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Jones, A Wayne
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Publications (10 of 139) Show all publications
Jones, A. W., Mørland, J. G. & Liu, R. H. (2019). Driving under the influence of psychoactive substances - A historical review. Forensic science review, 31(2), 103-140
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving under the influence of psychoactive substances - A historical review
2019 (English)In: Forensic science review, ISSN 1042-7201, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 103-140Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Important events in the history of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and/or other drugs (DUID) are reviewed covering a period of approximately 100 years. This coincides with major developments in the pharmaceutical industry and the exponential growth in motor transportation worldwide. DUID constitutes an interaction between the driver, the motor-driven vehicle, and one or more psychoactive (mind-altering) substances. In this connection, it is important to differentiate between drugs intended and used for medical purposes (prescription or licit drugs) and recreational drugs of abuse (illicit drugs). All chemicals with a mechanism of action in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) are potentially dangerous to use when skilled tasks, such as driving, are performed. The evidence necessary to charge a person with drug-impaired driving has evolved over many years and initially rested on a drivers own admissions and observations made about the driving by police officers or eyewitnesses. Somewhat later, all suspects were examined by a physician, whose task was to ask questions about any recent ingestion of alcohol and/or other drugs and to administer various clinical tests of impairment. By the 1940s-1950s, the driver was asked to provide samples of blood, breath, or urine for toxicological analysis, although the test results served only to verify the type of drug causing impairment of the driver. The current trend in DUID legislation is toward zero-tolerance or concentration per se statutes, which are much more pragmatic, because behavioral evidence of impairment is no longer a lynchpin in the prosecution case. This legal framework puts considerable emphasis on the results of toxicological analysis; therefore, the methods used must be accurate, precise, and fit for forensic purposes. Many traffic delinquents charged with DUI or DUID suffer from a substance use and/or personality disorder, with high recidivism rates. In addition to conventional penalties and sanctions for drug-related traffic crimes, many offenders would probably benefit from a medical intervention, such as counseling, rehabilitation, and treatment for substance use disorder, which often coexists with a mental health problem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Central Police University Press, 2019
Keywords
Alcohol; concentration per se limits; driving; drug impairment; drugs; forensic toxicology; history; law enforcement; psychoactive substances
National Category
Substance Abuse
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-164830 (URN)31270058 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-03-29 Created: 2020-03-29 Last updated: 2020-03-29
Jones, A. W. (2019). Forensic Drug Profile: Cocaethylene. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 43(3), 155-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forensic Drug Profile: Cocaethylene
2019 (English)In: Journal of Analytical Toxicology, ISSN 0146-4760, E-ISSN 1945-2403, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 155-160Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article is intended as a brief review or primer about cocaethylene (CE), a pharmacologically active substance formed in the body when a person co-ingests ethanol and cocaine. Reference books widely used in forensic toxicology contain scant information about CE, even though this cocaine metabolite is commonly encountered in routine casework. CE and cocaine are equi-effective at blocking the reuptake of dopamine at receptor sites, thus reinforcing the stimulant effects of the neurotransmitter. In some animal species, the LD50 of CE was lower than for cocaine. CE is also considered more toxic to the heart and liver compared with the parent drug cocaine. The plasma elimination half-life of CE is similar to 2 h compared with similar to 1 h for cocaine. The concentrations of CE in blood after drinking alcohol and taking cocaine are difficult to predict and will depend on the timing of administration and the amounts of the two precursor drugs ingested. After an acute single dose of cocaine and ethanol, the concentration-time profile of CE runs on a lower level to that of cocaine, although CE is detectable in blood for several hours longer. A strong case can be made for adding together the concentrations of cocaine and CE in forensic blood samples when toxicological results are interpreted in relation to acute intoxication and the risk of an overdose death.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157249 (URN)10.1093/jat/bkz007 (DOI)000463811700002 ()30796807 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-06-12 Created: 2019-06-12 Last updated: 2019-06-12
Busardò, F. P. & Jones, A. W. (2019). Interpreting γ-hydroxybutyrate concentrations for clinical and forensic purposes. Clinical Toxicology, 57(3), 149-163
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interpreting γ-hydroxybutyrate concentrations for clinical and forensic purposes
2019 (English)In: Clinical Toxicology, ISSN 1556-3650, E-ISSN 1556-9519, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 149-163Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

?-Hydroxybutyric acid is an endogenous substance, a therapeutic agent, and a recreational drug of abuse. This psychoactive substance acts as a depressant of the central nervous system and is commonly encountered in clinical and forensic practice, including impaired drivers, poisoned patients, and drug-related intoxication deaths.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Analysis; GHB; biological specimens; interpretation
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156046 (URN)10.1080/15563650.2018.1519194 (DOI)30307336 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-04-02
Jones, A. W. (2017). Postmortem toxicology findings from medicolegal investigations of drug-related deaths among the rich and famous. Toxicologie Analytique et Clinique, 29(3), 298-308
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Postmortem toxicology findings from medicolegal investigations of drug-related deaths among the rich and famous
2017 (English)In: Toxicologie Analytique et Clinique, ISSN 2352-0078, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 298-308Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents a review of medicolegal investigations of drug-related deaths among various Hollywood celebrities and popular music icons. The movie stars included: Marilyn Monroe, River Phoenix, John Belushi, Chris Penn, Heath Ledger and Philip Seymour Hoffman. The musicians are exemplified by Elvis Presley, Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix, Keith Moon, Sid Vicious, Kurt Cobain, Amy Winehouse, Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston and Prince. The tragic drug-related death of Anna Nicole Smith, a sex-symbol and Playboy model, is also included. The illicit drugs mainly responsible for the fatalities were heroin and/or cocaine or a mixture of the two narcotics. Some of the celebrity deaths were caused by inappropriate use of prescription medications, mostly combined influences of one or more benzodiazepine together with an opiate or opioid pain medication. Polypharmacy increases the risk of adverse drug events and this sometimes causes a sudden and unexpected death. As tolerance to the pharmacological effects of drugs develop, the amounts taken (the dose) are increased, which enhances the risk of a fatal drug-drug interaction. Ethanol was implicated in some of the celebrity deaths, which underscores the dangers of excessive drinking when taking centrally acting drugs. In the case of Amy Winehouse, a talented jazz singer, she died from acute alcohol poisoning, because ethanol was the only psychoactive drug identified in postmortem blood. © 2017 Société Française de Toxicologie Analytique

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Alcohol, Celebrity deaths, Drug abuse, Intoxication, Overdose deaths, Poisonings, Polypharmacy, Toxicology, alprazolam, barbituric acid derivative, benzodiazepine, chloral hydrate, clomethiazole, cocaine, codeine, diamorphine, diazepam, doxylamine, ethinamate, fentanyl, hydrocodone, illicit drug, methaqualone, morphine, opiate, oxycodone, pentobarbital, promethazine, temazepam, vesparax, alcohol intoxication, anxiety, autopsy, binge drinking, bipolar disorder, death, depression, drug blood level, drug intoxication, forensic toxicology, gunshot injury, heart arrhythmia, human, insomnia, medicolegal aspect, musician, public figure, Review, sudden death, withdrawal syndrome
National Category
Forensic Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-146398 (URN)10.1016/j.toxac.2017.04.001 (DOI)2-s2.0-85020427417 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 7 April 2018; Review

