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Varenhorst, Eberhard
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Publications (10 of 65) Show all publications
Klaff, R., Berglund, A., Varenhorst, E., Olov Hedlund, P., Nler, M. J. & Sandblom, G. (2016). Clinical characteristics and quality-of-life in patients surviving a decade of prostate cancer with bone metastases. BJU International, 117(6), 904-913
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clinical characteristics and quality-of-life in patients surviving a decade of prostate cancer with bone metastases
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2016 (English)In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 117, no 6, p. 904-913Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective To describe characteristics and quality-of-life (QoL), and to define factors associated with long-term survival in a subgroup of patients with prostate cancer with M1b disease. Patients and Methods The study was based on 915 patients from a prospective randomised multicentre trial (No. 5) by the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group, comparing parenteral oestrogen with total androgen blockade. Long-term survival was defined as patients having an overall survival of >= 10 years, and logistic regression models were constructed to identity clinical predictors of survival. QoL during follow-up was assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire - C30 version 1 (EORTC-C30) ratings. Results In all, 40 (4.4%) of the 915 men survived for >10 years. Factors significantly associated with increased likelihood of surviving for >10 years in the univariate analyses were: absence of cancer-related pain; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of <2; negligible analgesic consumption; T-category of 1-2; prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of <231 mu g/L; and a Soloway score of 1. In the multivariate analyses, ECOG performance status of <2, PSA level of <231 mu g/L, and Soloway score of 1, were all independent predictors of long-term survival. All subscales of the EORTC-C30 were higher in this group than for patients with short survival, but slowly declined over the decade. Conclusion A subgroup of patients with prostate cancer with M1b disease and certain characteristics showed a positive long-term response to androgen-deprivation therapy with an acceptable QoL over a decade or more. Independent predictors of long-term survival were identified as ECOG performance status of <2, limited extent of bone metastases (Soloway score of 1), and a PSA level of <231 mu g/L at the time of enrolment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016
Keywords
prostate cancer; bone metastases; long-term survival; quality-of-life
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128927 (URN)10.1111/bju.13190 (DOI)000376009800015 ()26033416 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-09 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2017-05-02
Varenhorst, E., Klaff, R., Berglund, A., Olov Hedlund, P. & Sandblom, G. (2016). Predictors of early androgen deprivation treatment failure in prostate cancer with bone metastases. Cancer Medicine, 5(3), 407-414
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictors of early androgen deprivation treatment failure in prostate cancer with bone metastases
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2016 (English)In: Cancer Medicine, ISSN 2045-7634, E-ISSN 2045-7634, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 407-414Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Approximately 15% of men with hormone naive metastatic prostate cancer primarily fail to respond to androgen deprivation treatment (ADT). The reason why the response to ADT differs in this subgroup of men with prostate cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of these men and to thereby define predictors of early ADT failure in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. The study was based on 915 men from the prospective randomized multicenter trial (no. 5) conducted by the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group comparing parenteral estrogen with total androgen blockade. Early ADT failure was defined as death from metastatic prostate cancer within 12months after the start of ADT. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to identify clinical predictors of early ADT failure. Ninety-four (10.3%) men were primarily nonresponders to ADT. Independent predictors of early ADT failure were poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS), analgesic consumption, low hemoglobin, and high Soloway score (extent of disease observed on the scan), in where patients with poor PS and/or high analgesic consumption had a threefold risk of early ADT failure. Not significantly factors related to early ADT failure were age, treatment, cardiovascular comorbidity, T category, grade of malignancy, serum estrogen level, and SHBG at enrolment. We analyzed characteristics of a subgroup of patients who primarily failed to respond to ADT. Four independent clinical predictors of early ADT failure could be defined, and men exhibiting these features should be considered for an alternative treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016
Keywords
Androgen deprivation treatment; bone metastases; clinical predictors; early failure; prostate cancer
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127443 (URN)10.1002/cam4.594 (DOI)000373203000003 ()26765317 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Ferring AB Malmo, Sweden; Ferring Laegemidler A/S Copenhagen, Denmark; Pharmacia AB, Uppsala, Sweden; Schering-Plough AB, Stockholm, Sweden

Available from: 2016-04-30 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Klaff, R., Rosell, J., Varenhorst, E. & Sandblom, G. (2016). The Long-term Disease-specific Mortality of Low-risk Localized Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Population-based Register Study Over Two Decades. Urology, 91, 77-82
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Long-term Disease-specific Mortality of Low-risk Localized Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Population-based Register Study Over Two Decades
2016 (English)In: Urology, ISSN 0090-4295, E-ISSN 1527-9995, Vol. 91, p. 77-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE To identify prognostic factors, and to estimate the long-term disease-specific and annual disease-specific mortality rates of low-risk prostate cancer patients from the early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied data extracted from the Southeast Region Prostate Cancer Register in Sweden, on 1300 patients with clinically localized low-risk tumors, T1-2, PSA level amp;lt;= 10 mu g/L and Gleason scores 2-6 or World Health Organization Grade 1, diagnosed 1992-2003. The Cox multivariate regression model was used to evaluate factors predicting survival. Prostate cancer death rates per 1000 person-years were estimated for 4 consecutive follow-up time periods: 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15+ years after diagnosis. RESULTS During the follow-up of overall survivors (mean 10.6 years; maximum 21.8 years), 93 patients (7%) died of prostate cancer. Cancer-specific survival was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-0.99), 0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.96), 0.89 (95% CI 0.86-0.91), and 0.84 (95% CI 0.80-0.88), 5, 10, 15, and 20 years after diagnosis. The 5-year increases in cancer-specific mortality were statistically significant (P amp;lt;. 001). Patients with PSA amp;gt;= 4 mu g/L managed initially with watchful waiting and those aged 70 years or older had a significantly higher risk of dying from their prostate cancer. CONCLUSION The long-term disease-specific mortality of low-risk localized prostate cancer is low, but the annual mortality rate from prostate cancer gradually increases. This indicates that some tumors slowly develop into lethal cancer, particularly in patients 70 years or older with a PSA level amp;gt;= 4 mu g/L. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2016
National Category
Urology and Nephrology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129173 (URN)10.1016/j.urology.2016.01.033 (DOI)000375901500023 ()26879734 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-13 Created: 2016-06-13 Last updated: 2017-11-28
Van Hemelrijck, M., Wigertz, A., Sandin, F., Garmo, H., Hellstrom, K., Fransson, P., . . . Stattin, P. (2013). Cohort Profile: The National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden and Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0. International Journal of Epidemiology, 42(4), 956-967
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cohort Profile: The National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden and Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0
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2013 (English)In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 956-967Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 1987, the first Regional Prostate Cancer Register was set up in the South-East health-care region of Sweden. Other health-care regions joined and since 1998 virtually all prostate cancer (PCa) cases are registered in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden to provide data for quality assurance, bench marking and clinical research. NPCR includes data on tumour stage, Gleason score, serum level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and primary treatment. In 2008, the NPCR was linked to a number of other population-based registers by use of the personal identity number. This database named Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) has now been extended with more cases, longer follow-up and a selection of two control series of men free of PCa at the time of sampling, as well as information on brothers of men diagnosed with PCa, resulting in PCBaSe 2.0. This extension allows for studies with case-control, cohort or longitudinal case-only design on aetiological factors, pharmaceutical prescriptions and assessment of long-term outcomes. The NPCR covers andgt; 96% of all incident PCa cases registered by the Swedish Cancer Register, which has an underreporting of andlt; 3.7%. The NPCR is used to assess trends in incidence, treatment and outcome of men with PCa. Since the national registers linked to PCBaSe are complete, studies from PCBaSe 2.0 are truly population based.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy B - Oxford Open Option D, 2013
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100498 (URN)10.1093/ije/dys068 (DOI)000325167800008 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council|2010-5950|Vasterbotten County Council||

Available from: 2013-11-08 Created: 2013-11-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Ladjevardi, S., Berglund, A., Varenhorst, E., Bratt, O., Widmark, A. & Sandblom, G. (2013). Treatment with curative intent and survival in men with high-risk prostate cancer. A population-based study of 11 380 men with serum PSA level 20-100 ng/mL. BJU International, 111(3), 381-388
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment with curative intent and survival in men with high-risk prostate cancer. A population-based study of 11 380 men with serum PSA level 20-100 ng/mL
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2013 (English)In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 381-388Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanTo investigate the influence of curative treatment on cause-specific mortality in men diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels between 20 and 100 ng/mL. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMaterials and Methods less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanPatients with PCa (T1-4, N0/N1/NX, M0/MX), PSA 20-100 ng/mL and age andlt;= 75 years were identified in the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanData on co-morbidity diagnoses were obtained from the National Patient Register and cause of death from the Cause of Death Register. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanFollowing adjustment for age at diagnosis, co-morbidity burden, Gleason score, T-category, PSA level and cause-specific mortality in relation to treatment were estimated using Cox regression analysis. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResult less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanA total of 11 380 men were diagnosed with PCa between 1996 and 2008 and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe cumulative 10-year PCa-specific mortality was 36% for patients receiving only palliative treatment and 13% for those treated with curative intent. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanFor the 8462 (74%) patients with PSA levels from 20 to 50 ng/mL at diagnosis, the hazard ratio for death from PCa was 0.23 (95% confidence interval 0.19-0.27) for those treated with curative intent compared with those given palliative treatment after adjusting for age, co-morbidity, T category, PSA level and Gleason score. The corresponding hazard ratio was 0.22 (95% confidence interval 0.17-0.30) for patients with PSA levels from 51 to 100 ng/mL. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanTreatment with curative intent for men with high-risk PCa was associated with reduced cause-specific mortality and should be considered even when serum PSA exceeds 20 ng/mL. Keywords prostate cancer, prostate-specific antigen, high-risk tumours, curative treatment, palliative treatment, population-based study

