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Haag, L., Martinsen, U. & Sandberg, E. (2019). Supply chain capabilities for facilitating the internationalisation of retailers: a multiple case study of three Swedish retail companies. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 29(3), 321-339
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supply chain capabilities for facilitating the internationalisation of retailers: a multiple case study of three Swedish retail companies
2019 (English)In: The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 321-339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Market-oriented aspects of retail internationalisation have received a lot of research attention since the 1990s. However, beyond these aspects lies also supply-chain oriented capabilities that are necessary for retailers to successfully internationalise into foreign sales markets. By using a perspective based on resource-based theories, this paper explores supply-chain oriented capabilities that facilitate retail internationalisation. The research is based on a multiple case study of three Swedish retailers. Through the perspective of research based theories, specifically capabilities, the empirical data is studied in a single-case as well as a cross-case analysis. Findings reveal three supply chain-oriented capability categories (leadership capability, integration capability and learning capability) of importance for retail internationalisation. Resources necessary for the capabilities are to be found internally at the retailer, but also externally at other firms. This research adds to the market-oriented knowledge on retail internationalisation by adding a supply-chain oriented perspective. Further, it provides an understanding of the early phases of retail internationalisation.

Keywords
Supply-chain capabilities, retail internationalisation, resource-based theories (RBT), multiple case study, foreign establishment
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-158603 (URN)10.1080/09593969.2019.1598467 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-07-03 Created: 2019-07-03 Last updated: 2019-07-05Bibliographically approved
Rogerson, S. & Sallnäs, U. (2017). Internal coordination to enable high load factor. International Journal of Logistics Management, 28(4), 1142-1167
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internal coordination to enable high load factor
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Logistics Management, ISSN 0957-4093, E-ISSN 1758-6550, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1142-1167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to clarify how activities may be coordinated within shippers’ organisations to enable high load factor (a key aspect of transport efficiency).

 

Design/methodology/approach – A multiple-case study involving three shippers was conducted, in which the logistics or transport managers of each company were interviewed. The cases were analysed according to (1) which activities were coordinated to achieve high load factor, (2) interdependencies between the activities, and (3) the coordination mechanisms that shippers adopted.

 

Findings – A matrix is developed to show the differences in applying various coordination mechanisms in eight categories, according to (1) intrafunctional or interfunctional coordination, (2) sequential or reciprocal interdependencies, and (3) the number of activities (dyadic or multiple). For example, coordination mechanisms aimed at exerting control are more suitable for intrafunctional than interfunctional interaction; interfunctional coordination relies more on mechanisms that aim to increase the understanding of transport-related issues among non-logistics activities.

 

Research limitations/implications – The study is based on data from three Swedish companies.

 

Practical implications – Managers are provided with suggestions for coordinating activities when their goal is to improve load factor. These findings are of interest for reducing costs and emissions.

 

Social implications

 

Originality/value – In response to suggestions in the earlier literature that shippers could improve their internal coordination to improve their load factor, this paper articulates several mechanisms for performing such coordination in eight situations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017
Keywords
load factor, freight transport, interdependencies, coordination mechanism, shipper, green logistics
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132744 (URN)10.1108/IJLM-02-2016-0031 (DOI)000414260300010 ()
Funder
Swedish Retail and Wholesale Development Council
Note

Funding agencies: VINNOVA (the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems); Swedish Retail and Wholesale Development Council

Available from: 2016-11-22 Created: 2016-11-22 Last updated: 2017-11-20Bibliographically approved
Sallnäs, U. (2016). Coordination to manage dependencies between logistics service providers and shippers: An environmental perspective. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 46(3), 316-340
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coordination to manage dependencies between logistics service providers and shippers: An environmental perspective
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, ISSN 0960-0035, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 316-340Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Although it has been suggested that shippers’ demands regarding environmental practices appear to have an impact on the environmental work of LSPs, limited attention has been given to environmental practices in the relationships between LSPs and shippers. The purpose of this paper is to explore how dependencies between LSPs and shippers can influence the way in which environmental practices are coordinated in the relationships between them.

Design/methodology/approach: Four dyadic case studies, each consisting of one LSP and one shipper, provide the empirical basis for this paper.

Findings: Two types of dependencies are suggested as having an influence over the coordination of environmental practices in LSP-shipper relationships: dependence between LSPs and shippers as such; and dependence with regard to specific environmental practices. In addition, the environmental ambition of the actors is found to be of relevance when LSPs and shippers coordinate environmental practices between them. Based on these parameters, different coordination mechanisms for environmental practices in LSP-shipper relationships are discussed.

Research limitations/implications: The research is limited to four cases in a Swedish context. Additional cases might provide other insights into LSP-shipper relationships and thereby lead to modifications of the proposed conceptual framework.

Practical implications: The results can help both LSPs and shippers improve their work with environmental practices through the use of the appropriate coordination mechanisms in their inter-organisational relationships.

Originality/value: Contrary to previous research, which mainly takes one party’s perspective, this paper takes a dyadic approach and thereby adds valuable knowledge to the inter-organisational aspects of LSPs’ environmental work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016
Keywords
Logistics service providers, Coordination mechanisms, Dependencies, Environmental practices, Inter-organizational relationships, Shippers
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126659 (URN)10.1108/IJPDLM-06-2014-0143 (DOI)000374149800004 ()
Funder
VINNOVASwedish Retail and Wholesale Development Council
Note

Funding agencies:  VINNOVA (Swedens innovation agency); Swedish Retail and Wholesale Development Council

Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Huge-Brodin, M., Martinsen Sallnäs, U. & Karlsson, M. (2015). Sustainable Logistics Service Providers: A strategic perspective on green logistics service provision. In: Lim, M., Jones, C., Day, J. and Smith, S. (Ed.), Proceedings from the 20th Annual Logistics Research Network Conference: Resource Efficiency and Sustainability in Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Paper presented at 20th Annual Logistics Research Network Conference (pp. 1-8). Derby: The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport & Derby University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable Logistics Service Providers: A strategic perspective on green logistics service provision
2015 (English)In: Proceedings from the 20th Annual Logistics Research Network Conference: Resource Efficiency and Sustainability in Logistics and Supply Chain Management / [ed] Lim, M., Jones, C., Day, J. and Smith, S., Derby: The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport & Derby University , 2015, p. 1-8Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Environmental sustainability is of increasing importance. The Logistics Service Industry is of specific interest: its impact from mainly transports is still increasing. However, the sustainability of any company also includes a long-term prosperous business. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a hauler, as an example of a logistics service provider (LSP), through approaching environmental sustainability from an overall strategic business perspective, can succeed long-term.

Research Approach: The paper builds on an in-depth case study of a medium sized privately held LSP. The case was selected as it stands out compared to its competitors with respect to environmental engagement and long-term commitment to sustainability related issues. Starting from a framework based on RBT (Resource Based Theory), the case is analysed regarding how various types of resources and dynamic capabilities can contribute to sustainable competitive advantage.

Findings and Originality: The case study illustrates how an LSP can put various resources to work and how resources can be combined. It is demonstrated that these combinations of resources are valuable, rare and perfectly inimitable, and that they to a high extent are well established in the company, and hence not rely in certain individuals. The cases study further demonstrates how an LSP can sense possibilities, seize opportunities and, when needed, reshape its business accordingly, and hence possess critical dynamic capabilities. This research contributes by analysing an LSP that, in contrast to most of its competitors, has succeeded in making its sustainable development a strategic asset. This asset reaches beyond the commonly acknowledged efficiency gains, and is an interesting example of how an LSP through its dynamic capabilities can gain a unique position.

Research Impact: The strategic perspective through an RBT lens has previously been applied to LSPs mainly in survey based research. The results of this paper are rare, as they build on a real-case situation of a successful and sustainable LSP, while the extant research of success among LSPs going greener mostly suggest future development to become successful. This paper suggests how sustainable development can become a strategic asset for an LSP, and how dynamic capabilities can support that. Theories on dynamic capabilities have previously only been applied to a very limited extent on the analysis of LSPs aiming for going greener

