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Svensson, Niclas
Publications (10 of 53) Show all publications
Hagman, L., Eklund, M. & Svensson, N. (2019). Assessment of By-product Valorisation in a Swedish Wheat-Based Biorefinery. Waste and Biomass Valorization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of By-product Valorisation in a Swedish Wheat-Based Biorefinery
2019 (English)In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265XArticle in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biorefineries are examples of industries striving towards a circular and bio-based economy through valorising natural raw materials to a spectrum of products. This is a resource-efficient process which also decreases overall environmental impact, as the products from a biorefinery can replace fossil-based products such as plastics or fuels. To become even more resource efficient, an optimisation of the by-product use can increase the performance. This study will evaluate different scenarios for the valorisation of stillage coming from a wheat-based biorefinery. The alternatives range from the direct use of the stillage for fodder, fertiliser or incineration to three different biogas production-based scenarios. The biogas scenarios are divided into the production of fuel at a local or distant plant and the alternative of creating heat and power at the local plant. The results show how locally produced biogas for vehicle fuel and fodder usage are the better alternatives regarding greenhouse gas emissions, the finances of the biorefinery, energy balance and nutrient recycling. The results also indicate that biorefineries with several high-value products may receive lower quality by-product flows, and to these, the biogas solutions become more relevant for valorising stillage while improving value and performance for the biorefinery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2019
Keywords
Biorefinery, Upcycling, Waste, Biogas, Fodder, Bioraffinaderi, avfall, biogas, värde
National Category
Bioprocess Technology Other Industrial Biotechnology Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160001 (URN)10.1007/s12649-019-00667-0 (DOI)
Projects
Biogas Research Center,
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P35624-3
Available from: 2019-09-03 Created: 2019-09-03 Last updated: 2019-09-03
Gustafsson, M., Svensson, N. & Anderberg, S. (2018). Energy performance indicators as policy support for public bus transport: The case of Sweden. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 65, 697-709
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy performance indicators as policy support for public bus transport: The case of Sweden
2018 (English)In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 65, p. 697-709Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The share of renewable fuels in Swedish public transport is steadily increasing, in line with European energy and climate goals as well as a national goal of a fossil-free vehicle fleet by 2030. However, the progression towards this goal is quite different among the Swedish regions, and efforts have been made on a national level to compare the public bus transport systems and provide a foundation for policymaking. This paper investigates different ways of assessing and presenting the energy performance of public bus transport systems. The analysis includes use of renewable and fossil fuels as well as energy efficiency and its underlying factors. Various energy performance indicators are presented and discussed with regards to practical implications and applicability for policy support.

A life cycle perspective on fuels (“well-to-wheel”) is found to have clear advantages when it comes to global reductions of fossil energy use and emissions. This requires detailed information about the fuel use, which is not always the case with the existing reporting system. Setting the energy use in relation to number of passengers transported rather than just the distance covered would better reflect the function of the transport system, but is also more uncertain with the current data available.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Energy efficiency, Public transport, Life cycle perspective, Well-to-wheel, Energy performance indicators, Policy support
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152858 (URN)10.1016/j.trd.2018.10.008 (DOI)000453626000046 ()
Projects
Biogas Research Center
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 35624-2
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Biogas Research Center (BRC) - Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2018-11-23 Created: 2018-11-23 Last updated: 2019-03-21
Krook, J., Svensson, N., Van Passel, S. & Van Acker, K. (2018). How to evaluate (enhanced) landfill mining: A critical review of recent environmental and economic assessments. In: [ed] Peter Tom Jones and Lieven Machiels, Leuven, Belgium (Ed.), Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining: . Paper presented at 4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining (pp. 317-332). KU Leuven
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to evaluate (enhanced) landfill mining: A critical review of recent environmental and economic assessments
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining / [ed] [ed] Peter Tom Jones and Lieven Machiels, Leuven, Belgium, KU Leuven , 2018, p. 317-332Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KU Leuven, 2018
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152872 (URN)9789082825909 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2018-12-17
Esguerra, J. L., Svensson, N., Krook, J., Van Passel, S. & Van Acker, K. (2018). The economic and environmental performance of a landfill mining project from the viewpoint of an industrial landfill owner. In: Peter Tom Jones and Lieven Machiels (Ed.), Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, 5-6 February, 2018, Mechelen, Belgium: . Paper presented at The 4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, 5-6 February, 2018, Mechelen, Belgium (pp. 389-396). Leuven, Belgium: University of Leuven
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The economic and environmental performance of a landfill mining project from the viewpoint of an industrial landfill owner
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, 5-6 February, 2018, Mechelen, Belgium / [ed] Peter Tom Jones and Lieven Machiels, Leuven, Belgium: University of Leuven , 2018, p. 389-396Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The EU Commission’s circular economy strategy pushes for a higher recycling rate and a more long-term waste management practice.1 Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM) can contribute to this agenda as a better landfill management option, by shifting the landfill paradigm from dumping or as end-storage of waste to resource recovery or as temporary storage of resources.2-4 Through ELFM, landfills becomes a secondary source of both material (Waste-to-Material, WtM) and energy (Waste-to-Energy, WtE) with the use of innovative technologies.3,4

Several studies explored the environmental and/or economic aspects of ELFM having different scopes and objectives. Some cover the entire process value chain while others additionally focused on comparing technological choices for WtE,5–7 WtM,8,9 and even ELFM waste valorisation.10 Furthermore, for the economic assessment, regulation-related costs and benefits as landfill taxes, gate fees and green certificates5,11,12 are also accounted for. Regarding the identification of economic hotspots, many of these studies concluded similar processes to be important. However, most of these studies were based on either hypothetical cases, or real cases but with small-scale excavation and separation using non-sophisticated set-ups, which are not likely to be used for large-scale processing. Hence, more uncertainty is expected from the lack of actual ELFM demonstration projects.

The aim of this study is to analyse the main contributing factors that influence environmental and economic performance of ELFM, considering the landfill owner’s viewpoint. The study is based on a real case of excavation and subsequent separation in an existing stationary facility. Specifically, the influence of the prevailing system conditions is investigated as defined by the current legislation and the market situation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Leuven, Belgium: University of Leuven, 2018
Keywords
landfill mining, sustainability assessment
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145208 (URN)9789082825909 (ISBN)
Conference
The 4th International Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, 5-6 February, 2018, Mechelen, Belgium
Available from: 2018-02-16 Created: 2018-02-16 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Hagman, L., Blumenthal, A., Eklund, M. & Svensson, N. (2018). The role of biogas solutions in sustainable biorefineries. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 3982-3989
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of biogas solutions in sustainable biorefineries
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 3982-3989Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biorefineries strive to maximise product mix and value while contributing to the bioeconomy. Circularityand waste valorisation are some important but often neglected concepts in this context. As such, biogassolutions in biorefineries could be a key technology to improve sustainability. This study has, through aliterature review and investigation into three Swedish case studies, analysed this relationship betweenbiogas solutions and biorefineries by assessing the added value and development potential to whichbiogas solutions may contribute. This analysis across agricultural, forest, and marine sectors indicatesthat biogas solutions contribute with several added values, including through making the biorefinerymore sustainable and competitive. The study also shows that biogas solutions can be an enabler ofbiorefinery development through making the system more resilient and versatile, as well as throughimproving the value of the product portfolio.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Biorefinery, biogas, bioeconomy, valorisation, anaerobic digestion, waste management, Bioraffinaderi, biogas, bioekonomi, avfallshantering
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143022 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.03.180 (DOI)000423002500084 ()2-s2.0-85016415075 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Funding agencies: Biogas Research Center (BRC); Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Laner, D., Cencic, O., Svensson, N. & Krook, J. (2016). Quantitative Analysis of Critical Factors for the Climate Impact of Landfill Mining. Environmental Science and Technology, 50(13), 6882-6891
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative Analysis of Critical Factors for the Climate Impact of Landfill Mining
2016 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 13, p. 6882-6891Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Landfill mining has been proposed as an innovative strategy to mitigate environmental risks associated with landfills, to recover secondary raw materials and energy from the deposited waste, and to enable high-valued land uses at the site. The present study quantitatively assesses the importance of specific factors and conditions for the net contribution of landfill mining to global warming using a novel, set-based modeling approach and provides policy recommendations for facilitating the development of projects contributing to global warming mitigation. Building on life-cycle assessment, scenario modeling and sensitivity analysis methods are used to identify critical factors for the climate impact of landfill mining. The net contributions to global warming of the scenarios range from -1550 (saving) to 640 (burden) kg CO(2)e per Mg of excavated waste. Nearly 90% of the results total variation can be explained by changes in four factors, namely the landfill gas management in the reference case (i.e., alternative to mining the landfill), the background energy system, the composition of the excavated waste, and the applied waste-to-energy technology. Based on the analyses, circumstances under which landfill mining should be prioritized or not are identified and sensitive parameters for the climate impact assessment of landfill mining are highlighted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2016
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130387 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.6b01275 (DOI)000379366300036 ()27282202 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Christian Doppler Laboratory for Anthropogenic Resources; Swedish Innovation Agency VINNOVA

