liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Gooran, Sasan
Publications (10 of 57) Show all publications
Pranovich, A., Frisvad, J. R., Valyukh, S., Gooran, S. & Nyström, D. (2024). Empirical BRDF model for goniochromatic materials and soft proofing with reflective inks.. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empirical BRDF model for goniochromatic materials and soft proofing with reflective inks.
Show others...
2024 (English)In: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, ISSN 0272-1716, E-ISSN 1558-1756Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The commonly used analytic bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) do not model goniochromatism, that is, angle-dependent material color. The material color is usually defined by a diffuse reflectance spectrum or RGB vector and a specular part based on a spectral complex index of refraction. Extension of the commonly used BRDFs based on wave theory can help model goniochromatism, but this comes at the cost of significant added model complexity. We measured the goniochromatism of structual color pigments used for additive color printing and found that we can fit the observed spectral angular dependence of the bidirectional reflectance using a simple modification of the standard microfacet BRDF model. All we need to describe the goniochromatism is an empirically-based spectral parameter, which we use in our model together with a specular reflectance spectrum instead of the spectral complex index of refraction. We demonstrate the ability of our model to fit the measured reflectance of red, green, and blue commercial structural color pigments. Our BRDF model enables straightforward implementation of a shader for interactive preview of 3D objects with printed spatially and angularly varying texture.

Keywords
Printing, Pigments, Color, Ink, Image color analysis, Surface treatment, Optical surface waves
National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-203285 (URN)10.1109/MCG.2024.3391376 (DOI)38640045 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2024-05-06 Created: 2024-05-06 Last updated: 2024-05-06Bibliographically approved
Pranovich, A., Valyukh, S., Gooran, S., Frisvad, J. R. & Nyström, D. (2023). Dot Off Dot Screen Printing with RGBW Reflective Inks. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 67(3), Article ID 030404.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dot Off Dot Screen Printing with RGBW Reflective Inks
Show others...
2023 (English)In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 1062-3701, E-ISSN 1943-3522, Vol. 67, no 3, article id 030404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent advances in pigment production resulted in the possibility to print with RGBW primaries instead of CMYK and performing additive color mixing in printing. The RGBW pigments studied in this work have the properties of structural colors, as the primary colors are a result of interference in a thin film coating of mica pigments. In this work, we investigate the angle-dependent gamut of RGBW primaries. We have elucidated optimal angles of illumination and observation for each primary ink and found the optimal angle of observation under diffuse illumination. We investigated dot off dot halftoned screen printing with RGBW inks on black paper and in terms of angle-dependent dot gain. Based on our observations, optimal viewing condition for the given RGBW inks is in a direction of around 30◦ to the surface normal. Here, the appearance of the resulting halftoned prints can be estimated well by Neugebauer formula (weighted averaging of the individual reflected spectra). Despite the negative physical dot gain during the dot off dot printing, we observe angularly dependent positive optical dot gain for halftoned prints. Application of interference RGBW pigments in 2.5D and 3D printing is not fully explored due to the technological limitations. In this work, we provide colorimetric data for efficient application of the angle-dependent properties of such pigments in practical applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2023
National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-198934 (URN)10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2023.67.3.030404 (DOI)001080972400007 ()2-s2.0-85164955722 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Research Institute of Sweden

Available from: 2023-11-03 Created: 2023-11-03 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved
Gooran, S. (2022). A Comprehensive Halftone Image Quality Evaluation of First- and Second-order FM Halftones. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 66(1), Article ID 010506.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comprehensive Halftone Image Quality Evaluation of First- and Second-order FM Halftones
2022 (English)In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 1062-3701, E-ISSN 1943-3522, Vol. 66, no 1, article id 010506Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Halftoning is a crucial part of image reproduction in print. For large format prints, especially at higher resolutions, it is important to have very fast and computationally feasible halftoning methods of good quality. The authors have already introduced an approach to obtain image-independent threshold matrices generating both first- and second-order frequency modulated (FM) halftones with different clustered dot sizes. Predetermined and image-independent threshold matrices make the proposed halftoning method a point-by-point process and thereby very fast. In this article, they report a comprehensive quality evaluation of first- and second-order FM halftones generated by this technique and compare them with each other, employing several quality metrics. These generated halftones are also compared with error diffusion (ED) halftones employing two different error filters. The results indicate that the second-order FM halftoning with small clustered dot size performs best in almost all studied quality aspects than the first- and second-order FM halftoning with larger clustered dot size. It is also shown that the first- and second-order FM halftones with small clustered dot sizes are of almost the same quality as ED halftones using Floyd–Steinberg error filter and of higher quality than halftones generated by ED employing Jarvis, Judice, and Ninke error filter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springfield, VA, United States: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2022
National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-183809 (URN)10.2352/j.imagingsci.technol.2022.66.1.010506 (DOI)000777531000005 ()
Available from: 2022-03-22 Created: 2022-03-22 Last updated: 2022-04-29Bibliographically approved
Pranovich, A., Gooran, S., Frisvad, J. R. & Nyström, D. (2021). Optical properties and appearance of fused deposition modelling filaments. In: Advances in Printing and Media Technology - Printing in the Digital Era : Proceedings of the 47th International Research Conference of iarigai: . Paper presented at 47th IARIGAI International Conference on “Advances in Print and Media Technology”, 19/09/2021 → 24/09/2021 (pp. 134-140). International Association of Research Organizations for the Information, Media and Graphic Arts Industries, 47
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical properties and appearance of fused deposition modelling filaments
2021 (English)In: Advances in Printing and Media Technology - Printing in the Digital Era : Proceedings of the 47th International Research Conference of iarigai, International Association of Research Organizations for the Information, Media and Graphic Arts Industries , 2021, Vol. 47, p. 134-140Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The appearance of 3D-printed objects is affected by numerous parameters. Specifically, the colour of each point on the surface is affected not only by the applied material, but also by the neighbouring segments as well as by the structure underneath it. Translucency of the 3D printing inks is the key property needed for reproduction of surfaces resembling natural materials. However, the prediction of colour appearance of translucent materials within the print is a complex task that is of great interest. In this work, a method is proposed for studying the appearance of translucent 3D materials in terms of the surface colour. It is shown how the thickness of the printed flat samples as well as the background underneath affect the colour. By studying diffuse reflectance and transmittance of layers of different thicknesses, apparent, spectral optical properties were obtained, i.e., extinction and scattering coefficients, in the case of commercially available polylactic acid (PLA) filaments for Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) printers. The coefficients were obtained by fitting a simplistic model to the measured diffuse reflectance as a function of layer thickness. The results were verified by reconstructing reflected spectra with the obtained parameters and comparing the estimated colour to spectrophotometer measurements. The resulting colour differences in terms of the CIEDE2000 standard are all below 2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Association of Research Organizations for the Information, Media and Graphic Arts Industries, 2021
Series
Advances in Printing and Media Technology, ISSN 2409-4021
Keywords
3D printing, appearance, optical properties, PLA filaments, translucency
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-181549 (URN)10.14622/Advances_47_2021 (DOI)978-3-948039-02-8 (ISBN)
Conference
47th IARIGAI International Conference on “Advances in Print and Media Technology”, 19/09/2021 → 24/09/2021
Available from: 2021-12-01 Created: 2021-12-01 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved
Abedini, F., Gooran, S., Kitanovski, V. & Nyström, D. (2021). Structure-Aware Halftoning Using the Iterative Method Controlling the Dot Placement. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 65(6)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structure-Aware Halftoning Using the Iterative Method Controlling the Dot Placement
2021 (English)In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 1062-3701, E-ISSN 1943-3522, Vol. 65, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many image reproduction devices, such as printers, are limited to only a few numbers of printing inks. Halftoning, which is the process to convert a continuous-tone image into a binary one, is, therefore, an essential part of printing. An iterative halftoning method, called Iterative Halftoning Method Controlling the Dot Placement (IMCDP), which has already been studied by research scholars, generally results in halftones of good quality. In this paper, we propose a structure-based alternative to this algorithm that improves the halftone image quality in terms of sharpness, structural similarity, and tone preservation. By employing appropriate symmetrical and non-symmetrical Gaussian filters inside the proposed halftoning method, it is possible to adaptively change the degree of sharpening in different parts of the continuous-tone image. This is done by identifying a dominant line in the neighborhood of each pixel in the original image, utilizing the Hough Transform, and aligning the dots along the dominant line. The objective and subjective quality assessments verify that the proposed structure-based method not only results in sharper halftones, giving more three-dimensional impression, but also improves the structural similarity and tone preservation. The adaptive nature of the proposed halftoning method makes it an appropriate algorithm to be further developed to a 3D halftoning method, which could be adapted to different parts of a 3D object by exploiting both the structure of the images being mapped and the 3D geometrical structure of the underlying printed surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
I S & T-SOC IMAGING SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY, 2021
Keywords
Halftoning, Structure-Aware Halftoning, Hough Transform, Image Quality Evaluation
National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-181613 (URN)10.2352/j.imagingsci.technol.2021.65.6.060404 (DOI)000734009600011 ()
Note

Funding: ApPEARS (Appearance Printing European Advanced Research School); European Unions Horizon 2020 programme under the Marie Skodowska-Curie [814158]

Available from: 2021-12-04 Created: 2021-12-04 Last updated: 2023-09-26Bibliographically approved
Abedini, F., Gooran, S. & Nyström, D. (2021). The Effect of Halftoning on the Appearance of 3D Printed Surfaces. In: : . Paper presented at 47th Annual Conference of Iarigai.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Halftoning on the Appearance of 3D Printed Surfaces
2021 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Managing the final appearance of 3D surfaces is an interesting and essential topic in 3D printing applications. Knowledge about the parameters which influence the 3D surface reproduction quality enables engineers to achieve the final appearance as accurately as designed. Many studies have been conducted to explore numerous parameters that affect the quality of 3D surface reproduction. This work contributes to verifying the role of halftoning in increasing the 3D surface visual quality and the control over the surface appearance of a 3D printed object. The results show that applying different halftones according to the geometrical characteristics of the 3D surface could emphasize or diminish the perceived 3D geometrical structures of a shape. The experimental results are in line with the simulated outputs reported in previous work. Our findings might introduce a new approach towards having more control over 3D appearance reproduction without changing the material or printer settings.

Keywords
3D printing, Halftoning, Surface appearance
National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-180696 (URN)
Conference
47th Annual Conference of Iarigai
Available from: 2021-10-29 Created: 2021-10-29 Last updated: 2023-09-26Bibliographically approved
Abedini, F., Gooran, S. & Nyström, D. (2020). 3D Halftoning based on Iterative Method Controlling Dot Placement. In: : . Paper presented at Printing for Fabrication, Online 2020, October 19-21 (pp. 69-74). , Article ID 17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D Halftoning based on Iterative Method Controlling Dot Placement
2020 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Realistic appearance reproduction is of great importance in 3D printing’s applications. Halftoning as a necessary process in printing has a great impact on creating visually pleasant appearance. In this article, we study the aspects of adapting and applying Iterative Method Controlling Dot Placement (IMCDP) to halftone three-dimensional surfaces. Our main goal is to extend the 2D algorithm to a 3D halftoning approach with minor modifications. The results show high-quality reproduction for all gray tones. The 3D halftoning algorithm is not only free of undesirable artifacts, it also produces fully symmetric and wellformed halftone structures even in highlight and shadow regions.