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2013
Keywords
prostate cancer, prostate-specific antigen, high-risk tumours, curative treatment, palliative treatment, population-based study
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90676 (URN)10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11320.x (DOI)000315395200022 ()
Available from: 2013-04-03 Created: 2013-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Davidsson, S., Fiorentino, M., Andren, O., Fang, F., A. Mucci, L., Varenhorst, E., . . . Stark, J. (2011). Focal Prostate Atrophic Lesions and Risk of Lethal Prostate Cancer in LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, vol 91, issue , pp 187A-187A. In: LABORATORY INVESTIGATION (pp. 187A-187A). Nature Publishing Group, 91
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Focal Prostate Atrophic Lesions and Risk of Lethal Prostate Cancer in LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, vol 91, issue , pp 187A-187A
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2011 (English)In: LABORATORY INVESTIGATION, Nature Publishing Group , 2011, Vol. 91, p. 187A-187AConference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

n/a

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2011
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69928 (URN)000291285000227 ()
Available from: 2011-08-09 Created: 2011-08-08 Last updated: 2011-08-09
Davidsson, S., Fiorentino, M., Andren, O., Fang, F., Mucci, L. A., Varenhorst, E., . . . Rider, J. R. (2011). Inflammation, Focal Atrophic Lesions, and Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia with Respect to Risk of Lethal Prostate Cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 20(10), 2280-2287
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inflammation, Focal Atrophic Lesions, and Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia with Respect to Risk of Lethal Prostate Cancer
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2011 (English)In: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, E-ISSN 1538-7755, Vol. 20, no 10, p. 2280-2287Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: A challenge in prostate cancer (PCa) management is identifying potentially lethal disease at diagnosis. Inflammation, focal prostatic atrophy, and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) are common in prostate tumor specimens, but it is not clear whether these lesions have prognostic significance. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: We conducted a case-control study nested in a cohort of men diagnosed with stage T1a-b PCa through transurethral resection of the prostate in Sweden. Cases are men who died of PCa (n = 228). Controls are men who survived more than 10 years after PCa diagnosis without metastases (n = 387). Slides were assessed for Gleason grade, inflammation, PIN, and four subtypes of focal prostatic atrophy: simple atrophy (SA), postatrophic hyperplasia (PAH), simple atrophy with cyst formation, and partial atrophy. We estimated OR and 95% CI for odds of lethal PCa with multivariable logistic regression. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Chronic inflammation and PIN were more frequently observed in tumors with PAH, but not SA. No specific type of atrophy or inflammation was significantly associated with lethal PCa overall, but there was a suggestion of a positive association for chronic inflammation. Independent of age, Gleason score, year of diagnosis, inflammation, and atrophy type, men with PIN were 89% more likely to die of PCa (95% CI: 1.04-3.42). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Our data show that PIN, and perhaps presence of moderate or severe chronic inflammation, may have prognostic significance for PCa. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanImpact: Lesions in tumor adjacent tissue, and not just the tumor itself, may aid in identification of clinically relevant disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Association for Cancer Research, 2011
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72140 (URN)10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0373 (DOI)000295717900034 ()
Note
Funding Agencies|Department of Defense|PC060389|DF/HCC|NIH/NCIP50 CA90381|Prostate Cancer Foundation||Swedish Cancer Society|CAN2006/1341|Available from: 2011-11-18 Created: 2011-11-18 Last updated: 2017-12-08
Sandblom, G., Varenhorst, E., Rosell, J., Lofman, O. & Carlsson, P. (2011). Letter: PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING Authors reply [Letter to the editor]. BMJ. British Medical Journal, 342
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Letter: PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING Authors reply
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2011 (English)In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 342Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

n/a

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
B M J PUBLISHING GROUP, 2011
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69858 (URN)10.1136/bmj.d3710 (DOI)000291932100022 ()
Available from: 2011-08-10 Created: 2011-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Sandblom, G., Varenhorst, E., Rosell, J., Lofman, O. & Carlsson, P. (2011). Randomised prostate cancer screening trial: 20 year follow-up. BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 342(d1539)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Randomised prostate cancer screening trial: 20 year follow-up
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2011 (English)In: BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, ISSN 0959-535X, Vol. 342, no d1539Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective To assess whether screening for prostate cancer reduces prostate cancer specific mortality. Design Population based randomised controlled trial. Setting Department of Urology, Norrkoping, and the South-East Region Prostate Cancer Register. Participants All men aged 50-69 in the city of Norrkoping, Sweden, identified in 1987 in the National Population Register (n=9026). