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Jaarsma, P. & Welin, S. (2015). Editorial Material: Autism, Accommodation and Treatment: A Rejoinder to Chong-Ming Lims Critique in BIOETHICS, vol 29, issue 9, pp 684-685. Bioethics, 29(9), 684-685.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editorial Material: Autism, Accommodation and Treatment: A Rejoinder to Chong-Ming Lims Critique in BIOETHICS, vol 29, issue 9, pp 684-685
2015 (English)In: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 29, no 9, 684-685 p.Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

We are very grateful to Chong-Ming Lim for his thoughtful reply published in this journal on one of our articles, which motivated us to think more carefully about accommodating autistic individuals and treating autism. However we believe there are some confusions in Lims argument. Lim uses the accommodation thesis, according to which we should accommodate autistic individuals rather than treat autism, as the starting point for his reasoning. He claims that if the accommodation thesis is right, then we should not treat autistic individuals for their autism, not even low-functioning (i.e. intellectually disabled) ones, because this would be disrespectful to all autistic individuals. We should instead limit ourselves to accommodate all autistic individuals. However, the opposition between accommodation and treatment is not valid in the case of autism, because of ambiguity in the concepts of accommodation and treatment. Moreover there is confusion in Lims reasoning caused by omitting important facts about the practice of treating autism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2015
National Category
Clinical Medicine Other Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122647 (URN)10.1111/bioe.12183 (DOI)000363275800015 ()26307242 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-11-16 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Welin, S. (2014). Ethical Issues in Tissue Engineering (2ed.). In: Tissue Engineering: (pp. 809-837). Academic Press.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethical Issues in Tissue Engineering
2014 (English)In: Tissue Engineering, Academic Press, 2014, 2, 809-837 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2014 Edition: 2
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113775 (URN)978-012-4201-45-3 (ISBN)978-012-420-210-8 (ISBN)
Note

Second edition. Same title of book chapter but highly revised ard rewritten

Available from: 2015-01-30 Created: 2015-01-30 Last updated: 2015-02-06
Omar, F., Tinghög, G., Carlsson, P. & Welin, S. (2014). Risk för orättvis prioritering av patienter vid njurtransplantation: En enda väntelista bör införas, visar studie av svensk praxis. Läkartidningen, 111(37).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk för orättvis prioritering av patienter vid njurtransplantation: En enda väntelista bör införas, visar studie av svensk praxis
2014 (Swedish)In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 111, no 37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Njurar från avlidna donatorer är en gemensam resurs

Gemensamma resurser ska fördelas på ett effektivt och rättvist sätt.

I en intervjustudie innefattande svenska transplantationskirurger, nefrologer och transplantationskoordinatorer undersöktes faktorer och värden som ligger till grund för allokering av njurar.

Två risker för orättvisa i fördelningssystemet identifierades.

Faktorer och värden som ligger till grund för beslut bör göras mer publika och lättillgängliga.

Sverige bör införa ett nationellt, centraliserat fördelningssystem.

Abstract [en]

In order to investigate the fairness of the priority setting process underpinning Swedish kidney transplantation in reference to the Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework, 15 interviews with transplant surgeons, nephrologists, and coordinators were carried out. The factors described by interviewees and the values they rest on satisfy the relevance criterion of the A4R. Two potential sources for unfair inequalities were identified, namely the use of clinical judge­ments and varying institutional policies among dif­ferent centres. It is recommended that factors and values used in the priority process are made more public. Sweden should also consider a national, centralised system for allocation of kidneys and not rely on present day local allocation.

Keyword
etik, prioritering, njurtransplantation
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110626 (URN)25253609 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-09-16 Created: 2014-09-16 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Welin, S. (2014). Värde mot värde i vården: värdebaserad vård: är vi så bra vi kan bli? [Review]. Läkartidningen, 111(22).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Värde mot värde i vården: värdebaserad vård: är vi så bra vi kan bli?
2014 (Swedish)In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 111, no 22Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Keyword
Värde, förbättringskunskap
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110629 (URN)
Available from: 2014-09-16 Created: 2014-09-16 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Welin, S. (2013). A more secure existence: Rethinking the myth of individual origin. In: Christer Svennerlid, Jan Almäng, Rögnvaldur Ingthorsson (Ed.), Johanssonian Investigations: Essays in honour of Ingvar Johansson on his seventieth birthday (pp. 717-727). Frankfurt am Main: Ontos Verlag.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A more secure existence: Rethinking the myth of individual origin
2013 (English)In: Johanssonian Investigations: Essays in honour of Ingvar Johansson on his seventieth birthday / [ed] Christer Svennerlid, Jan Almäng, Rögnvaldur Ingthorsson, Frankfurt am Main: Ontos Verlag, 2013, 717-727 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During the last decades, Ingvar Johansson has made a formidable contribution to the development of philosophy in general and perhaps especially to the development of metaphysics. This volume consists of original papers written by 50 philosophers from all over the world in honour of Ingvar Johansson to celebrate his 70th birthday. The papers cover traditional issues in metaphysics and the philosophy of mind, applied ethics and applied metaphysics, the nature of human rights, the philosophy of economics and sports. Some of the papers study the philosophy of Ingvar Johansson.All of them studies subjects which he has shown an interest in. The variety of subjects covered, testifies to the extraordinary wide range of issues his thought has had a bearing on.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frankfurt am Main: Ontos Verlag, 2013
Series
EIDE. Foundations of Ontology, 5
Keyword
Philosophy, Filosofi
National Category
Humanities Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91000 (URN)978-3-86838-190-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-04-11 Created: 2013-04-11 Last updated: 2014-10-24Bibliographically approved
Jaarsma, P. & Welin, S. (2013). Human capabilities, mild autism, deafness and the morality of embryo selection. Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, 16(4), 817-824.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human capabilities, mild autism, deafness and the morality of embryo selection
2013 (English)In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 16, no 4, 817-824 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A preimplantation genetic test to discriminate between severe and mild autism spectrum disorder might be developed in the foreseeable future. Recently, the philosophers Julian Savulescu and Guy Kahane claimed that there are strong reasons for prospective parents to make use of such a test to prevent the birth of children who are disposed to autism or Asperger’s disorder. In this paper we will criticize this claim. We will discuss the morality of selection for mild autism in embryo selection in a hypothetical in vitro fertilization (IVF) situation where preimplantation genetic diagnosis is performed and compare this with a similar selection for congenital deafness. To do this we first discuss relevant human differences. We then introduce the principle of human capabilities (PC) and compare this principle with the principle of procreative beneficence (PB) introduced by Savulescu and Kahane. We apply the two principles to selection for mild autism and selection for congenital deafness. We argue that PC allows for the selection for mild autism but rules out selection for congenital deafness. PB will not give clear answers; the ruling of PB depends to a large extent on expected social, cultural and political developments. We will argue that PC is preferable to PB. We will discuss arguments for the value of mild autism for individuals who have this condition and argue that they are able to lead a life with human dignity provided autism-friendly social circumstances are present. Neither PC nor PB yields strong reasons for prospective parents to seek to prevent the birth of children who are disposed to mild autism spectrum disorder.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2013
Keyword
autism, reproduction, genetic selection, ethics, human capabilities, procreative beneficence, quality of life
National Category
Ethics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89704 (URN)10.1007/s11019-013-9464-6 (DOI)000327128500021 ()
Available from: 2013-03-04 Created: 2013-03-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Welin, S. (2013). Introducing the new meat. Problems and prospects. Etikk i praksis, 7(1), 24-37.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing the new meat. Problems and prospects
2013 (English)In: Etikk i praksis, ISSN 1890-3991, E-ISSN 1890-4009, Vol. 7, no 1, 24-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cultured meat, or in vitro meat, is one of the ideas that are being proposed to help solve the problems associated with the ever-growing global meat consumption. The prospect may bring benefit for the environment, climate, and animal ethics, but has also generated doubts and criticism. A discussion of the possible environmental benefit and of animal ethics issues in relation to cultured meat production will be given. A perceived ’unnaturalness’ of cultured meat may be one of the strongest barriers for public acceptance. This will be discussed and rejected. As to our relations with nature and animals, it is plausible that cultured meat will lead to improvement rather than to deterioration. The issue of public acceptance and some of the problems of introducing this new product on the market will also be discussed. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013
Keyword
cultured meat, naturalness, environment, animal ethics
National Category
Agricultural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-94172 (URN)000320154700003 ()
Available from: 2013-06-17 Created: 2013-06-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Omar, F., Tinghög, G., Carlsson, P., Omnell Persson, M. & Welin, S. (2013). Priority setting in kidney transplantation: A qualitative study evaluating Swedish practices. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 41(2), 206-215.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Priority setting in kidney transplantation: A qualitative study evaluating Swedish practices
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, no 2, 206-215 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Kidney transplantation is the established treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease; it increases survival, and quality of life, while being more cost effective than dialysis. It is, however, limited by the scarcity of kidneys. The aim of this paper is to investigate the fairness of the priority setting process underpinning Swedish kidney transplantation in reference to the Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework. To achieve this, two significant stages of the process influencing access to transplantation are examined: assessment for transplant candidacy, and allocation of kidneys from deceased donors.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews were the main source of data collection. Fifteen Interviewees included transplant surgeons, nephrologists, and transplant coordinators representing centers nationwide. Thematic analysis was used to analyze interviews, with the Accountability for Reasonableness framework serving as an analytical lens.

Results: Decision-making both in the assessment and allocation stages are based on clusters of factors that belong to one of three levels: patient, professional, and the institutional levels. The factors appeal to values such as maximizing benefit, priority to the worst off, and equal treatment which are traded off.

Discussion and Conclusions: The factors described in this paper and the values on which they rest on the most part satisfy the relevance condition of the accountability for reasonableness framework. There are however two potential sources for unequal treatment which we have identified: clinical judgment and institutional policies relating both to assessment and allocation. The appeals mechanisms are well developed and supported nationally which help to offset differences between centers. There is room for improvement in the areas of publicity and enforcement. The development of explicit national guidelines for assessing transplant candidacy and the creation of a central kidney allocation system would contribute to standardize practices across centers; and in the process help to better meet the conditions of fairness in reference to the A4R. The benefits of these policy proposals in the Swedish kidney transplant system merit serious consideration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2013
Keyword
Ethics, fairness, kidney transplantation, priority setting, Sweden
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71309 (URN)10.1177/1403494812470399 (DOI)000315233100014 ()
Available from: 2011-10-11 Created: 2011-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Jaarsma, P. & Welin, S. (2012). Autism as a Natural Human Variation: Reflections on the Claims of the Neurodiversity Movement. Health Care Analysis, 20(1), 20-30.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autism as a Natural Human Variation: Reflections on the Claims of the Neurodiversity Movement
2012 (English)In: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 20, no 1, 20-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Neurodiversity has remained a controversial concept over the last decade. In its broadest sense the concept of neurodiversity regards atypical neurological development as a normal human difference. The neurodiversity claim contains at least two different aspects. The first aspect is that autism, among other neurological conditions, is first and foremost a natural variation. The other aspect is about conferring rights and in particular value to the neurodiversity condition, demanding recognition and acceptance. Autism can be seen as a natural variation on par with for example homosexuality. The broad version of the neurodiversity claim, covering low-functioning as well as high-functioning autism, is problematic. Only a narrow conception of neurodiversity, referring exclusively to high-functioning autists, is reasonable. We will discuss the effects of DSM categorization and the medical model for high functioning autists. After a discussion of autism as a culture we will analyze various possible strategies for the neurodiversity movement to claim extra resources for autists as members of an underprivileged culture without being labelled disabled or as having a disorder. We will discuss their vulnerable status as a group and what obligation that confers on the majority of neurotypicals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dordrecht: Springer, 2012
Keyword
Autism, Disability, DSM-V, Equality, Neurodiversity, Vulnerability
National Category
Ethics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72172 (URN)10.1007/s10728-011-0169-9 (DOI)000300252300002 ()
Available from: 2011-11-21 Created: 2011-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-08
Welin, S. & Var der Weele, C. (2012). Cultured Meat: will it separate us from nature?. In: Thomas Potthast and Simon Meish (Ed.), Climate Change and Sustainable Development: Ethical perspectives on land use and food production (pp. 348-351). Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cultured Meat: will it separate us from nature?
2012 (English)In: Climate Change and Sustainable Development: Ethical perspectives on land use and food production / [ed] Thomas Potthast and Simon Meish, Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2012, 348-351 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In vitro meat, or cultured meat, is one of the ideas that are being proposed to help solve the problems associated with the ever growing global meat consumption. The prospect is a source or great moral hope, but also generates doubts and criticism. In this paper, we focus on worries about (1) the alleged unnaturalness of in vitro meat; and (2) the possible deterioration of our relations with nature and animals. We will argue that arguments about (un)naturalness take us to any conclusion we want. As to our relations with nature and animals, we think it more plausible that cultured meat will lead to improvement than to deterioration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2012
Keyword
cultured meat, naturalness, environment, animal ethics
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90991 (URN)10.3920/978-90-8686-753-0_52 (DOI)978-9086861972 (ISBN)e-978-90-8686-753-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-04-10 Created: 2013-04-10 Last updated: 2013-04-19
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5316-8582

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