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Sauve, G., Esguerra, J. L., Laner, D., Johansson, J., Svensson, N., Van Passel, S. & Van Acker, K. (2023). Integrated early-stage environmental and economic assessment of emerging technologies and its applicability to the case of plasma gasification. Journal of Cleaner Production, 382, Article ID 134684.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated early-stage environmental and economic assessment of emerging technologies and its applicability to the case of plasma gasification
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 382, article id 134684Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Economic and environmental impact assessments are increasingly being adopted in the design and implementation of emerging systems. However, their emerging nature leads to several assessment challenges that need to be addressed to ensure the validity and usefulness of results in understanding their potential performance and supporting their development. There is the need to (i) account for spatial and temporal variability to allow a broader perspective at an early stage of development; (ii) handle uncertainties to systematically identify the critical factors and their interrelations that drive the results; (iii) integrate environmental and economic results to support sound decision-making based on two sustainability aspects. To address these assessment challenges, this study presents an alternative approach with the following corresponding features: (i) multiple scenario development to conduct an exploratory assessment of the systems under varying conditions and settings, (ii) global sensitivity analysis to identify the main critical factors and their interrelations, and (iii) trade-off and eco-efficiency analysis to integrate the economic and environmental results. The integrated approach is applied to a case study on plasma gasification for solid waste management. The results of the study highlight how the approach allows the identification of the dynamic relations between project settings and surrounding conditions. For example, the choice of gasifying agent largely depends on the background energy system, which dictates the impacts of the process energy requirement and the savings from the substituted energy of the syngas output. Based on these findings, the usefulness and validity of the proposed integrated approach are discussed in terms of how the key assessment challenges are addressed and how it can provide guidance for the development of emerging systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Ex -ante assessment; Integrated assessment; Global sensitivity analysis; Life cycle assessment; Life cycle costing; Plasma gasification
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-190158 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.134684 (DOI)000906664200001 ()
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020
Note

Funding: European Union [721185]

Available from: 2022-11-24 Created: 2022-11-24 Last updated: 2023-01-16Bibliographically approved
Svensson, N. (2023). Systemperspektiv och systemtänkande (2ed.). In: Jonas Ammenberg, Olof Hjelm (Ed.), Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling (pp. 153-160). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, Sidorna 153-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systemperspektiv och systemtänkande
2023 (Swedish)In: Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling / [ed] Jonas Ammenberg, Olof Hjelm, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, 2, Vol. Sidorna 153-160, p. 153-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

I detta kapitel går vi igenom vad ett system är, olika typer av system och hur systemgränser bestäms. Slutligen tar vi upp varför ett systemperspektiv är nödvändigt när man studerar uppkomst och lösningar av miljöproblem. För att förstå miljöproblem och för att kunna analysera möjligheter till åtgärder är det nödvändigt att inse att dessa problem existerar i ett sammanhang. Miljöfrågor är ofta mycket komplexa och består av långa kedjor av orsak-verkan-samband och bör angripas med ödmjukhet. Därför är det speciellt viktigt att inom miljöområdet tänka igenom vad som studeras, hur detta förhåller sig till andra relevanta områden, vilka utgångspunkter man har etc. För att andra ska kunna förstå, använda och utvärdera vad man kommer fram till är transparens viktigt. I det här sammanhanget är därför begrepp som system, systemperspektiv och livscykelperspektiv centralt. Det är även centralt att förstå vilka begränsningar och möjligheter det finns med olika typer av systemstudier.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023 Edition: 2
Keywords
Miljöteknik, Hållbar utveckling
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-195591 (URN)9789144159355 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-06-22 Created: 2023-06-22 Last updated: 2023-06-22Bibliographically approved
Svensson, N. (2023). Transportsystemet (2ed.). In: Jonas Ammenberg, Olof Hjelm (Ed.), Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling (pp. 219-231). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, Sidorna 219-231
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transportsystemet
2023 (Swedish)In: Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling / [ed] Jonas Ammenberg, Olof Hjelm, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023, 2, Vol. Sidorna 219-231, p. 219-231Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Många av oss använder transportsystemet så gott som dagligen, vilket underlättar vår vardag på många sätt. Samtidigt står det klart att systemet medför många miljöproblem. I det här kapitlet beskrivs utvecklingen inom transport och framför allt hur det svenska transportsystemet fungerar. Dessutom ges en översikt över viktig miljöpåverkan och exempel på hur vi med hjälp av systemlösningar kan förbättra situationen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2023 Edition: 2
Keywords
Miljöteknik, Hållbar utveckling, Transporter-- miljöaspekter
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-195597 (URN)9789144159355 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-06-22 Created: 2023-06-22 Last updated: 2023-06-22Bibliographically approved
Cordova, S., Gustafsson, M., Eklund, M. & Svensson, N. (2023). What should we do with CO₂ from biogas upgrading?. Journal of CO2 Utilization, 77, Article ID 102607.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What should we do with CO₂ from biogas upgrading?
2023 (English)In: Journal of CO2 Utilization, ISSN 2212-9820, E-ISSN 2212-9839, Vol. 77, article id 102607Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbon capture and utilization has been proposed as an essential climate change mitigation strategy, but only a few implemented cases exist. During biomethane production from anaerobic digestion, CO₂ is commonly separated and emitted into the atmosphere, which can be utilized as raw material for various products. This research aims to identify and assess CO₂ utilization alternatives for possible integration with biogas upgrading from anaerobic digestion by developing a soft multi-criteria analysis (MCA). A literature review complemented with stakeholder participation enabled the identification of relevant alternatives and criteria for assessment. Potential alternatives for CO₂ utilization include methane, mineral carbonates, biomass production, fuels, chemicals, pH control, and liquefied CO₂. Results show that although no alternative performs well in all indicators, there is an opportunity for short-term implementation for methane, biomass production, mineral carbonates, liquefied CO₂, and pH control. Moreover, the uncertainty analysis reveals that even though the technologies have a high technological development, more information on critical aspects is still required. The soft MCA provides information to decision-makers, practitioners, and the academic community on learning opportunities of the alternatives and indicators to step from development into implementation. For instance, the method can be used to assess more specific systems with different locations and scales or to direct efforts to ease the implementation of CCU.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Biomethane; Carbon Capture and Utilization; Criteria definition; Multi-criteria analysis
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-199370 (URN)10.1016/j.jcou.2023.102607 (DOI)001105707400001 ()
Note

Funding: Kamprad Family Foundation for Entrepreneurship, Research Charity [20200041]

Available from: 2023-11-28 Created: 2023-11-28 Last updated: 2023-12-21
Bergman, F., Anderberg, S., Krook, J. & Svensson, N. (2022). A Critical Review of the Sustainability of Multi-Utility Tunnels for Colocation of Subsurface Infrastructure. Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, 4, Article ID 847819.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Critical Review of the Sustainability of Multi-Utility Tunnels for Colocation of Subsurface Infrastructure
2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, E-ISSN 2624-9634, Vol. 4, article id 847819Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multi-utility tunnel (MUT) have received increasing attention as an alternative method for installing subsurface infrastructure for the distribution of electricity, telecommunications, water, sewage and district heating. MUTs are described as a potentially more sustainable technology than conventional open-cut excavation (OCE), especially if the entire life cycle of these cable and pipe networks is taken into account. Based on an extensive review of the academic literature, this article aims to identify and critically examine claims made about the pros and cons of using MUT for the placement of subsurface infrastructure. Identified claims are mapped, and their validity and applicability assessed. These claims are then analyzed from a sustainability perspective, based on the three sustainability dimensions and a life cycle perspective. The results show that a variety of advantages and disadvantages of using MUTs for subsurface infrastructure are highlighted by the articles, but several of these are without any empirical support. When some form of empirical support is presented, it usually comes from case-specific analyses of MUTs, and the applicability in other MUT projects is seldom discussed. Economic performance is the sustainability dimension that has received the most attention, while environmental performance has not been analyzed in the reviewed literature, which is a major limitation of the current knowledge. In summary, the knowledge about the sustainability performance of using MUTs for subsurface infrastructure is still limited and incoherent. In order to increase the knowledge, this article points out the importance of new case studies, in which the sustainability consequences of using MUTs for subsurface infrastructure are mapped and evaluated by combining both quantitative and qualitative assessment methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
multi-utility tunnel; subsurface infrastructure; sustainability assessment; urban underground; cable and pipe networks
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-190595 (URN)10.3389/frsc.2022.847819 (DOI)000922209000001 ()2-s2.0-85125838424 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Kamprad Family Foundation
Note

Funding: Kamprad Family Foundation for Entrepreneurship, Research Charity;  [20180218]

Available from: 2022-12-16 Created: 2022-12-16 Last updated: 2023-02-22Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, M. & Svensson, N. (2021). Cleaner heavy transports: Environmental and economic analysis of liquefied natural gas and biomethane. Journal of Cleaner Production, 278, Article ID 123535.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cleaner heavy transports: Environmental and economic analysis of liquefied natural gas and biomethane
2021 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 278, article id 123535Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Looking to reduce climate change impact and particle emissions, the heavy-duty transport sector is moving towards a growth within technology and infrastructure for use of liquefied natural gas (LNG). This opens an opportunity for the biogas market to grow as well, especially in the form of liquefied biomethane (LBM). However, there is a need to investigate the economic conditions and the possible environmental benefits of using LBM rather than LNG or diesel in heavy transports. This study presents a comparison of well-to-wheel scenarios for production, distribution and use of LBM, LNG and diesel, assessing both environmental and economic aspects in a life cycle perspective. The results show that while LNG can increase the climate change impact compared to diesel by up to 10%, LBM can greatly reduce the environmental impact compared to both LNG and diesel. With a German electricity mix, the climate change impact can be reduced by 45 – 70% compared to diesel with LBM from manure, and by 50 – 75% with LBM from food waste. If digestate is used to replace mineral fertilizer, the impact of LBM can even be less than 0. However, the results vary a lot depending on the type of feedstock, the electricity system and whether the calculations are done according to RED or ISO guidelines. Economically, it can be hard for LBM to compete with LNG, due to relatively high production costs, and some form of economic incentives are likely required.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Biomethane, Natural gas, Heavy transport, Liquefaction, Life cycle assessment, Life cycle cost
National Category
Energy Engineering Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-168413 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123535 (DOI)000595260600018 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35624-3.
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Biogas Research Center (BRC) - Swedish Energy Agency [35624-3]

Available from: 2020-08-21 Created: 2020-08-21 Last updated: 2022-03-08
Gustafsson, M., Svensson, N., Eklund, M. & Fredriksson Möller, B. (2021). Well-to-wheel climate performance of gas and electric vehicles in Europe. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 97, Article ID 102911.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Well-to-wheel climate performance of gas and electric vehicles in Europe
2021 (English)In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 97, article id 102911Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Focusing on tailpipe emissions, current EU policies do not favor the use of biofuels in transports. This paper analyzes the well-to-wheel climate performance of gas and electric vehicles in Europe, taking into account the share of biomethane in vehicle gas as well as the production systems for biomethane and electricity in different countries. The results show that both gas and electric vehicles can significantly reduce the climate change impact of transports compared to diesel. In an average European electricity system, electricity has around 30% lower climate impact than diesel for a heavy truck, and 65-70% lower for a passenger car or city bus. Average European vehicle gas reduces the climate impact by up to 28% compared to diesel, or 11% compared to fossil natural gas, and in some countries vehicle gas has lower climate impact than electricity. This demonstrates the importance of not limiting analysis and policy to tailpipe emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Biomethane, Vehicle gas, Well-to-wheel, Transport, Carbon intensity, Electric mobility
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-179028 (URN)10.1016/j.trd.2021.102911 (DOI)000687269900008 ()2-s2.0-85107129658 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Biogas Research Center
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35624-3
Available from: 2021-09-07 Created: 2021-09-07 Last updated: 2022-03-08Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, M., Svensson, N., Eklund, M., Dahl Öberg, J. & Vehabovic, A. (2021). Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions of heavy-duty transports: Influence of electricity carbon intensity. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions of heavy-duty transports: Influence of electricity carbon intensity
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2021 (English)In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are several alternatives for how to phase out diesel in heavy-duty transports, thereby reducing the sector’s climate change impact. This paper assesses the well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of energy carriers for heavy-duty vehicles, analyzing the effect of the carbon intensity of the electricity used in production. The results show that energy carriers with high electricity dependence are not necessarily better than diesel from a WTW perspective. In particular, fuels produced through electrolysis are not well suited in carbon-intense electricity systems. Conversely, waste-based biofuels have low GHG emissions regardless of the electricity system. Battery-electric buses show a large reduction of GHG emissions compared to diesel buses and many other alternatives, while battery-electric trucks have higher GHG emissions than diesel in carbon intense electricity systems. Thus, electrifying transports or switching to renewable fuels will not suffice if the electricity system is not made renewable first.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Well-to-wheel, Heavy Transport, Greenhouse gas emissions, Carbon intensity, Transport fuels
National Category
Energy Systems Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173930 (URN)10.1016/j.trd.2021.102757 (DOI)000638249600010 ()2-s2.0-85100969898 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Biogas Research Center
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35624-3
Note

Funding: Swedish Biogas Research Center (BRC) - Swedish Energy Agency [35624-3]

Available from: 2021-03-10 Created: 2021-03-10 Last updated: 2022-03-08Bibliographically approved
Hagman, L., Eklund, M. & Svensson, N. (2020). Assessment of By-product Valorisation in a Swedish Wheat-Based Biorefinery. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 11(7), 3567-3577
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of By-product Valorisation in a Swedish Wheat-Based Biorefinery
2020 (English)In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 3567-3577Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biorefineries are examples of industries striving towards a circular and bio-based economy through valorising natural raw materials to a spectrum of products. This is a resource-efficient process which also decreases overall environmental impact, as the products from a biorefinery can replace fossil-based products such as plastics or fuels. To become even more resource efficient, an optimisation of the by-product use can increase the performance. This study will evaluate different scenarios for the valorisation of stillage coming from a wheat-based biorefinery. The alternatives range from the direct use of the stillage for fodder, fertiliser or incineration to three different biogas production-based scenarios. The biogas scenarios are divided into the production of fuel at a local or distant plant and the alternative of creating heat and power at the local plant. The results show how locally produced biogas for vehicle fuel and fodder usage are the better alternatives regarding greenhouse gas emissions, the finances of the biorefinery, energy balance and nutrient recycling. The results also indicate that biorefineries with several high-value products may receive lower quality by-product flows, and to these, the biogas solutions become more relevant for valorising stillage while improving value and performance for the biorefinery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2020
Keywords
Biorefinery, Upcycling, Waste, Biogas, Fodder, Bioraffinaderi, avfall, biogas, värde
National Category
Bioprocess Technology Other Industrial Biotechnology Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160001 (URN)10.1007/s12649-019-00667-0 (DOI)000538735600036 ()
Projects
Biogas Research Center,
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P35624-3
Available from: 2019-09-03 Created: 2019-09-03 Last updated: 2022-04-21
Gustafsson, M., Cruz, I., Svensson, N. & Karlsson, M. (2020). Scenarios for upgrading and distribution of compressed and liquefied biogas: Energy, environmental, and economic analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 256, Article ID 120473.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scenarios for upgrading and distribution of compressed and liquefied biogas: Energy, environmental, and economic analysis
2020 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 256, article id 120473Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the transition towards fossil-free transports, there is an increasing interest in upgraded biogas, or biomethane, as a vehicle fuel. Liquefied biogas has more than twice as high energy density as compressed biogas, which opens up the opportunity for use in heavy transports and shipping and for more efficient distribution. There are several ways to produce and distribute compressed and liquefied biogas, but very few studies comparing them and providing an overview. This paper investigates the energy balance, environmental impact and economic aspects of different technologies for upgrading, liquefaction and distribution of biogas for use as a vehicle fuel. Furthermore, liquefaction is studied as a method for efficient long-distance distribution.

The results show that the differences between existing technologies for upgrading and liquefaction are small in a well-to-tank perspective, especially if the gas is transported over a long distance before use. Regarding distribution, liquefaction can pay back economically after 25–250 km compared to steel container trailers with compressed gas, and reduce the climate change impact after 10–30 km. Distribution in gas grid is better in all aspects, given that it is available and no addition of propane is required. Liquefaction can potentially expand the geographical boundaries of the market for biogas as a vehicle fuel, and cost reductions resulting from technology maturity allow cost-effective liquefaction even at small production capacities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Biogas, Biomethane, Liquefaction, Energy balance, Environmental analysis, Economic analysis
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163605 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120473 (DOI)000524981300155 ()2-s2.0-85079198070 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Biogas Research Center
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35624-3
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Biogas Research Center (BRC) - Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2020-02-17 Created: 2020-02-17 Last updated: 2022-03-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0731-7460

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