Practical Impact: Based on this case, other LSPs may get inspiration to how they can develop their business to become more sustainable. The analysis points to that greening efforts cannot be seen in isolation, rather it is the combination of efforts, uniquely orchestrated for each case, that can make a difference. Therefore, the results point to relationships between various efforts, as well as how the different greening efforts fit the context of the LSP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Derby: The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport & Derby University, 2015
Keywords
logistics service provider, sustainable development, strategy, case study
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121780 (URN)978-1-904564-50-8 (ISBN)
Conference
20th Annual Logistics Research Network Conference
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel PerspectivesSwedish Retail and Wholesale Development Council
Available from: 2015-10-05 Created: 2015-10-05 Last updated: 2016-11-30
Martinsen, U. & Huge-Brodin, M. (2014). Environmental practices as offerings and requirements in the logistics market. Logistics Research, 7(115), 1-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental practices as offerings and requirements in the logistics market
2014 (English)In: Logistics Research, ISSN 1865-0368, Vol. 7, no 115, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The importance of environmental consider- ation for companies is mounting. This applies particularly well to logistics service providers (LSPs) who will have a possibility to compete by being greener than their com- petitors by offering services that include different green practices. As their customers play a vital role with regard to the extent to which LSPs can include environmental practices in their business, the interface between these actors is of interest. The purpose of this article is to describe and explain how environmental practices are reflected in offerings and requirements on the logistics market. A systematic literature review of what has been published on environmental practices as parts of offerings and requirements was complemented by a wider literature review. Empirical data were collected through a home page scan and a case study of four LSP–shipper dyads. With a starting point in stakeholder theory, the different data sets were analysed separately as well as combined, and similarities and differences were discussed. The findings point to differences in the way that LSPs and shippers offer and require environmental practices on their home pages and reasons for this are suggested to be due to their different types of stakeholders. Further, the environmental practices in relationships between LSP and shippers are often more relationship specific than practices on home pages. Based on the combined findings of the data sets, a classification of environmental practices as reflected in offerings and requirements on the logistics market is proposed. The article is mainly based on com- panies’ practices in Sweden and thereby provides a pos- sibility to extend the research into other countries as well. By taking two perspectives, the findings from this research can have implications both for purchasing and marketing of logistic services. The paper suggests which environ- mental practices that LSPs and shippers can offer or require in different stages of their business relationships. Contrary to most research within green logistics, this paper takes a business perspective on environmental practices. Further, the dual perspective of LSPs and shippers taken in this paper offers novel insight into how environmental practices can be included at different stages of LSP–shipper relationships. 

Keywords
Logistics Service Provider, Green logistics, Offering, Environmental Practice, Stakeholder Theory, Logistics Market
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-107909 (URN)10.1007/s12159-014-0115-y (DOI)2-s2.0-84919934818 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-06-23 Created: 2014-06-23 Last updated: 2016-11-30
Björklund, M. & Martinsen, U. (2014). From city logistics problems to solution - a multiple stakeholder perspective. In: The 26th International NOFOMA conference, Copenhagen, Denmark: . Paper presented at The 26th International NOFOMA conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 12-13, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From city logistics problems to solution - a multiple stakeholder perspective
2014 (English)In: The 26th International NOFOMA conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-107907 (URN)
Conference
The 26th International NOFOMA conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 12-13, 2014
Available from: 2014-06-23 Created: 2014-06-23 Last updated: 2019-05-09
Martinsen, U. (2014). Miljöåtgärder i logistiken: en fråga om maktobalanser?. Supply chain effect (2), 27-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Miljöåtgärder i logistiken: en fråga om maktobalanser?
2014 (Swedish)In: Supply chain effect, ISSN 2000-8457, no 2, p. 27-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109646 (URN)
Available from: 2014-08-22 Created: 2014-08-22 Last updated: 2016-11-30
Huge-Brodin, M., Martinsen, U. & Karlsosn, M. (2014). The Slowness of Greening Transports in Supply Chains: Barriers and Enablers when Introducing Green Activities. In: Gammelgard, B. et al. (Ed.), Competitiveness through Supply Chain Management and Global Logistics: Proceedings form the 26th Conference of the Nordic Logistics Research Network. Paper presented at NOFOMA - the 26th Conference of the Nordic Logistics Research Network (pp. 962-964).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Slowness of Greening Transports in Supply Chains: Barriers and Enablers when Introducing Green Activities
2014 (English)In: Competitiveness through Supply Chain Management and Global Logistics: Proceedings form the 26th Conference of the Nordic Logistics Research Network / [ed] Gammelgard, B. et al., 2014, p. 962-964Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
logistics service provider, forwarder, interorganisational relationships, green supply chain management, case studies
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114799 (URN)978-87-997433-0-8 (ISBN)
Conference
NOFOMA - the 26th Conference of the Nordic Logistics Research Network
Available from: 2015-03-04 Created: 2015-03-04 Last updated: 2016-11-30
Martinsen, U. (2014). Towards greener supply chains: Inclusion of environmental activities in relationships between logistics service providers and shippers. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards greener supply chains: Inclusion of environmental activities in relationships between logistics service providers and shippers
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

It is well-recognised that companies are under pressure to take responsibility for the environmental impact of their operations. Logistics service providers (LSPs), who through their transport and logistics operations have a large negative impact on the environment, are one type of supply chain actor that is under such pressure. However, in order for LSPs to be able to lower their environmental impact sufficiently, their customers, the shippers, also need to take responsibility. This thesis takes its starting point in the relationships between LSPs and shippers and argues that in order for LSPs’ environmental activities to reach their full potential, the shippers must be included in the activities.

The purpose of this thesis is to describe and explain how supply chain actors, with a specific focus on logistics service providers and shippers, can include environmental activities in their relationships with each other. This comprises identifying those environmental activities that are relevant for relationships between LSPs and shippers, as well as describing the extent to which environmental activities are included in such relationships. By means of the theoretical perspective of power between supply chain actors, the thesis also sets out to further understand how power balances between LSPs and shippers can influence the extent to which they include environmental activities in their relationships with each other. Finally, the use of the theoretical perspective of coordination aims, through the analysis of coordination mechanisms, to shed light on how environmental activities are included in LSP-shipper relationships.

The research in this thesis has mainly descriptive and explanatory aims, although due to the novelty of research into LSPshipper relationships in an environmental context, the research process as such is mainly exploratory. Following an abductive approach, the insights from literature are combined with empirical data from two cases studies, a homepage scan, a survey and a study of city logistics projects. Most of the applied research methods take a dual perspective of relationships between supply chain actors and thus include both LSPs and shippers.

One conclusion from the research conducted for this thesis comprises the identification of environmental activities as well as a suggestion for a classification based on the activities’ role in the business between LSPs and shippers. With a starting point in the identified activities, a comparison of a market perspective and a relationship perspective of environmental activities in LSP-shipper relationships indicates that LSPs are able to fulfil the requirements set by shippers and that shippers’ requirement thus are met. The research does, however, point to a passiveness among LSPs in their relationships with shippers, who in turn would like the LSPs to be more proactive.

Further, based on an analysis of power balances in LSP-shipper relationships, it is suggested that in an LSP-shipper relationship in which the shipper has a power advantage, the shipper’s environmental ambitions for logistics sets the agenda for the environmental activities in that relationship.

An analysis of coordination of environmental activities in LSP-shipper relationships indicates that the mechanisms of direct supervision, which is when one actor tells the other actor in the relationship what to do, and mutual adjustment can be chosen to be used in order to include environmental activities in LSP-shipper relationships. While direct supervision is suggested to be a coordination mechanism that is easy for shippers to apply, mutual adjustment appears to hold greater potential for the development of environmental activities.

Finally, these findings in combination are suggested to have implications for the coordination of environmental activities in LSP-shipper relationships. More specifically, this thesis offers a categorisation of different types of LSP-shipper relationships and the involved actors’ environmental ambition. Depending on whether the environmental ambition of the LSP and shipper in a specific relationship is high or low appears to have implications for the possibility to work towards greener supply chains for each type of relationship.

Abstract [sv]

Många företag känner av pressen av agera för att minska sin miljöpåverkan. Flera företag har också insett att ett sådant agerande även har affärsmässiga fördelar. När det gäller miljöpåverkan så tillhör logistikföretagen, till stor del på grund av sina transporter, de företag som insett att något måste göras. Möjligheten för dessa företag att göra olika miljöåtgärder påverkas av varuägarna som köper logistikföretagens tjänster. Som en följd av detta blir länken mellan dessa företag – relationen – viktig för att möjliggöra förbättringar när det gäller påverkan från logistiken. Denna avhandling har som syfte att beskriva och förklara hur aktörer i försörjningskedjan, med ett speciellt fokus på relationer mellan logistikföretag och varuägare, kan inkludera miljöåtgärder i sina relationer med varandra.

