choice analysis. International Journal of Women's Health, 3, 167-174
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, individual wealth status and patterns of delivery care utilization in Nigeria: a multilevel discrete choice analysis
2011 (English)In: International Journal of Women's Health, ISSN 1179-1411, Vol. 3, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: High maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in most part of the developing world, including Nigeria. Understanding the utilization pattern of maternal healthcare services has been accepted as an important factor for reducing maternal deaths. This study investigates the effect of neighborhood and individual socieconomic position on the utilization of different forms of place of delivery among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.

Methods: A population-based multilevel discrete choice analysis was performed using the most recent populationbased 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years. The analysis was restriced to 15,162 ever-married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja.

Results: The choice of place to deliver varies across the socioeconomic strata. The results of the multilevel discrete choice models indicate that with every other factor controlled for, the household wealth status, women's occupation, women's and partner's high level of education attainment, and possession of health insurance were associated with use of private and government health facilities for child birth relative to home delivery. The results also show that higher birth order and young material age were associated with use of home delivery. Living in a highly socioeconomic disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with home birth compared with the patronage of government health facilities. More specifically, the result revealed that choice of facility-based delivery is clustered around the neighborhoods.

Conclusion: Home delivery, which cuts across all socioeconomic strata, is a common practice among women in Nigeria. Initatives that would encourage the appropriate use of healthcare facilities at little or no cost to the most disadvantaged should be accorded the utmost priority.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dovepress, 2011
Keywords
delivery care, maternal health services utilization, multilevel discrete choice, Nigeria, socioeconomic
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74082 (URN)10.2147/IJWH.S21783 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-01-18 Created: 2012-01-18 Last updated: 2014-10-08
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