Available from: 2016-08-15 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2017-11-28
Ammenberg, J., Svensson, B., Karlsson, M., Svensson, N., Björn, A., Karlsson, M., . . . Eklund, M. (2015). Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 1. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 1
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2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Biogas Research Center (BRC) är ett kompetenscentrum för biogasforskning som finansieras av Energimyndigheten, LiU och ett flertal externa organisationer med en tredjedel vardera. BRC har en mycket bred tvärvetenskaplig inriktning och sammanför biogasrelaterad kompetens från flera olika områden för att skapa interaktion på flera olika plan:

  • mellan näringsliv, akademi och samhälle,
  • mellan olika perspektiv, samt
  • mellan olika discipliner och kompetensområden.

BRC:s vision är:

Resurseffektiva biogaslösningar finns genomförda i många nya tillämpningar och bidrar till en mer hållbar energiförsörjning, förbättrat miljötillstånd och goda affärer.

BRC:s särskilda roll för att uppnå denna vision är att bidra med kunskapsförsörjning och process-/teknikutveckling för att facilitera utveckling, innovation och implementering av biogaslösningar. Resurseffektivitet är ett nyckelord, vilket handlar om att förbättra befintliga processer och system samt utveckla biogaslösningar i nya sektorer och möjliggöra användning av nya substrat.

For BRC:s etapp 1, den första tvåårsperioden mellan 2012-2014, var forskningsprojekten organiserade enligt tabellen nedan. Den visar viktiga utmaningar för biogasproducenter och andra intressenter, samt hur dessa ”angreps” med åtta forskningsprojekt. Fem av projekten var av explorativ karaktär i bemärkelsen att de var bredare och mer framtidsorienterade - exempelvis utvärderade flera möjliga tekniska utvecklingsmöjligheter (EP1-5). Tre projekt hade ett tydligare fokus på teknik- och processutveckling (DP6-8).

I den här slutrapporten ges en kortfattad bakgrundsbeskrivning och det finns en introduktion till vad den här typen av kompetenscentrum innebär generellt. Därefter finns mer detaljerad information om BRC, exempelvis gäller det centrumets etablering, relevans, vision, hörnstenar och utveckling. De deltagande organisationerna presenteras, både forskargrupperna vid Linköpings universitet och partners och medlemmar. Vidare finns en mer utförlig introduktion till och beskrivning av utmaningarna i tabellen och kortfattat information om forskningsprojekten, följt av ett kapitel som berör måluppfyllelse och den externa utvärdering som gjorts av BRC:s verksamhet. Detaljerad, listad information finns till stor del i bilagorna.

Kortfattat kan det konstateras att måluppfyllelsen överlag är god. Det är speciellt positivt att så många vetenskapliga artiklar publicerats (eller är på gång att publiceras) kopplat till forskningsprojekten och även i det vidare centrumperspektivet. Helt klart förekommer en omfattande verksamhet inom och kopplat till BRC. I etapp 2 är det viktigt att öka andelen mycket nöjda partner och medlemmar, där nu hälften är nöjda och hälften mycket nöjda. Det handlar framför allt om stärkt kommunikation, interaktion och projektledning. Under 2015 förväntas åtminstone två doktorsexamina, där avhandlingarna har stor koppling till forskningen inom etapp 1.

I början på år 2014 skedde en extern utvärdering av verksamheten vid BRC med huvudsyftet att bedöma hur väl centrumet lyckats med etableringen samt att granska om det fanns förutsättningar för framtida framgångsrik verksamhet. Generellt var utfallet mycket positivt och utvärderarna konstaterade att BRC på kort tid lyckats etablera en verksamhet som fungerar väl och engagerar det stora flertalet deltagande aktörer, inom relevanta områden och där de flesta involverade ser BRC som en befogad och väl fungerande satsning, som de har för avsikt att även fortsättningsvis stödja. Utvärderingen bidrog också med flera relevant tips och till att belysa utmaningar.

Utöver denna slutrapport finns separata publikationer från forskningsprojekten.

Arbetet som presenteras i rapporten har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och de medverkande organisationerna.

Abstract [en]

Biogas Research Center (BRC) is a center of excellence in biogas research funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, Linköping University and a number of external organizations with one-third each. BRC has a very broad interdisciplinary approach, bringing together biogas-related skills from several areas to create interaction on many levels:

  • between industry, academia and society,
  • between different perspectives, and
  • between different disciplines and areas of expertise.

BRC’s vision is:

BRC contributes to the vision by advancing knowledge and technical development, as well as by facilitating development, innovation and business. Resource efficiency is central, improving existing processes and systems as well as establishing biogas solutions in new sectors and enabling use of new substrates.

For BRC phase 1, the first two year period from 2012-2014, the research projects were organized in accordance with the table below showing important challenges for biogas producers and other stakeholders, and how these challenges were tackled in eight research projects. Five of the projects had an exploratory nature, meaning that they were broader, more future oriented and, for example, evaluated several different technology paths (EP1-5). Three projects focused more on technology and process development (DP6-8).

This final report briefly presents the background and contains some information about competence centers in general. Thereafter follows more detailed information about BRC, for example, regarding the establishment, relevance, organization, vision, corner stones and development. The participating organizations are presented, both the research groups within Linköping University and the partners and members. Further on, there is a more detailed introduction to and description of the challenges mentioned in the table above and a short presentation from each of the research projects, followed by some sections dealing with fulfillment of objectives and an external assessment of BRC. Detailed, listed information is commonly provided in the appendices.

Briefly, the fulfillment of objectives is good and it is very positive that so many scientific articles have been published (or are to be published) from the research projects and also within the wider center perspective. Clearly, extensive and relevant activities are ongoing within and around BRC. In phase 2 it essential to increase the share of very satisfied partners and members, where now half of them are satisfied and the other half is very satisfied. For this purpose, improved communication, interaction and project management are central. During 2015, at least two PhD theses are expected, to a large extent based on the research from BRC phase 1.

In the beginning of 2014 an external assessment of BRC was carried out, with the main purpose to assess how well the center has been established and to review the conditions for a future, successful competence center. Generally, the outcome was very positive and the assessors concluded that BRC within a short period of time had been able to establish a well-functioning organization engaging a large share of the participants within relevant areas, and that most of the involved actors look upon BRC as a justifiable and well working investment that they plan to continue to support. The assessment also contributed with several relevant tips of improvements and to clarify challenges to address.

This report is written in Swedish, but for each research project there will be reports and/or scientific papers published in English.

The work presented in this report has been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the participating organizations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. p. 99
Series
Biogas Research Center (BRC) Report ; 2014:1
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114037 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2015-02-05 Created: 2015-02-05 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Frändegård, P., Krook, J. & Svensson, N. (2015). Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining. Waste Management, 42, 137-147
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining
2015 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 42, p. 137-147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation.

Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP.

Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to −€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to −€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Landfill mining, Resource recovery, Remediation, Monte Carlo analysis, Economic potential
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106711 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2015.04.008 (DOI)000357348500017 ()25962826 (PubMedID)
Note

At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

Available from: 2014-05-19 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Krook, J., Svensson, N. & Wallsten, B. (2015). Urban infrastructure mines: on the economic and environmental motives of cable recovery from subsurface power grids. Journal of Cleaner Production, 104, 353-363
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban infrastructure mines: on the economic and environmental motives of cable recovery from subsurface power grids
2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, p. 353-363Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Subsurface power grids constitute one of the largest copper stocks in many industrialized cities. Over time, parts and zones of these systems have been continuously disconnected and abandoned, resulting in the emergence of urban infrastructure ores. This study aims to assess how current conditions and practices influence economic and environmental motives of cable recovery from such power grids. By applying an infrastructure managers perspective and evaluating 16 scenarios involving different extraction technologies and procedures, surface materials, urban locations and types of cables, we identify key areas where solutions or changes to increase incentives for cable recovery are needed. The assessed scenarios display significantly different cable extraction costs, where excavation in city centers with asphalt or cobblestone pavements generates the highest costs while greenbelts offer the best conditions. In most cases, cable revenues are not even close to outweighing the extraction costs. This is especially true for paper-coated cables or cables with aluminum conductors, for which the revenues are much lower than for plastic-insulated copper cables. Although economic conditions could be improved by integrating cable recovery to regular system upgrade projects or by applying non-digging technologies, clear incentives rely on the cable in question being especially valuable. Most of the cable recovery scenarios display environmental motives in terms of net savings in GHG emissions due to metal recycling. In contrast to the economic results, recycling of aluminum power cables is here more awarding than that of corresponding copper cables. We conclude that under current conditions urban mining does not make economic sense to infrastructure managers unless it is integrated as an added value to system upgrade projects. Apart from such re-arrangements in infrastructure provision, several other practice-related changes to cut cable extraction costs are possibly within reach for the managers. Still, an economically motivated practice relies on several external performance drivers such as market diffusion of non-digging technologies, improved cable recycling processes, and increased scrap metal prices. Our conclusion that the arguments for urban mining are currently more environmental than financial, points towards changed perspectives where such activities are seen as a way for infrastructure managers to contribute to societal goals such as climate change mitigation and reduced mineral resource dependence. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Urban mining; Metals recycling; Private economics; Life cycle assessment; Actor perspective
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120436 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.05.071 (DOI)000357552900035 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning [2013-03015]; Swedish Innovation Agency [2010-2261]

Available from: 2015-08-12 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Martin, M., Svensson, N. & Eklund, M. (2015). Who gets the benefits? An approach for assessing the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 98, 263-271
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who gets the benefits? An approach for assessing the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis
2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 263-271Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Industrial symbiosis networks are generally assumed to provide economic and environmental benefits for all firms involved, though few quantifications have been produced in the literature, and the methods for these quantifications have varied. This paper provides an approach to quantify the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis networks using guidance from the literature of life cycle assessment. Additionally, an approach to distribute credits due to exchanges for firms in the industrial symbiosis network is outlined. From the approach, influential methodological considerations used for the quantifications are discussed, including e.g. the production of reference systems, allocation methods, system boundaries and functional unit. The implications of such an approach may be beneficial for the industrial symbiosis community and provide information crucial for taxes, subsidies, business relations, expansion possibilities for the network, marketing and other issues related to the environmental performance of firms in the industrial symbiosis network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Industrial symbiosis, life cycle assessment, by-product, integration, environmental performance
National Category
Environmental Sciences Environmental Engineering Bioenergy Renewable Bioenergy Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90232 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.06.024 (DOI)000356194300027 ()
Available from: 2013-03-21 Created: 2013-03-21 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
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