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Jones, A Wayne
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Publications (10 of 136) Show all publications
Jones, A. W. (2017). Postmortem toxicology findings from medicolegal investigations of drug-related deaths among the rich and famous. Toxicologie Analytique et Clinique, 29(3), 298-308
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Postmortem toxicology findings from medicolegal investigations of drug-related deaths among the rich and famous
2017 (English)In: Toxicologie Analytique et Clinique, ISSN 2352-0078, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 298-308Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents a review of medicolegal investigations of drug-related deaths among various Hollywood celebrities and popular music icons. The movie stars included: Marilyn Monroe, River Phoenix, John Belushi, Chris Penn, Heath Ledger and Philip Seymour Hoffman. The musicians are exemplified by Elvis Presley, Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix, Keith Moon, Sid Vicious, Kurt Cobain, Amy Winehouse, Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston and Prince. The tragic drug-related death of Anna Nicole Smith, a sex-symbol and Playboy model, is also included. The illicit drugs mainly responsible for the fatalities were heroin and/or cocaine or a mixture of the two narcotics. Some of the celebrity deaths were caused by inappropriate use of prescription medications, mostly combined influences of one or more benzodiazepine together with an opiate or opioid pain medication. Polypharmacy increases the risk of adverse drug events and this sometimes causes a sudden and unexpected death. As tolerance to the pharmacological effects of drugs develop, the amounts taken (the dose) are increased, which enhances the risk of a fatal drug-drug interaction. Ethanol was implicated in some of the celebrity deaths, which underscores the dangers of excessive drinking when taking centrally acting drugs. In the case of Amy Winehouse, a talented jazz singer, she died from acute alcohol poisoning, because ethanol was the only psychoactive drug identified in postmortem blood. © 2017 Société Française de Toxicologie Analytique

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Alcohol, Celebrity deaths, Drug abuse, Intoxication, Overdose deaths, Poisonings, Polypharmacy, Toxicology, alprazolam, barbituric acid derivative, benzodiazepine, chloral hydrate, clomethiazole, cocaine, codeine, diamorphine, diazepam, doxylamine, ethinamate, fentanyl, hydrocodone, illicit drug, methaqualone, morphine, opiate, oxycodone, pentobarbital, promethazine, temazepam, vesparax, alcohol intoxication, anxiety, autopsy, binge drinking, bipolar disorder, death, depression, drug blood level, drug intoxication, forensic toxicology, gunshot injury, heart arrhythmia, human, insomnia, medicolegal aspect, musician, public figure, Review, sudden death, withdrawal syndrome
National Category
Forensic Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-146398 (URN)10.1016/j.toxac.2017.04.001 (DOI)2-s2.0-85020427417 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 7 April 2018; Review

Available from: 2018-04-07 Created: 2018-04-07 Last updated: 2018-04-07
Jones, A. W. (2017). Review of Caffeine-Related Fatalities along with Postmortem Blood Concentrations in 51 Poisoning Deaths. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 41(3), 167-172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review of Caffeine-Related Fatalities along with Postmortem Blood Concentrations in 51 Poisoning Deaths
2017 (English)In: Journal of Analytical Toxicology, ISSN 0146-4760, E-ISSN 1945-2403, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 167-172Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Publications reporting concentrations of caffeine in postmortem blood were reviewed if the cause of death was attributed to overdosing (poisoning) with drugs. Age and gender of the deceased, the manner of death (accident, suicide or undetermined) and types of co-ingested drugs were evaluated in relation to the concentrations of caffeine in blood (N = 51). The mean age (+/- SD) of the victims was 39 +/- 17.8 years (range 18-84 years) and most were female (N = 31 or 61%). The difference in mean age ofmales (42 +/- 17.2 years) and females (37 +/- 18.3 years) was not statistically significant (t = 0.811, P = 0.421). The mean (+/- SD), median and range of caffeine concentrations in postmortem blood were 187 +/- 96mg/L (180mg/L) and 33-567mg/L, respectively. The median concentration of caffeine in males (161mg/L) was not significantly different from that of females (182mg/L), z = 1.18, P = 0.235. There was no correlation between the age of the deceased and the concentration of caffeine in postmortem blood (R-2 = 0.026, P amp;gt; 0.05). Manner of death was classified as suicide in 51% of cases (median blood-caffeine 185mg/L), accidental in 16% (median 183mg/L) or undetermined in 33% (median 113mg/L). The median concentration of caffeine in blood was lower when manner of death was undetermined compared with suicide or accidental (P = 0.023). Although other drugs, including ethanol, antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and/or ephedrine, were often identified in postmortem blood, the predominant psychoactive substance was caffeine. The deceased had ingested caffeine in tablet or powder form and it does not seem likely that toxic concentrations of caffeine can be achieved from over-consumption of caffeinated beverages alone.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2017
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139420 (URN)10.1093/jat/bkx011 (DOI)000404528000001 ()28334840 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-08-07 Created: 2017-08-07 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
Ahlner, J., Holmgren, A. & Jones, A. W. (2016). Demographics and post-mortem toxicology findings in deaths among people arrested multiple times for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving. Forensic Science International, 265, 138-143
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demographics and post-mortem toxicology findings in deaths among people arrested multiple times for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving
2016 (English)In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 265, p. 138-143Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Multiple arrests for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving strongly suggests the existence of a personality disorder and/or a substance abuse problem. Methods: This retrospective study (1993-2010) used a national forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE), and we identified 3943 individuals with two or more arrests for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving. These individuals had subsequently died from a fatal drug poisoning or some other cause of death, such as trauma. Results: Of the 3943 repeat offenders 1807 (46%) died from a fatal drug overdose and 2136 (54%) died from other causes (p amp;lt; 0.001). The repeat offenders were predominantly male (90% vs 10%) and mean age of drug poisoning deaths was 5 y younger (mean 35 y) than other causes of death (mean 40 y). Significantly more repeat offenders (46%) died from drug overdose compared with all other forensic autopsies (14%) (p amp;lt; 0.001). Four or more drugs were identified in femoral blood in 44% of deaths from poisoning (drug overdose) compared with 18% of deaths by other causes (p amp;lt; 0.001). The manner of death was considered accidental in 54% of deaths among repeat offenders compared with 28% for other suspicious deaths (p amp;lt; 0.001). The psychoactive substances most commonly identified in autopsy blood from repeat offenders were ethanol, morphine (from heroin), diazepam, amphetamines, cannabis, and various opioids. Conclusions: This study shows that people arrested multiple times for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving are more likely to die by accidentally overdosing with drugs. Lives might be saved if repeat offenders were sentenced to treatment and rehabilitation for their drug abuse problem instead of conventional penalties for drug-related crimes. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2016
Keywords
Alcohol; Autopsy; Drug abuse; Poisoning deaths; Repeat offenders; Recidivism
National Category
Forensic Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130368 (URN)10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.01.036 (DOI)000379695700024 ()26901639 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-08-15 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2017-11-28
Jones, W. (2016). Letter: Evidential breath alcohol analysis and the venous blood-to-breath ratio in FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol 262, issue , pp E37-E39 [Letter to the editor]. Forensic Science International, 262, E37-E39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Letter: Evidential breath alcohol analysis and the venous blood-to-breath ratio in FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol 262, issue , pp E37-E39
2016 (English)In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 262, p. E37-E39Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

n/a

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2016
Keywords
Analysis; Blood; Breath; Drunk driving; Evidence; Prosecution
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128943 (URN)10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.03.008 (DOI)000374318200008 ()27036092 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-09 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Jones, W. (2016). Perspectives in Drug Development and Clinical Pharmacology: The Discovery of Histamine H-1 and H-2 Antagonists. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development, 5(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perspectives in Drug Development and Clinical Pharmacology: The Discovery of Histamine H-1 and H-2 Antagonists
2016 (English)In: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development, ISSN 2160-7648, Vol. 5, no 1Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge about the history and development of therapeutic agents holds a central position in the education and training of pharmacists and pharmacologists. Students enjoy learning about the discovery of drugs, including details about the pioneer workers involved (apothecaries, organic chemists, pharmacologists, and physiologists) and the role played by serendipity. The treatment of people suffering from allergies and the development of drugs that block the actions of histamine at H-1 and H-2 receptors are the subject of this review. Pharmaceutical products that block H-1 receptors are widely used as prophylactic treatment for seasonal allergies that plague millions of people worldwide. The development of H-2 receptor antagonists revolutionized treatment of gastric hyperacidity, the principal cause of peptic ulcers. Antihistamine research has changed focus toward the development of drugs that block the action of histamine at H-3 and H-4 receptors and the therapeutic potential is gradually being appreciated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2016
Keywords
allergies; antihistamines; drug discovery; history; histamine antagonists; hyperacidity; ulcers
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127459 (URN)10.1002/cpdd.236 (DOI)000372846600001 ()27119574 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-30 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2016-05-03Bibliographically approved
Busardo, F. P. & Jones, A. W. (2015). GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome. Current Neuropharmacology, 13(1), 47-70
Open this publication in new window or tab >>GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome
2015 (English)In: Current Neuropharmacology, ISSN 1570-159X, E-ISSN 1875-6190, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 47-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The illicit recreational drug of abuse, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem (R)), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover (R)) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter.-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t1/2 similar to 1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of similar to 100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. There is no evidence-based protocol available to deal with GHB withdrawal, apart from administering benzodiazepines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bentham Science Publishers, 2015
Keywords
Analogues; gamma hydroxybutyrate (GBH); intoxication; overdose; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics; treatment; withdrawal syndrome
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117816 (URN)10.2174/1570159X13666141210215423 (DOI)000352870500006 ()
Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Jones, A. W., Holmgren, A. & Ahlner, J. (2015). High prevalence of previous arrests for illicit drug use and/or impaired driving among drivers killed in motor vehicle crashes in Sweden with amphetamine in blood at autopsy. International journal on drug policy, 26(8), 790-793
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High prevalence of previous arrests for illicit drug use and/or impaired driving among drivers killed in motor vehicle crashes in Sweden with amphetamine in blood at autopsy
2015 (English)In: International journal on drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 790-793Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Amphetamine, and to a lesser extent the secondary amine methamphetamine, are major recreational drugs of abuse in Sweden. These central stimulant amines are identified in blood from roughly 50% of people arrested for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). However, much less information is available about the presence of amphetamine in blood of drivers killed in road-traffic crashes.

Methods: This retrospective 10-year study (2001-2010) used a forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE) to retrieve information about road-traffic crashes when the driver had amphetamine and/or methamphetamine in autopsy blood. Forensic toxicology results were available from over 95% of all drivers killed on Swedish roads during this 10-year period.

Results: Amphetamine was present in the blood of 106 drivers (3.9%) either alone or together with other psychoactive substances (e.g. alcohol, cannabis, diazepam, alprazolam, etc.). The vast majority of fatalities were male (95%) with a mean age (+/- standard deviation) of 37 +/- 11.4 years (range 16-67 years). The mean (median) and highest concentrations of amphetamine in femoral blood were 1.36 mg/L (1.0 mg/L) and 6.74 mg/L, respectively. Many of the victims (75%) had been arrested previously for use of illicit drugs or DUID. The median number of previous arrests was 4 (range 0-83) and amphetamine or methamphetamine were among the drugs identified in blood samples from 89% of cases (0-100%).

Conclusion: The high prevalence of repeat DUID offending and/or use of illicit drugs among the drivers killed in road-traffic crashes suggests that an early intervention and treatment for stimulant abuse might have been more beneficial than conventional punishments for such drug-related crimes. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Abuse; Amphetamine; Driving; Impairment; Recidivism; Traffic fatalities
National Category
Forensic Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120732 (URN)10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.04.011 (DOI)000358389200012 ()26003926 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Jones, W. A. (2015). Profiles in drug metabolism and toxicology: Richard Tecwyn Williams (1909-1979). Drug metabolism reviews (Softcover ed.), 47(4), 401-405
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Profiles in drug metabolism and toxicology: Richard Tecwyn Williams (1909-1979)
2015 (English)In: Drug metabolism reviews (Softcover ed.), ISSN 0360-2532, E-ISSN 1097-9883, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 401-405Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article pays homage to the life and work of a veritable pioneer in toxicology and drug metabolism, namely a Welshman, Richard Tecwyn Williams, FRS. Professor Williams, or RT as he was known, made major contributions to knowledge about the metabolism and toxicology of drugs and xenobiotics during a scientific career spanning nearly 50 years. Author or coauthor of close to 400 research articles and reviews, including a classic book, entitled Detoxication Mechanisms, Williams and his research school investigated virtually all aspects of drug metabolism, especially conjugations. In particular, the concepts of phase 1 and phase II metabolic pathways were introduced by Williams; the biliary excretion of drugs was extensively studied as were species differences in drug metabolism and detoxication. Besides investigating the metabolism of many pharmaceutical drugs, such as sulfonamides and thalidomide, Williams and his group investigated the disposition and fate in the body of organic pesticides and recreational drugs of abuse, such as amphetamine, methamphetamine and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2015
Keywords
Drug metabolism; detoxication; history; toxicology; xenobiotics
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124142 (URN)10.3109/03602532.2015.1115516 (DOI)000366813200001 ()26610047 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-01-22 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Jones, A. W., Gladh, S.-A., Norup Windberg, C. & Stybe Johansen, S. (2015). Stability of gamma-Hydroxybutyrate in Blood Samples from Impaired Drivers after Storage at 4A degrees C and Comparison of GC-FID-GBL and LC-MS-MS Methods of Analysis. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 39(4), 294-299
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stability of gamma-Hydroxybutyrate in Blood Samples from Impaired Drivers after Storage at 4A degrees C and Comparison of GC-FID-GBL and LC-MS-MS Methods of Analysis
2015 (English)In: Journal of Analytical Toxicology, ISSN 0146-4760, E-ISSN 1945-2403, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 294-299Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The stability of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) was determined in 50 blood samples from impaired drivers after storage at 4A degrees C for up to 12 months. GHB was determined in whole blood by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) after conversion into gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and results were compared with LC-MS-MS. Both analytical methods showed a linear response (R-2 greater than 0.99) to GHB concentrations from 2 to 250 mg/kg. The mean decrease in concentration after storage was 4.8 mg/kg, with extreme changes of +13 mg/kg or -29 mg/kg. Results by the GC-FID-GBL method (y-variate) and the LC-MS-MS method (x-variate) were highly correlated (R-2 = 0.974). The regression equation was y = 0.85x + 2.2 and residual standard deviation (SD) was 7.8 mg/kg. The y-intercept (2.2 mg/kg) was not significantly different from zero (P greater than 0.05), although the slope of the regression line (0.85) differed from unity (P less than 0.001), indicating a proportional bias of 15%. The LC-MS-MS method tended to give higher results than the GC-FID-GBL method. The mean difference (bias) was 12 mg/kg (P less than 0.001). The SD of individual differences was 11.3 mg/kg and 95% limits of agreement were -11 to +33 mg/kg. The results of this study show that concentrations of GHB in whole blood are stable during storage at 4A degrees C for up to 6 months.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy F, 2015
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119258 (URN)10.1093/jat/bkv007 (DOI)000354695800006 ()25652881 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-06-12 Created: 2015-06-12 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Lahti, R. A., Pitkaniemi, J., Jones, A. W., Sajantila, A., Poikolainen, K. & Vuori, E. (2014). Cause and manner of death and phase of the blood alcohol curve. Forensic Science International, 244, 306-312
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cause and manner of death and phase of the blood alcohol curve
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2014 (English)In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 244, p. 306-312Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a large number of forensic autopsies (N = 28,184) the concentrations of ethanol in femoral blood and bladder urine were determined and the urine-to-blood concentration ratios of ethanol were calculated. Based on the differences in ethanol concentration between urine and blood, the deaths were classified as having occurred during the absorptive, the peak or the post-absorptive phase of the blood-alcohol curve. Most people died in the post-absorptive phase, N = 24,223 (86%), whereas 1538 individuals (5.5%) were still absorbing alcohol and 2423 (8.6%) were at or close to the peak BAC at time of death. Both blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) and urine-alcohol concentration (UAC) were significantly higher in the post-absorptive phase (p less than 0.001). The proportions of people dying in the absorptive and peak phases increased with advancing age. The cause of death (CoD) and manner of death (MoD) according to death certificates were compared with phase of the blood-alcohol curve using amultinomial regression model with and without making adjustment for possible effects of age, gender and BAC. The relative risk (RR) and relative risk ratios (RRR) showed some associations between CoD and phase of the blood-alcohol curve. Undetermined MoD was significantly higher in the absorptive phase compared with the post-absorptive phase (RRR = 2.12). Deaths related to esophagus, stomach and duodenum (RRR = 2.04) and alcoholic liver diseases (RRR = 1.85) were significantly higher at or close to peak phase compared to the post-absorptive phase. Road-traffic fatalities were more prevalent in the peak BAC phase (RRR = 1.33) and deaths by accidental falls were less in the absorptive phase (RRR = 0.58) compared with the post-absorptive phase. The phase of alcohol intoxication seems relevant to consider by forensic experts when alcohol-related deaths are investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Absorption; Autopsy; Blood-ethanol; Death investigation; Intoxication; Urine-ethanol
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113021 (URN)10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.09.015 (DOI)000345017000053 ()25452205 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Finnish Foundations Professor Pool (Paulo Foundation)

Available from: 2015-01-12 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-05
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