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Kihlman, Henrik
Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Jonsson, M., Murray, T. & Kihlman, H. (2011). Development of an automated reconfigurable device for affordable fixturing. In: D. Spath, R Ilg and T. Krause (Ed.), Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Production Research (ICPR2011), 31st July - 4th August, Stuttgart, Germany. Paper presented at 21st International Conference on Production Research (ICPR2011), Innovation in Product and Production, 31st July - 4th August, Stuttgart, Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of an automated reconfigurable device for affordable fixturing
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Production Research (ICPR2011), 31st July - 4th August, Stuttgart, Germany / [ed] D. Spath, R Ilg and T. Krause, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Fixtures are used in manufacturing to hold and position products or workpieces. Linköping University has over a period of several years developed an approach to flexible fixturing that relies on an outer measuring system to ensure accuracy rather than the more common approaches of high internal accuracy or a built-in chain of tolerances. The Linköping system fuses modularity, a rebuildable framework, with reconfigurability, through the means of adjustable devices. To address the need for speed in reconfiguration an automated approach has been developed as a proof-ofconcept. The system consists of electrical motors attached to the legs of the Flexapod 6, a PC, controller cards and an external measuring system. The measuring system feeds information to the PC that is utilized to calculate desired leg length using a Visual Basic program that communicates with CATIA V5. This program then sets signals to the motor controller cards which run the actuators. Due to the motors used the accuracy achieved are in the range of +/-0.15 mm but this may be enhanced with other types of motors developed for higher strengthrather than speed. The system can be further developed by having the actuators as the actual legs of the Flexapod, making it a cheaper Hexapod robot. The paper presents the automated Flexapod 6 in the current system along with possible further development.

Keywords
Tooling, Hexapod, Reconfigurable, Manufacturing, RMS
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88172 (URN)3-8396-0293-9 (ISBN)978-3-8396-0293-5 (ISBN)
Conference
21st International Conference on Production Research (ICPR2011), Innovation in Product and Production, 31st July - 4th August, Stuttgart, Germany
Note

Published in CD-ROM.

Available from: 2013-01-30 Created: 2013-01-30 Last updated: 2013-01-30Bibliographically approved
Olsson, T., Haage, M., Kihlman, H., Johansson, R., Nilsson, K., Robertsson, A., . . . Brogardh, T. (2010). Cost-efficient drilling using industrial robots with high-bandwidth force feedback. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 26(1), 24-38
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost-efficient drilling using industrial robots with high-bandwidth force feedback
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2010 (English)In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 24-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Here we present a method for high-precision drilling using an industrial robot with high-bandwidth force feedback which is used for building up pressure to clamp-up an end-effector to the work-piece surface prior to drilling, The focus is to eliminate the sliding movement (skating) of the end-effector during the clamp-up of the end-effector to the work-piece surface, an undesired effect that is due to the comparatively low mechanical stiffness of typical serial industrial robots. This compliance also makes the robot deflect due to the cutting forces, resulting in poor hole position accuracy and to some extent in poor hole quality. Recently, functionality for high-bandwidth force control has found its way into industrial robot control systems. This could potentially open up the possibility for robotic drilling systems with improved performance, using only standard systems without excessive extra hardware and calibration techniques. Instead of automation with expensive fixtures and precise machinery, our approach was to make use of standard low-cost robot equipment in combination with sensor feedback. The resulting sliding suppression control results in greatly improved hole positioning and quality. The conceptual idea behind the force control is useful also in many other robotic applications requiring external sensor feedback control.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2010
Keywords
High-precision drilling, Force control, Feedback, Motion control, Industrial robotics
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52371 (URN)10.1016/j.rcim.2009.01.002 (DOI)000271620900003 ()
Available from: 2009-12-18 Created: 2009-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Kihlman, H. & Engström, M. (2010). Flexapods - Flexible Tooling at SAAB for Building the NEURON Aircraft. Paper presented at SAE 2010, Aerospace Manufacturing and Automated Fastening Conference & Exhibition (AMAF) Technology for the Next Generation Aircraft, September 28-30, Century II Convention Center, Wichita, Kansas, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexapods - Flexible Tooling at SAAB for Building the NEURON Aircraft
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Building prototype aircrafts is costly in tooling especially since only one aircraft is being built. Today's most common tooling strategy is to weld together a beam framework. Welded framework solutions have long lead times both in design and manufacturing and once the aircraft is assembled the tool becomes obsolete. Flexible tooling strategy uses non-welded tooling thus it can be changed and re-used for future products. Early version of a new aircraft model is always hampered by frequent changes in its design, which is cumbersome to handle in a welded framework solution. This paper presents a flexible assembly tooling solutions based on Flexapods and BoxJoint. The Flexapods are commercialized reconfigurable tooling units that are manually adjusted injunction with a laser tracker to a final positional accuracy of +/? 0,05 mm absolute accuracy. An operator software program called the Flexapod control panel collect metrology data in real-time and an operator screen show graphics on how to manually jog the Flexapod joints to reach the final Cartesian 3D-coordinate. The Flexapods are installed in a modular steel based framework solution called BoxJoint. A complete PLM package has been developed for the solution where the Flexapods are configured in CATIA using an add-on package to CATIA called the Flexapod configurator. All CATIA data is stored in ENOVIA. Once the Flexapod fixture is designed in CATIA a file, containing all Cartesian coordinates of the Flexapods, is exported and loaded into the Flexapod control panel on the workshop floor. A previous paper on the Flexapod as an early concept and a paper on BoxJoint have been presented at SAE Aerofast. This paper follows up on these results and presents a case study at SAAB Aeronautics for implementing the first industrial solution of Flexapods to build the military unmanned aerial vehicle - nEURON.

National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73387 (URN)10.4271/2010-01-1871 (DOI)
Conference
SAE 2010, Aerospace Manufacturing and Automated Fastening Conference & Exhibition (AMAF) Technology for the Next Generation Aircraft, September 28-30, Century II Convention Center, Wichita, Kansas, USA
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2012-01-02 Last updated: 2012-01-09Bibliographically approved
Millar, A. & Kihlman, H. (2009). Reconfigurable Flexible Tooling for Aerospace Wing Assembly. Paper presented at SAE 2010 Aerospace Manufacturing and Automated Fastening Conference & Exhibition, September 28-30, Wichita, KS, USA. Society of Automotive Engineers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reconfigurable Flexible Tooling for Aerospace Wing Assembly
2009 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Traditionally, in the civil aerospace industry, assembly fixtures are large, bespoke, permanent structures that are costly to both design and manufacture. Additionally, the time to design, manufacture and install a large fixture can be significant with lead times in excess of 24 months.

Within Airbus Operations Ltd there is a requirement to reduce non-recurring costs, reduce the time to market and improve the capacity and flexibility of equipment. This means that while the costs and lead times must be reduced, the utilisation of the tooling should be increased.

Flexible and reconfigurable fixtures have not yet been deployed within Airbus Operations Ltd due to the assembly sizes and complex component configurations. However, they offer the potential for reducing costs by utilising off the shelf components. Using standard parts and implementing design tools can reduce the design time. The reconfigurable and flexible nature of the fixture will also enable embodiment of late component design changes with minimal time and cost impact.

This paper presents the design, manufacture and installation of a reconfigurable fixture to assemble a wing box section in a research environment. This tooling demonstrator is then being used to evaluate the technical and industrial benefits of reconfigurable fixtures for aircraft wing sub assemblies and assemblies at Airbus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society of Automotive Engineers, 2009
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73386 (URN)10.4271/2009-01-3243 (DOI)
Conference
SAE 2010 Aerospace Manufacturing and Automated Fastening Conference & Exhibition, September 28-30, Wichita, KS, USA
Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2012-01-02 Last updated: 2012-01-09Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, M. & Kihlman, H. (2008). Fixture design using Configurators. In: Lindberg, B.; Stahre, J. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2008 Swedish Production Symposium. Paper presented at Swedish Production Symposium 2008, November 19-20, Stockholm, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fixture design using Configurators
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2008 Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Lindberg, B.; Stahre, J., 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Design and manufacture of fixtures are among one of the major cost drivers in product industrialization. Modular or reconfigurable fixture solutions that may be adapted to encompass a large variety of parts or products have been researched and employed in applications ranging from machining to assembly. These solutions have not only the potential to reduce fixture manufacturing cost, but they also render it possible for different solutions to facilitate and speed up actual design work. The process of designing fixtures today is complicated, time consuming and require long experience by the tool designer. In this paper we present the Configurator approach - add on programs to the CAD-software which aids the designer in the design process. The Configurators are semi-automated and interactive, designed to use in compliance with the ART-concept, a reconfigurable fixture concept for assembly applications. The Configurator approach has been tested on industrial cases and parts of the results are presented in this paper.

Keywords
Fixture design, Reconfigurable fixtures, Configurators
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63187 (URN)
Conference
Swedish Production Symposium 2008, November 19-20, Stockholm, Sweden
Projects
Flexa
Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2013-01-30Bibliographically approved
Kihlman, H., Brogårdh, T., Haage, M., Nilsson, K. & Olsson, T. (2007). On the Use of Force Feedback for Cost Efficient Robotic Drilling. Paper presented at SAE 2007 AeroTech Congress & Exhibition Special Publications, September 17-20, Los Angeles Convention Center, Los Angeles, California, USA. Los Angeles, CA, US: Society of Automotive Engineers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Use of Force Feedback for Cost Efficient Robotic Drilling
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2007 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Drilling is one of the most costly and labour-intensive operations in aircraft assembly. Rather than automating with expensive fixtures and precise machinery, our approach is to make use of standard low-cost robot equipment in combination with sensor feedback. The focus is to eliminate the sliding movement of the end-effector during the clamp-up, called the skating effect, and to keep the end-effector orthogonal to the surface, thus avoiding holes that are not perpendicular. To that end, force feedback is used for building up pressure to clamp up an end-effector to the work-piece surface prior to drilling. The system, including the planning of force parameters for each hole to be drilled, was programmed in DELMIA. The drilling was accomplished with the aid of an extension to the ABB Rapid language called ExtRapid, which is an XML-like code that is interpreted by the force feedback controller downstream in the process. Although experimental results are from drilling, the conceptual idea is believed to be useful in many other applications requiring external sensor feedback control of industrial robots.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Los Angeles, CA, US: Society of Automotive Engineers, 2007
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73384 (URN)10.4271/2007-01-3909 (DOI)
Conference
SAE 2007 AeroTech Congress & Exhibition Special Publications, September 17-20, Los Angeles Convention Center, Los Angeles, California, USA
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2012-01-02 Last updated: 2012-01-09Bibliographically approved
Kihlman, H. & Engström, M. (2006). Flexible Fixtures with Low Cost and Short Lead Times. In: . Paper presented at Aerospace Manufacturing and Automated Fastening Conference & Exhibition, September 18-20, 2012 Fort Worth, Texas, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible Fixtures with Low Cost and Short Lead Times
2006 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents preliminary result in a flexible fixture solution for airframe assembly comprising a modular steel framework called Box-joint and flexible tooling modules called Hexapods. The solution is comprises a framework that is screwed together instead of welding beams together, which enables re-building the framework when performing change-over in a more extensive reconfiguration. The Hexapods are parallel legged passive fixture stands that can change their configuration to facilitate easy setup in a change-over between handle different assemblies. A solution to configure the Hexapods manually is described. The investment cost can be kept low by using a metrology system to provide for high accuracy in the tool configuration process instead of using precision parts in the fixture system.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-37417 (URN)10.4271/2007-01-2125 (DOI)35606 (Local ID)35606 (Archive number)35606 (OAI)
Conference
Aerospace Manufacturing and Automated Fastening Conference & Exhibition, September 18-20, 2012 Fort Worth, Texas, USA
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2012-01-09Bibliographically approved
Kihlman, H. (2005). Affordable automation for airframe assembly: developing of key enabling technologies. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Affordable automation for airframe assembly: developing of key enabling technologies
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Building aircraft is a challenging field. An aircraft has a life expectancy of 40 years, compared to just 10 years for a car. Given the vibrations of flying at close to Mach one at an altitude of 10,000 meters, these machines must function flawlessly in a tough environment. This demands high quality in the assembly processes. The typical part joining process in the automotive industry is welding, whereas in the aircraft industry, assembly is made through drilling, followed by fastening. The typical tolerances for part location in aircraft assembly, as well as for hole drilling, is +/- 0.2 mm.

This dissertation discusses the use of industrial robots, widely used for welding and pick-and-place operation for automotive industry, in the automation of the aircraft industry, and specifically for the drilling of holes in the assembly process of airframe parts. The dissertation presents how a new drilling technology called orbital drilling is incorporated with and industrial robot. Orbital drilling reduces the cutting forces up to ten times compared to conventional drilling using a spiral cutter.

The robot is also utilized for performing changeovers between different airframe structure types. A novel jointed reconfigurable tooling system called Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling (ART) is presented, which uses the robot to reconfigure flexible fixture modules. The ART system can also be rebuilt, which means that the tool is dismantled and reused for a completely different product family (e.g. wings, fins or fuselage sections). This is made possible through a modular framework, i.e. not welded as with conventional tooling, but rather jointed by screws.

Robots, originally developed for the automotive industry, have an accuracy which is ten times less accurate than that required for aerospace applications. To help meet this limitation in the use of robots in aircraft assembly, an additional metrology system, used in the aircraft industry for calibrating assembly tooling, is integrated into the robot controller. The feedback loop enables the robot to be positioned to ±0.05 mm absolute accuracy. This integration is made possible by existing embedded software packages for the robot and the metrology system.

The processes in the system are programmed in a software package with an intuitive user interface in a 3D-environment, normally used for the offline-programming of robots in automotive industry. The planning is intuitive, and an approach towards a process planning abstraction level is presented where processes are defined directly on the coordinate frames constituting the robot trajectories and manual operations. Tolerance on accuracy requirements are dynamically programmed in the same environment. The metrology system, working online with the robot controller, eliminates most of the calibration work required in traditional robot programming. Changes in the operation planning take less than a minute to run physically with the best tolerance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2005. p. 183
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 953
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73389 (URN)91-85299-59-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-06-17, Sal C3, Hus C, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
ADFASTKooFixFlexA
Available from: 2012-01-03 Created: 2012-01-02 Last updated: 2012-11-29Bibliographically approved
Kihlman, H., Ossbahr, G., Engström, M. & Anderson, J. (2004). Low-cost automation for aircraft assembly. In: . Paper presented at SAE 2004 Aerospace Manufacturing & Automated Fastening Conference & Exhibition, September 21th 2004, St Louis, Missouri, United States.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-cost automation for aircraft assembly
2004 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper solution for low-cost automation of aircraft assembly is presented. The concept of this development is closely related to "Lean Automation", which in this case concerns the use of modern standard equipment such as standard robots, PC-computers and a newlydeveloped spatial sensor system for prec1s1on measurements of positions. The robot is used to perform reconfiguration of tooling modules that arepossible to be configured/reconfigured in six degrees of freedom. A prototype developed as the result of an EU-project called ADFAST* has been evaluated at Linköping University in Sweden. Technical functionality is reported where the robot manages to configure the flexible tooling modules to a total error bellow 50 μm. This paper presents the resu~s on the portion of the project addressing robot, metrology system and tooling.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22547 (URN)10.4271/2004-01-2830 (DOI)1810 (Local ID)1810 (Archive number)1810 (OAI)
Conference
SAE 2004 Aerospace Manufacturing & Automated Fastening Conference & Exhibition, September 21th 2004, St Louis, Missouri, United States
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2012-11-29
Kihlman, H., Loser, R., Cooke, A., Sunnanbo, A. & Von Arb, K. (2004). Metrology-integrated industrial robots: calibration, implementation and testing. In: Proceedings of the 35th ISR (International Symposium on Robotics). Paper presented at 35th ISR International Symposium on Robotics, 23-26 March, Paris, France.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metrology-integrated industrial robots: calibration, implementation and testing
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2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the 35th ISR (International Symposium on Robotics), 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents integration of a metrology system and an industrial robot. The metrology system consists of a laser tracker that measures the distance to a prism with high accuracy and a camera that through photogrammetry measures the orientation of a reflector. Both laser prism and camera reflector is integrated to a 6D-Reflector that is attached close to the TCP of an industrial robot. Tracker and robot is connected to a PC on a TCP/IP network. The PC takes measurements with the tracker, and thereby compensates the robot to reach high absolute accuracy in the robot positioning (+/-50 μm). The 6D-Reflector has multi-functionality and simplifies calibration procedures. This paper explains the architecture of the system and the methods for calibration.

Keywords
Metrology, laser, photogrammetry, robot, online control, calibration
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73380 (URN)
Conference
35th ISR International Symposium on Robotics, 23-26 March, Paris, France
Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2012-01-02 Last updated: 2012-11-29Bibliographically approved
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