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Bolger, Ann F.
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Publications (10 of 35) Show all publications
Dyverfeldt, P., Bissell, M., Barker, A. J., Bolger, A. F., Carlhäll, C., Ebbers, T., . . . Markl, M. (2015). 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance consensus statement. Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, 17(72)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance consensus statement
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, ISSN 1097-6647, E-ISSN 1532-429X, Vol. 17, no 72Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pulsatile blood flow through the cavities of the heart and great vessels is time-varying and multidirectional. Access to all regions, phases and directions of cardiovascular flows has formerly been limited. Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has enabled more comprehensive access to such flows, with typical spatial resolution of 1.5x1.5x1.5 - 3x3x3 mm(3), typical temporal resolution of 30-40 ms, and acquisition times in the order of 5 to 25 min. This consensus paper is the work of physicists, physicians and biomedical engineers, active in the development and implementation of 4D Flow CMR, who have repeatedly met to share experience and ideas. The paper aims to assist understanding of acquisition and analysis methods, and their potential clinical applications with a focus on the heart and greater vessels. We describe that 4D Flow CMR can be clinically advantageous because placement of a single acquisition volume is straightforward and enables flow through any plane across it to be calculated retrospectively and with good accuracy. We also specify research and development goals that have yet to be satisfactorily achieved. Derived flow parameters, generally needing further development or validation for clinical use, include measurements of wall shear stress, pressure difference, turbulent kinetic energy, and intracardiac flow components. The dependence of measurement accuracy on acquisition parameters is considered, as are the uses of different visualization strategies for appropriate representation of time-varying multidirectional flow fields. Finally, we offer suggestions for more consistent, user-friendly implementation of 4D Flow CMR acquisition and data handling with a view to multicenter studies and more widespread adoption of the approach in routine clinical investigations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central / Informa Healthcare, 2015
Keywords
4D Flow CMR; 4D Flow MRI; Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging; MR flow imaging; Hemodynamics; Flow visualization; Flow quantification; Recommendations; Clinical; Cardiovascular
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120859 (URN)10.1186/s12968-015-0174-5 (DOI)000359155900001 ()26257141 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council; Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden; Linkoping University; British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence; Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre; NIH [K25HL119608]; Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation; European Research Council [HEART4FLOW, 310612]; Radiological Society of North America (RSNA); NIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit at the Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust; Imperial College London; National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) [R01 R01DK096169]; National Institute of Health (NIH) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) [R01HL115828]

Available from: 2015-08-28 Created: 2015-08-28 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Eriksson, J., Bolger, A. F., Carlhäll, C. & Ebbers, T. (2015). Spatial Heterogeneity of Four-Dimensional Relative Pressure Fields in the Human Left Ventricle. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 74(6), 1716-1725
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial Heterogeneity of Four-Dimensional Relative Pressure Fields in the Human Left Ventricle
2015 (English)In: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, ISSN 0740-3194, E-ISSN 1522-2594, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 1716-1725Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To assess the spatial heterogeneity of the four-dimensional (4D) relative pressure fields in the healthy human left ventricle (LV) and provide reference data for normal LV relative pressure. Methods: Twelve healthy subjects underwent a cardiac MRI examination where 4D flow and morphological data were acquired. The latter data were segmented and used to define the borders of the LV for computation of relative pressure fields using the pressure Poisson equation. The LV lumen was divided into 17 pie-shaped segments. Results: In the normal left ventricle, the relative pressure in the apical segments was significantly higher relative to the basal segments (P < 0.0005) along both the anteroseptal and inferolateral sides after the peaks of early (E-wave) and late (A-wave) diastolic filling. The basal anteroseptal segment showed significantly lower median pressure than the opposite basal inferolateral segment during both E-wave (P < 0.0005) and A-wave (P = 0.0024). Conclusion: Relative pressure in the left ventricle is heterogeneous. During diastole, the main pressure differences in the LV occur along the basal-apical axis. However, pressure differences were also found in the short axis direction and may reflect important aspects of atrioventricular coupling. Additionally, this study provides reference data on LV pressure dynamics for a group of healthy subjects. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2015
Keywords
relative pressure; magnetic resonance; 4D flow; physiology; cardiac function; ventricular pressure
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124503 (URN)10.1002/mrm.25539 (DOI)000367737300023 ()25427056 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [621-2011-5204]; Swedish Heart and Lung foundation [hlf 2010/273-31]; Emil and Vera Cornell Foundation; European Research Council [HEART4FLOW, 310612]