Keywords
3D printing, 3D halftoning, Surface reproduction
National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-171744 (URN)10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.2020.36.69 (DOI)
Conference
Printing for Fabrication, Online 2020, October 19-21
Available from: 2020-12-01 Created: 2020-12-01 Last updated: 2023-09-26Bibliographically approved
Gooran, S. & Abedini, F. (2020). 3D Surface Structures and 3D Halftoning. In: : . Paper presented at Printing for Fabrication 2020 (pp. 75-80). The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Article ID 18.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D Surface Structures and 3D Halftoning
2020 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As 3D printing is becoming increasingly popular, the demand for high quality surface reproduction is also increasing. Like in 2D printing, halftoning plays an important role in the quality of the surface reproduction. Developing advanced 3D halftoning methods for 3D printing and adapting them to the structure of the surface is therefore essential for improving surface reproduction quality. In this paper, an extension of an iterative 2D halftoning method to 3D is used to apply different halftone structures on 3D surfaces. The results show that using different halftones based on the 3D geometrical structure of the surface and/or the viewing angle in combination with the structure of the texture being mapped on the surface can potentially improve the quality of the appearance of 3D surfaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2020
Keywords
3D halftoning, Hybrid halftoning, 3D surface structures
National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-170797 (URN)10.2352/ISSN.2169-4451.2020.36.75 (DOI)
Conference
Printing for Fabrication 2020
Available from: 2020-10-22 Created: 2020-10-22 Last updated: 2024-01-02Bibliographically approved
Pranovich, A., Gooran, S., Frisvad, J. R. & Nyström, D. (2020). Surface Discretisation Effects on 3D Printed Surface Appearance. In: CEUR-WS.org: . Paper presented at Colour and Visual Computing Symposium 2020 (CVCS 2020), Gjøvik, Norway, 16-17 September, 2020.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface Discretisation Effects on 3D Printed Surface Appearance
2020 (English)In: CEUR-WS.org, 2020Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The spatial resolution of 3D printing is finite. The necessary discretisation of an object before printing produces a step-like surface structure that influences the appearance of the printed objects. To study the effect of this discretisation on specular reflections, we print surfaces at various oblique angles. This enables us to observe the step-like struc- ture and its influence on reflected light. Based on the step-like surface structure, we develop a reflectance model describing the redistribution of the light scattered by the surface, and we study dispersion effects due to the wavelength dependency of the refractive index of the material. We include preliminary verification by comparing model predictions to photographs for different angles of observation.

National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173601 (URN)
Conference
Colour and Visual Computing Symposium 2020 (CVCS 2020), Gjøvik, Norway, 16-17 September, 2020
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 814158
Available from: 2021-02-25 Created: 2021-02-25 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved
Gooran, S. & Hauck, S. (2018). A novel spectral trapping model for color halftones. Journal of Print and Media Technology Research, 7(3), 107-113
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel spectral trapping model for color halftones
2018 (English)In: Journal of Print and Media Technology Research, ISSN 2223-8905, E-ISSN 2414-6250, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 107-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The amount of trapping has a great impact on the gray balance and color reproduction of printed products. The conventional trapping models are print density based and give percentage values to estimate the effect of trapping. In an earlier paper (Hauck and Gooran, 2011), a spectral trapping model was proposed, that defines the trapping effect as the DE* ab colorimetric differences between the real ink overlap (measurements) and the ideal ink overlap. All the trapping models proposed so far, however, only calculate the trapping value for full-tone (solid) ink overlap. As the trapping value for full-tone ink overlap could be overestimating the actual ink trapping effect for halftones, it is important to be able to also approximate the trapping value of color halftones. Furthermore, for a detailed gray balance shift analysis, there is a need to estimate the trapping effect for specific color halftones.

In the present paper, we propose a novel spectral trapping model that delivers the trapping value as DE* ab color difference for color halftones taking into account secondary and tertiary ink overlap.

The results of the experiments show that the trapping value for color halftones are much smaller than their corresponding trapping value at full-tone, but trapping value of halftones, besides other common quality parameters, should still be considered if some quality inaccuracy, such as gray balance shift, occurs in a print production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
INT ASSOC RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS INFORM, MEDIA & GRAPHIC ARTS IND, 2018
Keywords
Ink trapping, Halftoning, Gray balance, Color difference (DE* ab), Printing quality
National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151055 (URN)10.14622/JPMTR-1811 (DOI)000456528700002 ()
Available from: 2018-09-12 Created: 2018-09-12 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications