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Åkerlind, Britt
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Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Flodin, U., Paues, J., Åkerlind, B., Leanderson, P. & Sjögren, B. (2017). Svetsare – en riskgrupp för septisk pneumoni [Welders - a risk group for septic pneumonia]: Vaccination mot pneumokocker kan vara motiverat för yrkesgruppen. Läkartidningen, 114(6)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Svetsare – en riskgrupp för septisk pneumoni [Welders - a risk group for septic pneumonia]: Vaccination mot pneumokocker kan vara motiverat för yrkesgruppen
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2017 (Swedish)In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 114, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sveriges Läkarförbund, 2017
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145292 (URN)28195626 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-06 Created: 2018-03-06 Last updated: 2018-03-26Bibliographically approved
Griekspoor, P., Olsson Engvall, E., Åkerlind, B., Olsen, B. & Waldenstrom, J. (2015). Genetic diversity and host associations in Campylobacter jejuni from human cases and broilers in 2000 and 2008. Veterinary Microbiology, 178(1-2), 94-98
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic diversity and host associations in Campylobacter jejuni from human cases and broilers in 2000 and 2008
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2015 (English)In: Veterinary Microbiology, ISSN 0378-1135, E-ISSN 1873-2542, Vol. 178, no 1-2, p. 94-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Campylobacter jejuni is an important food-borne pathogen, with a global distribution. It can colonize numerous host species, including both domestic and wild animals, but is particularly associated with birds (poultry and wild birds). For human campylobacteriosis, poultry products are deemed the most significant risk factor for acquiring infection. We conducted a genotyping and host attribution study of a large representative collection of C jejuni isolated from humans and broilers in Sweden in the years 2000 and 2008. In total 673 broiler and human isolates from 10 different abattoirs and 6 different hospitals were genotyped with multilocus sequence typing. Source attribution analyses confirmed the strong linkage between broiler C jejuni and domestic human cases, but also indicated a significant association to genotypes more commonly found in wild birds. Genotype distributions did not change dramatically between the two study years, suggesting a stable population of infecting bacteria. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Source attribution; Epidemiology; Poultry; Molecular typing; Sweden
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120208 (URN)10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.04.025 (DOI)000356749400011 ()25960333 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agriculture and Spatial Planning (FORMAS); Crafoord Foundation

Available from: 2015-07-21 Created: 2015-07-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Rondahl, E., Gruber, M., Joelsson, S., Sundqvist, M., Åkerlind, B., Cardell, K., . . . Serrander, L. (2014). The risk of HCV RNA contamination in serology screening instruments with a fixed needle for sample transfer.. Journal of Clinical Virology, 60(2), 172-173
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The risk of HCV RNA contamination in serology screening instruments with a fixed needle for sample transfer.
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Virology, ISSN 1386-6532, E-ISSN 1873-5967, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 172-173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C diagnostics involve antibody screening and confirmation of current infection by detection of HCV RNA positivity. In screening instruments with fixed pipetting needle, there is a risk of sample carry-over contamination.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of such contamination in a proposed clinical setting.

STUDY DESIGN: In the present study, known HCV RNA positive (n=149) and negative (n=149) samples were analysed by anti-HCV Abbott in an Architect instrument in an alternating fashion in order to test for contamination.

RESULTS: In subsequent retesting of the previously HCV RNA-negative samples, six samples (4%) were positive by the Cobas Taqman assay with a maximum level of 33IU/mL. The results show that there is a risk for transfer of HCV in the Architect instrument but they also show that the levels of HCV RNA observed are low.

CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that complementary HCV RNA testing on samples identified as anti-HCV positive by screening can be recommended because the complementary results are reliable in the majority of cases when either HCV RNA is negative or HCV RNA is positive with a level >1000IU/mL. In a minority of cases, with low HCV RNA after anti-HCV antibody screening, cross-contamination should be suspected and a new sample requested for HCV RNA testing. This strategy would reduce the need for obtaining a new sample from the vast majority of patients with a newly discovered HCV antibody positivity.

National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-107297 (URN)10.1016/j.jcv.2014.03.011 (DOI)000335738000016 ()24735614 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-06-10 Created: 2014-06-10 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Falkeborn, T., Brave, A., Larsson, M., Åkerlind, B., Schroder, U. & Hinkula, J. (2013). Endocine™, N3OA and N3OASq; Three Mucosal Adjuvants That Enhance the Immune Response to Nasal Influenza Vaccination. PLoS ONE, 8(8)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Endocine™, N3OA and N3OASq; Three Mucosal Adjuvants That Enhance the Immune Response to Nasal Influenza Vaccination
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2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Annual outbreaks of seasonal influenza are controlled or prevented through vaccination in many countries. The seasonal vaccines used are either inactivated, currently administered parenterally, or live-attenuated given intranasally. In this study three mucosal adjuvants were examined for the influence on the humoral (mucosal and systemic) and cellular influenza A-specific immune responses induced by a nasally administered vaccine. We investigated in detail how the anionic Endocine™ and the cationic adjuvants N3OA and N3OASq mixed with a split inactivated influenza vaccine induced influenza A-specific immune responses as compared to the vaccine alone after intranasal immunization. The study showed that nasal administration of a split virus vaccine together with Endocine™ or N3OA induced significantly higher humoral and cell-mediated immune responses than the non-adjuvanted vaccine. N3OASq only significantly increased the cell-mediated immune response. Furthermore, nasal administration of the influenza vaccine in combination with any of the adjuvants; Endocine™, N3OA or N3OASq, significantly enhanced the mucosal immunity against influenza HA protein. Thus the addition of these mucosal adjuvants leads to enhanced immunity in the most relevant tissues, the upper respiratory tract and the systemic circulation. Nasal influenza vaccination with an inactivated split vaccine can therefore provide an important mucosal immune response, which is often low or absent after traditional parenteral vaccination.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2013
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97667 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0070527 (DOI)000323124000019 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Eurocine Vaccines||Vinnova Research funds||Halsofonden||

Available from: 2013-09-19 Created: 2013-09-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Fornander, L., Ghafouri, B., Kihlström, E., Åkerlind, B., Schön, T., Tagesson, C. & Lindahl, M. (2011). Innate immunity proteins and a new truncated form of SPLUNC1 in nasopharyngeal aspirates from infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection. PROTEOMICS CLINICAL APPLICATIONS, 5(9-10), 513-522
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innate immunity proteins and a new truncated form of SPLUNC1 in nasopharyngeal aspirates from infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection
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2011 (English)In: PROTEOMICS CLINICAL APPLICATIONS, ISSN 1862-8346, Vol. 5, no 9-10, p. 513-522Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of severe respiratory tract infection in infants. The aim was to identify host defence components in nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) from infants with RSV infection and to study the expression of the novel 25 kDa innate immunity protein SPLUNC1. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanExperimental design: NPAs from infants were analyzed with 2-DE and MS in a pilot study. The levels of SPLUNC1 were analyzed with immunoblotting in 47 NPAs, admitted for RSV diagnosis. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Totally, 35 proteins were identified in NPA, including several innate immunity proteins such as group X phospholipase A(2), different S100 proteins and SPLUNC1. In addition, a new truncated 15 kDa form of SPLUNC1 was identified that was detected in about 50% of the aspirates admitted for RSV diagnosis. RSV-positive boys had significantly less 25 kDa SPLUNC1 than RSV-negative boys while there were no significant differences among girls. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions and clinical relevance: Several important innate immunity proteins were identified in NPA. Notably, a new truncated form of the newly suggested anti-bacterial protein SPLUNC1 was found. It is possible that a decrease in SPLUNC1 in the upper airways may increase the risk for severe pneumonia in boys.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlag Berlin, 2011
Keywords
MS, Nasopharynx, PLUNC, Respiratory syncytial virus, Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72142 (URN)10.1002/prca.201100016 (DOI)000296418400005 ()
Note
Funding Agencies|The Research Council of South East Sweden|FORSS-36761- 8505|Available from: 2011-11-18 Created: 2011-11-18 Last updated: 2015-04-23
Sundén, B., Larsson, M., Falkeborn, T., Paues, J., Forsum, U., Lindh, M., . . . Serrander, L. (2011). Real-time PCR detection of Human Herpesvirus 1-5 in patients lacking clinical signs of a viral CNS infection. BMC Infectious Diseases, 11(220)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-time PCR detection of Human Herpesvirus 1-5 in patients lacking clinical signs of a viral CNS infection
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2011 (English)In: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 11, no 220Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) with herpes- or enterovirus can be self-limiting and benign, but occasionally result in severe and fatal disease. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revolutionized the diagnostics of viral pathogens, and by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) prior to real-time PCR the sensitivity might be further enhanced. The aim of this study was to investigate if herpes- or enterovirus can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients without symptoms.

METHODS:

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 373 patients lacking typical symptoms of viral CNS infection were analysed by real-time PCR targeting herpesviruses or enteroviruses with or without prior MDA.

RESULTS:

In total, virus was detected in 17 patients (4%). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was most commonly detected, in general from patients with other conditions (e.g. infections, cerebral hemorrhage). MDA satisfactorily amplified viral DNA in the absence of human nucleic acids, but showed poor amplification capacity for viral DNA in CSF samples, and did not increase the sensitivity for herpes virus-detection with our methodology.

CONCLUSIONS:

Viral pathogens are rarely detected in CSF from patients without signs of CNS infection, supporting the view that real-time PCR is a highly specific method to detect symptomatic CNS-infection caused by these viruses. However, EBV may be subclinically reactivated due to other pathological conditions in the CNS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2011
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71558 (URN)10.1186/1471-2334-11-220 (DOI)000295288300001 ()21849074 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Linkoping University|ALF: LIO-17791 |

Available from: 2011-10-21 Created: 2011-10-21 Last updated: 2018-03-26
Davidson, T., Ekermo, B., Gaines, H., Lesko, B. & Akerlind, B. (2011). The cost-effectiveness of introducing nucleic acid testing to test for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Sweden. TRANSFUSION, 51(2), 421-429
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The cost-effectiveness of introducing nucleic acid testing to test for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Sweden
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2011 (English)In: TRANSFUSION, ISSN 0041-1132, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 421-429Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of using individual-donor nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT) in addition to serologic tests compared with the sole use of serologic tests for the identification of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among blood donors in Sweden. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The two strategies analyzed were serologic tests and ID-NAT plus serologic tests. A health-economic model was used to estimate the lifetime costs and effects. The effects were measured as infections avoided and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. A societal perspective was used. RESULTS: The largest number of viral transmissions occurred with serologic testing only. However, the risks for viral transmissions were very low with both strategies. The total cost was mainly influenced by the cost of the test carried out. The cost of using ID-NAT plus serologic tests compared to serologic tests alone was estimated at Swedish Krona (SEK) 101 million (USD 12.7 million) per avoided viral transmission. The cost per QALY gained was SEK 22 million (USD 2.7 million). CONCLUSION: Using ID-NAT for testing against HBV, HCV, and HIV among blood donors leads to cost-effectiveness ratios that are far beyond what is usually considered cost-effective. The main reason for this is that with current methods, the risks for virus transmission are very low in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2011
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66115 (URN)10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02877.x (DOI)000287199400026 ()
Available from: 2011-03-04 Created: 2011-03-04 Last updated: 2012-03-27Bibliographically approved
Almroth, G., Ekermo, B., Åkerlind, B., Månsson, A.-S. & Widell, A. (2010). Monitoring hepatitis C infection in a major Swedish nephrology unit and molecular resolution of a new case of nosocomial transmission.. Journal of medical virology, 82(2), 249-256
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring hepatitis C infection in a major Swedish nephrology unit and molecular resolution of a new case of nosocomial transmission.
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2010 (English)In: Journal of medical virology, ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 249-256Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a frequent problem in hemodialysis units. The prevalence and incidence of HCV infection over a decade were studied in a nephrology unit affected by previous nosocomial HCV transmission. The HCV non-structural 5B protein gene was sequenced to achieve phylogenetic analysis of a new (incident) case of infection. Proportions of patients who were and were not infected with HCV remained similar over the period, as did the inflow and outflow of patients infected previously. In 1997, 12/157 (8%) of patients at the unit (treatment: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and renal transplant recipients) were positive in HCV RNA, whereas in 2007 the overall number was 9/239 (4%). One patient acquired an HCV infection, and the NS5B sequence in that case clustered with genotype 2b sequences found in patients