Available from: 2016-02-02 Created: 2016-02-01 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Zajac, J., Eriksson, J., Dyverfeldt, P., Bolger, A. F., Ebbers, T. & Carlhäll, C.-J. (2015). Turbulent Kinetic Energy in Normal and Myopathic Left Ventricles. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 41(4), 1021-1029
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Turbulent Kinetic Energy in Normal and Myopathic Left Ventricles
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ISSN 1053-1807, E-ISSN 1522-2586, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 1021-1029Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To assess turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) within the left ventricle (LV) of healthy subjects using novel 4D flow MRI methods and to compare TKE values to those from a spectrum of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

Methods: 4D flow and morphological MRI-data were acquired in 11 healthy subjects and 9 patients with different degrees of diastolic dysfunction. TKELV was calculated within the LV at each diastolic time frame. At peak early (E) and late (A) diastolic filling, the TKELV was compared to transmitral peak velocity, LV diameter and mitral annular diameter.

Results: In the majority of all subjects, peaks in TKELV could be observed at E and A. Peak TKELV at E was not different between the groups, and correlated with mitral annular dimensions. Peak TKELV at A was higher in DCM patients compared to healthy subjects, and was related to LV diameter and transmitral velocity.

Conclusions: In normal LVs, TKE values are low. Values are highest during early diastole, and diminish with increasing LV size. In a heterogeneous group of DCM patients, late diastolic TKE values are higher than in healthy subjects. Kinetic energy loss due to elevated late diastolic TKE may reflect inefficient flow in dilated LVs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2015
Keywords
Magnetic resonance imaging, blood flow, turbulent flow, cardiac function, diastolic dysfunction, heart failure
National Category
Medical Engineering Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99957 (URN)10.1002/jmri.24633 (DOI)000351521700019 ()
Note

Contract grant sponsor: Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation; Contract grant sponsor: Swedish Research Council; Contract grant sponsor: European Research Council.

Available from: 2013-10-24 Created: 2013-10-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, J., Bolger, A. F., Ebbers, T. & Carlhäll, C.-J. (2013). Four-dimensional blood flow-specific markers of LV dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy. European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging, 14(5), 417-424
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Four-dimensional blood flow-specific markers of LV dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy
2013 (English)In: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging, ISSN 2047-2404, E-ISSN 2047-2412, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 417-424Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims : Patients with mild heart failure (HF) who are clinically compensated may have normal left ventricular (LV) stroke volume (SV). Despite this, altered intra-ventricular flow patterns have been recognized in these subjects. We hypothesized that, compared with normal LVs, flow in myopathic LVs would demonstrate a smaller proportion of inflow volume passing directly to ejection and diminished the end-diastolic preservation of the inflow kinetic energy (KE).

Methods and results : In 10 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (49 ± 14 years, six females) and 10 healthy subjects (44 ± 17 years, four females), four-dimensional MRI velocity and morphological data were acquired. A previously validated method was used to separate the LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) into four flow components based on the blood's locations at the beginning and end of the cardiac cycle. KE was calculated over the cardiac cycle for each component. The EDV was larger (P = 0.021) and the ejection fraction smaller (P < 0.001) in DCM compared with healthy subjects; the SV was equivalent (DCM: 77 ± 19, healthy: 79 ± 16 mL). The proportion of the total LV inflow that passed directly to ejection was smaller in DCM (P = 0.000), but the end-diastolic KE/mL of the direct flow was not different in the two groups (NS).