Available from: 2018-04-07 Created: 2018-04-07 Last updated: 2018-04-07
Jones, A. W. (2017). Review of Caffeine-Related Fatalities along with Postmortem Blood Concentrations in 51 Poisoning Deaths. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 41(3), 167-172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review of Caffeine-Related Fatalities along with Postmortem Blood Concentrations in 51 Poisoning Deaths
2017 (English)In: Journal of Analytical Toxicology, ISSN 0146-4760, E-ISSN 1945-2403, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 167-172Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Publications reporting concentrations of caffeine in postmortem blood were reviewed if the cause of death was attributed to overdosing (poisoning) with drugs. Age and gender of the deceased, the manner of death (accident, suicide or undetermined) and types of co-ingested drugs were evaluated in relation to the concentrations of caffeine in blood (N = 51). The mean age (+/- SD) of the victims was 39 +/- 17.8 years (range 18-84 years) and most were female (N = 31 or 61%). The difference in mean age ofmales (42 +/- 17.2 years) and females (37 +/- 18.3 years) was not statistically significant (t = 0.811, P = 0.421). The mean (+/- SD), median and range of caffeine concentrations in postmortem blood were 187 +/- 96mg/L (180mg/L) and 33-567mg/L, respectively. The median concentration of caffeine in males (161mg/L) was not significantly different from that of females (182mg/L), z = 1.18, P = 0.235. There was no correlation between the age of the deceased and the concentration of caffeine in postmortem blood (R-2 = 0.026, P amp;gt; 0.05). Manner of death was classified as suicide in 51% of cases (median blood-caffeine 185mg/L), accidental in 16% (median 183mg/L) or undetermined in 33% (median 113mg/L). The median concentration of caffeine in blood was lower when manner of death was undetermined compared with suicide or accidental (P = 0.023). Although other drugs, including ethanol, antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and/or ephedrine, were often identified in postmortem blood, the predominant psychoactive substance was caffeine. The deceased had ingested caffeine in tablet or powder form and it does not seem likely that toxic concentrations of caffeine can be achieved from over-consumption of caffeinated beverages alone.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2017
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139420 (URN)10.1093/jat/bkx011 (DOI)000404528000001 ()28334840 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-08-07 Created: 2017-08-07 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
Ahlner, J., Holmgren, A. & Jones, A. W. (2016). Demographics and post-mortem toxicology findings in deaths among people arrested multiple times for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving. Forensic Science International, 265, 138-143
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demographics and post-mortem toxicology findings in deaths among people arrested multiple times for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving
2016 (English)In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 265, p. 138-143Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Multiple arrests for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving strongly suggests the existence of a personality disorder and/or a substance abuse problem. Methods: This retrospective study (1993-2010) used a national forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE), and we identified 3943 individuals with two or more arrests for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving. These individuals had subsequently died from a fatal drug poisoning or some other cause of death, such as trauma. Results: Of the 3943 repeat offenders 1807 (46%) died from a fatal drug overdose and 2136 (54%) died from other causes (p amp;lt; 0.001). The repeat offenders were predominantly male (90% vs 10%) and mean age of drug poisoning deaths was 5 y younger (mean 35 y) than other causes of death (mean 40 y). Significantly more repeat offenders (46%) died from drug overdose compared with all other forensic autopsies (14%) (p amp;lt; 0.001). Four or more drugs were identified in femoral blood in 44% of deaths from poisoning (drug overdose) compared with 18% of deaths by other causes (p amp;lt; 0.001). The manner of death was considered accidental in 54% of deaths among repeat offenders compared with 28% for other suspicious deaths (p amp;lt; 0.001). The psychoactive substances most commonly identified in autopsy blood from repeat offenders were ethanol, morphine (from heroin), diazepam, amphetamines, cannabis, and various opioids. Conclusions: This study shows that people arrested multiple times for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving are more likely to die by accidentally overdosing with drugs. Lives might be saved if repeat offenders were sentenced to treatment and rehabilitation for their drug abuse problem instead of conventional penalties for drug-related crimes. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2016
Keywords
Alcohol; Autopsy; Drug abuse; Poisoning deaths; Repeat offenders; Recidivism
National Category
Forensic Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130368 (URN)10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.01.036 (DOI)000379695700024 ()26901639 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-08-15 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2017-11-28
Jones, W. (2016). Letter: Evidential breath alcohol analysis and the venous blood-to-breath ratio in FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol 262, issue , pp E37-E39 [Letter to the editor]. Forensic Science International, 262, E37-E39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Letter: Evidential breath alcohol analysis and the venous blood-to-breath ratio in FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL, vol 262, issue , pp E37-E39
2016 (English)In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 262, p. E37-E39Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

n/a

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2016
Keywords
Analysis; Blood; Breath; Drunk driving; Evidence; Prosecution
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128943 (URN)10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.03.008 (DOI)000374318200008 ()27036092 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-09 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Jones, W. (2016). Perspectives in Drug Development and Clinical Pharmacology: The Discovery of Histamine H-1 and H-2 Antagonists. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development, 5(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perspectives in Drug Development and Clinical Pharmacology: The Discovery of Histamine H-1 and H-2 Antagonists
2016 (English)In: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development, ISSN 2160-7648, Vol. 5, no 1Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge about the history and development of therapeutic agents holds a central position in the education and training of pharmacists and pharmacologists. Students enjoy learning about the discovery of drugs, including details about the pioneer workers involved (apothecaries, organic chemists, pharmacologists, and physiologists) and the role played by serendipity. The treatment of people suffering from allergies and the development of drugs that block the actions of histamine at H-1 and H-2 receptors are the subject of this review. Pharmaceutical products that block H-1 receptors are widely used as prophylactic treatment for seasonal allergies that plague millions of people worldwide. The development of H-2 receptor antagonists revolutionized treatment of gastric hyperacidity, the principal cause of peptic ulcers. Antihistamine research has changed focus toward the development of drugs that block the action of histamine at H-3 and H-4 receptors and the therapeutic potential is gradually being appreciated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2016
Keywords
allergies; antihistamines; drug discovery; history; histamine antagonists; hyperacidity; ulcers
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127459 (URN)10.1002/cpdd.236 (DOI)000372846600001 ()27119574 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-30 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2016-05-03Bibliographically approved
Busardo, F. P. & Jones, A. W. (2015). GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome. Current Neuropharmacology, 13(1), 47-70
Open this publication in new window or tab >>GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome
2015 (English)In: Current Neuropharmacology, ISSN 1570-159X, E-ISSN 1875-6190, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 47-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The illicit recreational drug of abuse, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem (R)), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover (R)) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter.-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t1/2 similar to 1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of similar to 100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. There is no evidence-based protocol available to deal with GHB withdrawal, apart from administering benzodiazepines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bentham Science Publishers, 2015
Keywords
Analogues; gamma hydroxybutyrate (GBH); intoxication; overdose; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics; treatment; withdrawal syndrome
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117816 (URN)10.2174/1570159X13666141210215423 (DOI)000352870500006 ()
Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Jones, A. W., Holmgren, A. & Ahlner, J. (2015). High prevalence of previous arrests for illicit drug use and/or impaired driving among drivers killed in motor vehicle crashes in Sweden with amphetamine in blood at autopsy. International journal on drug policy, 26(8), 790-793
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High prevalence of previous arrests for illicit drug use and/or impaired driving among drivers killed in motor vehicle crashes in Sweden with amphetamine in blood at autopsy
2015 (English)In: International journal on drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 790-793Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Amphetamine, and to a lesser extent the secondary amine methamphetamine, are major recreational drugs of abuse in Sweden. These central stimulant amines are identified in blood from roughly 50% of people arrested for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). However, much less information is available about the presence of amphetamine in blood of drivers killed in road-traffic crashes.

Methods: This retrospective 10-year study (2001-2010) used a forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE) to retrieve information about road-traffic crashes when the driver had amphetamine and/or methamphetamine in autopsy blood. Forensic toxicology results were available from over 95% of all drivers killed on Swedish roads during this 10-year period.

Results: Amphetamine was present in the blood of 106 drivers (3.9%) either alone or together with other psychoactive substances (e.g. alcohol, cannabis, diazepam, alprazolam, etc.). The vast majority of fatalities were male (95%) with a mean age (+/- standard deviation) of 37 +/- 11.4 years (range 16-67 years). The mean (median) and highest concentrations of amphetamine in femoral blood were 1.36 mg/L (1.0 mg/L) and 6.74 mg/L, respectively. Many of the victims (75%) had been arrested previously for use of illicit drugs or DUID. The median number of previous arrests was 4 (range 0-83) and amphetamine or methamphetamine were among the drugs identified in blood samples from 89% of cases (0-100%).

Conclusion: The high prevalence of repeat DUID offending and/or use of illicit drugs among the drivers killed in road-traffic crashes suggests that an early intervention and treatment for stimulant abuse might have been more beneficial than conventional punishments for such drug-related crimes. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Abuse; Amphetamine; Driving; Impairment; Recidivism; Traffic fatalities
National Category
Forensic Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120732 (URN)10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.04.011 (DOI)000358389200012 ()26003926 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2017-12-04
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