För att över huvud taget kunna diskutera miljöåtgärder i relationer mellan logistikföretag och varuägare så är det viktigt att veta vad för typer av miljöåtgärder detta kan röra sig om. Första forskningsfrågan i avhandlingen behandlar detta och i avhandlingen identifieras ett antal sådana åtgärder. Det kan röra sig om relativt tekniska åtgärder så som alternativa bränslen, olika typer av fordon och energieffektiv körning, till åtgärder som handlar om styrning av logistiken, så som design av logistiksystemen, till åtgärder som är väldigt relationsspecifika som exempelvis specifika projekt eller miljögrupper.

Med avstamp i de identifierade åtgärderna analyseras sedan relationerna mellan logistikföretag och varuägare i några olika steg. En jämförelse mellan logistikföretagens och varuägarnas perspektiv på de miljöåtgärder som erbjuds, efterfrågas samt ingår i relationerna dem emellan visar att logistikföretagen ofta kan tillgodose sina kunders önskemål. Samtidigt som detta visar att varuägarnas önskemål verkar vara uppfyllda, så finns det en frustration från varuägarnas sida över att logistikföretagen inte är mer proaktiva.

En av anledningarna till detta kan vara maktbalansen mellan logistikföretag och varuägare. Resultaten i avhandlingen pekar nämligen på att varuägarna oftast har makten över logistikföretagen, vilket verkar leda till att varuägarens ambitioner gällande miljö ofta är det som sätter agendan för vilka miljöåtgärder som inkluderas i relationen mellan dessa företag.

Vidare så kan de miljöåtgärder som ingår i en relation mellan logistikföretag och varuägare koordineras på olika sätt och flera sådana tas upp i avhandlingen. Resultaten pekar även på att maktbalansen i relationerna påverkar i vilken grad miljöåtgärder inkluderas i relationer mellan logistikföretag och varuägare samt hur dessa koordineras. En matris, som bygger på logistikföretagets och varuägarens ambitioner gällande miljö för en specifik relation, sammanfattar resultaten i avhandlingen. Beroende på om denna ambition är hög eller låg för de båda aktörerna påverkar i sin tur möjligheten för varje typ av relation att arbeta mot gröna försörjningskedjor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. p. 127 + 2 Case Reports
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1565
Keywords
Green supply chain management, inter-organisational relationships, environmental activities, logistics service providers, shippers
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102564 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-102564 (DOI)978-91-7519-440-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-02-07, ACAS, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-12-13 Created: 2013-12-13 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Martinsen, U. (2013). A Study of Environmental and Other Sustainable Activities in supply Chain Relationships at Clas Ohlson.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Study of Environmental and Other Sustainable Activities in supply Chain Relationships at Clas Ohlson
2013 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report is the result of a case study conducted at the Swedish retail company Clas Ohlson. The study has been conducted as one step in the PhD process of the author of this report and is financed by the Swedish Energy Agency (Energimyndigheten). In this first chapter, some background information to the case study is given: the aim of the study, the rationale behind choosing Clas Ohlson as the case company and data collection methods. Finally, the structure of the remaining parts of the report is presented.

The aim of this case study is to illustrate how environmental work can be conducted in different types of supply chain relationships, seen from the perspective of one focal shipper in a supply chain. The relationships include both upstream (such as suppliers and inbound logistics service providers) and downstream (such as outbound logistics service providers and stores in a city logistics context) parts of the supply chain. As these examples illustrate, the supply chain relationships can include shippers as well as logistics service providers (LSPs).

Publisher
p. 40 + Appendix 1-3
Series
LIU-IEI-R ; 191
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102562 (URN)LIU‐IEI‐RR‐‐13/00191‐‐SE (ISRN)
Available from: 2013-12-13 Created: 2013-12-13 Last updated: 2018-10-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8969-9396

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