from an earlier outbreak. Comparing the HCV from the incident patient with several stored longitudinal samples and cloned PCR products from the most likely source patient revealed close phylogenetic relationship with an HCV quasispecies member from the possible source. The source patient and the incident newly infected patient were not scheduled on the same dialysis shift, although the records showed that simultaneous treatment occurred on two occasions during the months preceding transmission. In conclusion, over the 10-year period, the proportion of HCV-infected patients at the unit was unchanged. Only one new infection occurred, which originated from a fellow patient's quasispecies. This establishes phylogenetic analysis as a valuable tool for tracing patient sources of HCV transmission.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53071 (URN)10.1002/jmv.21683 (DOI)20029812 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-01-15 Created: 2010-01-15 Last updated: 2011-02-04
Kindberg, E., Mickiene, A., Ax, C., Åkerlind, B., Vene, S., Lindquist, L., . . . Svensson, L. (2008). A deletion in the chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene is associated with tickborne encephalitis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 197(2), 266-269
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A deletion in the chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene is associated with tickborne encephalitis
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2008 (English)In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, E-ISSN 1537-6613, Vol. 197, no 2, p. 266-269Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tickborne encephalitis (TBE) virus infections can be asymptomatic or cause moderate to severe injuries of the central nervous system. Why some individuals develop severe disease is unknown, but a role for host genetic factors has been suggested. To investigate whether chemokine receptor CCR5 is associated with TBE, CCR5Δ32 genotyping was performed among Lithuanian patients with TBE (n = 129) or with aseptic meningoencephalitis (n = 76) as well as among control subjects (n = 134). We found individuals homozygous for CCR5Δ32 (P = .026) only among patients with TBE and a higher allele prevalence among patients with TBE compared with the other groups studied. CCR5Δ32 allele prevalence also increased with the clinical severity of disease. © 2007 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Alleles Encephalitis, Tick-Borne/epidemiology/*genetics/physiopathology *Gene Deletion Gene Frequency *Genetic Predisposition to Disease Homozygote Humans Lithuania/epidemiology Meningoencephalitis/genetics Receptors, CCR5/*genetics Severity of Illness In
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-43369 (URN)10.1086/524709 (DOI)73655 (Local ID)73655 (Archive number)73655 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Cardell, K., Åkerlind, B., Sällberg, M. & Frydén, A. (2008). Excellent response rate to a double dose of the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in previous nonresponders to hepatitis B vaccine. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 198(3), 299-304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Excellent response rate to a double dose of the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in previous nonresponders to hepatitis B vaccine
2008 (English)In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, E-ISSN 1537-6613, Vol. 198, no 3, p. 299-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B vaccine has been shown to be highly efficient in preventing hepatitis B. However, 5%-10% of individuals fail to develop protective levels (>or=10 mIU/mL) of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and are considered to be nonresponders.

METHODS: A total of 48 nonresponders and 20 subjects naive to the HBV vaccine received a double dose of combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (Twinrix) at 0, 1, and 6 months. The levels of anti-HBs and antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) were determined before vaccination and 1 month after each dose.

RESULTS: Among 44 nonresponders, protective anti-HBs levels were found in 26 (59%) after the first dose and in 42 (95%) after the third dose. Among the control subjects, the corresponding figures were 10% and 100%, respectively. All subjects seroconverted to anti-HAV. The titers of both anti-HBs and anti-HAV were lower in the previously nonresponsive subjects (P< .01).

CONCLUSION: Revaccination of nonresponders to the standard hepatitis B vaccine regimen with a double dose of the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine was highly effective. This is most likely explained by the increased dose, a positive bystander effect conferred by the hepatitis A vaccine, or both.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20799 (URN)10.1086/589722 (DOI)18544037 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2009-09-21 Created: 2009-09-21 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
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