Conclusion : Despite equivalent LVSVs, HF patients with mild LV remodelling demonstrate altered diastolic flow routes through the LV and impaired preservation of inflow KE at pre-systole compared with healthy subjects. These unique flow-specific changes in the flow route and energetics are detectable despite clinical compensation, and may prove useful as subclinical markers of LV dysfunction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2013
Keywords
4D flow, Heart failure, Magnetic resonance imaging, Stroke volume
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87616 (URN)10.1093/ehjci/jes159 (DOI)000318088300003 ()22879457 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-01-19 Created: 2013-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Eriksson, J., Bolger, A. F., Carlhäll, C.-J. & Ebbers, T. (2013). Spatial heterogeneity of 4D relative pressure fields in the human left ventricle. , 14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial heterogeneity of 4D relative pressure fields in the human left ventricle
2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Blood flow throughout the cardiovascular system is driven by pressure differences generated by the contraction and relaxation of the heart, where blood accelerates from high to low pressure areas. Absolute intracardiac pressure cannot be measured noninvasively, but relative pressure can be calculated. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial heterogeneity of the 4D relative pressure fields in the human left ventricle (LV).

Twelve healthy subjects underwent MRI examination where 4D flow as well as morphological data were acquired. The morphological data were segmented, and the segmentation used as boundary condition when computing relative pressure fields from the pressure Poisson equation using a multi grid solver. The LV lumen was divided according to a seventeen segment model in order to assess spatial heterogeneity and present the extensive amount of data in a comprehensive manner.

The basal anteroseptal segment shows a significantly lower median pressure than the opposite basal inferolateral segment during both early and late diastolic filling (p<0.0005 and p=0.0024, respectively). Along the long axis, the relative pressure in the apical segments are significantly higher relative to the basal segments (p<0.0005) along both the anteroseptal and inferolateral sides at and after the peaks of E-wave and A-wave.

During diastole the main pressure differences in the LV occur along the basal-apical axis. However, pressure differences can also be found in the short-axis direction, and may also reflect important aspects of atrioventricular coupling.

Keywords
Relative pressure, Magnetic resonance, 4D flow, physiology, cardiac function
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99956 (URN)
Available from: 2013-10-24 Created: 2013-10-24 Last updated: 2014-04-23Bibliographically approved
Dyverfeldt, P., Escobar Kvitting, J.-P., Carlhäll, C. J., Boano, G., Sigfridsson, A., Hermansson, U., . . . Ebbers, T. (2011). Hemodynamic aspects of mitral regurgitation assessed by generalized phase-contrast MRI. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 33(3), 582-588
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hemodynamic aspects of mitral regurgitation assessed by generalized phase-contrast MRI
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2011 (English)In: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ISSN 1053-1807, E-ISSN 1522-2586, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 582-588Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Mitral regurgitation creates a high velocity jet into the left atrium (LA), contributing both volume andpressure; we hypothesized that the severity of regurgitation would be reflected in the degree of LA flowdistortion.

Material and Methods: Three-dimensional cine PC-MRI was applied to determine LA flow patterns andturbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in seven subjects (five patients with posterior mitral leaflet prolapse, two normalsubjects). In addition, the regurgitant volume and the time-velocity profiles in the pulmonary veins weremeasured.

Results: The LA flow in the mitral regurgitation patients was highly disturbed with elevated values of TKE.Peak TKE occurred consistently at late systole. The total LA TKE was closely related to the regurgitant volume.LA flow patterns were characterized by a pronounced vortex in proximity to the regurgitant jet. In some patients,pronounced discordances were observed between individual pulmonary venous inflows, but these could not berelated to the direction of the flow jet or parameters describing global LA hemodynamics.

Conclusion: PC-MRI permits investigations of atrial and pulmonary vein flow patterns and TKE in significantmitral regurgitation, reflecting the impact of the highly disturbed blood flow that accompanies this importantvalve disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons, 2011
Keywords
Hemodynamics, mitral valve insufficiency, turbulent flow, phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging, pulmonary veins, blood flow velocity
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53190 (URN)10.1002/jmri.22407 (DOI)000287951100009 ()
Available from: 2010-01-19 Created: 2010-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-12
Eriksson, J., Dyverfeldt, P., Engvall, J., Bolger, A. F., Ebbers, T. & Carlhäll, C. (2011). Quantification of presystolic blood flow organization and energetics in the human left ventricle. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY, 300(6), H2135-H2141
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantification of presystolic blood flow organization and energetics in the human left ventricle
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2011 (English)In: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY, ISSN 0363-6135, Vol. 300, no 6, p. H2135-H2141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intracardiac blood flow patterns are potentially important to cardiac pumping efficiency. However, these complex flow patterns remain incompletely characterized both in health and disease. We hypothesized that normal left ventricular (LV) blood flow patterns would preferentially optimize a portion of the end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) for effective and rapid systolic ejection by virtue of location near and motion towards the LV outflow tract (LVOT). Three-dimensional cine velocity and morphological data were acquired in 12 healthy persons and 1 patient with dilated cardiomyopathy using MRI. A previously validated method was used for analysis in which the LVEDV was separated into four functional flow components based on the bloods locations at the beginning and end of the cardiac cycle. Each components volume, kinetic energy (KE), site, direction, and linear momentum relative to the LVOT were calculated. Of the four components, the LV inflow that passes directly to outflow in a single cardiac cycle (Direct Flow) had the largest volume. At the time of isovolumic contraction, Direct Flow had the greatest amount of KE and the most favorable combination of distance, angle, and linear momentum relative to the LVOT. Atrial contraction boosted the late diastolic KE of the ejected components. We conclude that normal diastolic LV flow creates favorable conditions for ensuing ejection, defined by proximity and energetics, for the Direct Flow, and that atrial contraction augments the end-diastolic KE of the ejection volume. The correlation of Direct Flow characteristics with ejection efficiency might be a relevant investigative target in cardiac failure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC, 9650 ROCKVILLE PIKE, BETHESDA, MD 20814 USA, 2011
Keywords
phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging, kinetic energy, heart, cardiac physiology
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69186 (URN)10.1152/ajpheart.00993.2010 (DOI)000291209300019 ()
Available from: 2011-06-17 Created: 2011-06-17 Last updated: 2013-12-17
Kvitting, J., Sigfridsson, A., Wigström, L., Bolger, A. & Karlsson, M. (2010). Analysis of human myocardial dynamics using virtual markers based on magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 30(1), 23-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of human myocardial dynamics using virtual markers based on magnetic resonance imaging
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2010 (English)In: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Myocardial dynamics are three-dimensional (3D) and time-varying. Cineradiography of surgically implanted makers in animals or patients is accurate for assessing these events, but this invasive method potentially alters myocardial motion. The aim of the study was to quantify myocardial motion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hence to provide a non-invasive approach to characterize 3D myocardial dynamics.

Methods: Myocardial motion was quantified in ten normal volunteers by tracking the Lagrangian motion of individual points (i.e. virtual markers), based on time-resolved 3D phase-contrast MRI data and Fourier tracking. Nine points in the myocardium were tracked over the entire cardiac cycle, allowing a wire frame model to be generated and systolic and diastolic events identified.

Results: Radius of curvature of the left ventricular (LV) wall was calculated from the virtual markers; the ratio between the anterior–posterior (AP) and septal–lateral (SL) walls in the LV shows an oval shape of the apical short axis plane at end systole (ES) and more circular at end diastole (ED). The AP/SL ratio for the basal plane shows an oval shape at ES and ED. We found that the rotation of the basal plane in ES was less compared to the apical plane [−2·0 ± 2·2 versus 4·1 ± 2·6 degrees (P<0·005)]. The apical plane rotated counter clock wise as viewed from the apex.

Conclusion: This new non-invasive tool, despite current limitations in temporal and spatial resolution, may provide a comprehensive set of virtual myocardial markers throughout the entire LV without the confounding effects introduced by surgical implantation.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-50587 (URN)10.1111/j.1475-097X.2009.00900.x (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-13 Created: 2009-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-12
Escobar Kvitting, J.-P., Dyverfeldt, P., Sigfridsson, A., Franzen, S., Wigström, L., Bolger, A. F. & Ebbers, T. (2010). In Vitro Assessment of Flow Patterns and Turbulence Intensity in Prosthetic Heart Valves Using Generalized Phase-Contrast MRI. JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, 31(5), 1075-1080
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In Vitro Assessment of Flow Patterns and Turbulence Intensity in Prosthetic Heart Valves Using Generalized Phase-Contrast MRI
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2010 (English)In: JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, ISSN 1053-1807, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 1075-1080Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To assess in vitro the three-dimensional mean velocity field and the extent and degree of turbulence intensity (TI) in different prosthetic heart valves using a generalization of phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI). Materials and Methods: Four 27-mm aortic valves (Bjork-Shiley Monostrut tilting-disc, St. Jude Medical Standard bileaflet, Medtronic Mosaic stented and Freestyle stentless porcine valve) were tested under steady inflow conditions in a Plexiglas phantom. Three-dimensional PC-MRI data were acquired to measure the mean velocity field and the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), a direction-independent measure of TI. Results: Velocity and TI estimates could be obtained up and downstream of the valves, except where metallic structure in the valves caused signal void. Distinct differences in the location, extent, and peak values of velocity and TI were observed between the valves tested. The maximum values of TKE varied between the different valves: tilting disc, 100 J/m(3); bileaflet, 115 J/m(3); stented, 200 J/m(3); stentless, 145 J/m(3). Conclusion: The TI downstream from a prosthetic heart valve is dependent on the specific valve design. Generalized PC-MRI can be used to quantify velocity and TI downstream from prosthetic heart valves, which may allow assessment of these aspects of prosthetic valvular function in postoperative patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, 2010
Keywords
turbulence intensity, prosthetic heart valves, phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-56524 (URN)10.1002/jmri.22163 (DOI)000277397100005 ()
Available from: 2010-05-21 Created: 2010-05-21 Last updated: 2013-09-03
Eriksson, J., Carlhäll, C., Dyverfeldt, P., Engvall, J., Bolger, A. F. & Ebbers, T. (2010). Semi-automatic quantification of 4D left ventricular blood flow. JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, 12(9)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Semi-automatic quantification of 4D left ventricular blood flow
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2010 (English)In: JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, ISSN 1097-6647, Vol. 12, no 9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The beating heart is the generator of blood flow through the cardiovascular system. Within the hearts own chambers, normal complex blood flow patterns can be disturbed by diseases. Methods for the quantification of intra-cardiac blood flow, with its 4D (3D+time) nature, are lacking. We sought to develop and validate a novel semi-automatic analysis approach that integrates flow and morphological data. Method: In six healthy subjects and three patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, three-directional, three-dimensional cine phase-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) velocity data and balanced steady-state free-precession long- and short-axis images were acquired. The LV endocardium was segmented from the short-axis images at the times of isovolumetric contraction (IVC) and isovolumetric relaxation (IVR). At the time of IVC, pathlines were emitted from the IVC LV blood volume and traced forwards and backwards in time until IVR, thus including the entire cardiac cycle. The IVR volume was used to determine if and where the pathlines left the LV. This information was used to automatically separate the pathlines into four different components of flow: Direct Flow, Retained Inflow, Delayed Ejection Flow and Residual Volume. Blood volumes were calculated for every component by multiplying the number of pathlines with the blood volume represented by each pathline. The accuracy and inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of the approach were evaluated by analyzing volumes of LV inflow and outflow, the four flow components, and the end-diastolic volume. Results: The volume and distribution of the LV flow components were determined in all subjects. The calculated LV outflow volumes [ml] (67 +/- 13) appeared to fall in between those obtained by through-plane phase-contrast CMR (77 +/- 16) and Doppler ultrasound (58 +/- 10), respectively. Calculated volumes of LV inflow (68 +/- 11) and outflow (67 +/- 13) were well matched (NS). Low inter- and intra-observer variability for the assessment of the volumes of the flow components was obtained. Conclusions: This semi-automatic analysis approach for the quantification of 4D blood flow resulted in accurate LV inflow and outflow volumes and a high reproducibility for the assessment of LV flow components.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54610 (URN)10.1186/1532-429X-12-9 (DOI)000275445000001 ()
Note

The original article is: Jonatan Eriksson, Carljohan Carlhäll, Petter Dyverfeldt, Jan Engvall, Ann F Bolger and Tino Ebbers, Semi-automatic quantification of 4D left ventricular blood flow, 2010, JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, (12), 9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1532-429X-12-9

Available from: 2010-03-26 Created: 2010-03-26 Last updated: 2014-01-15Bibliographically approved
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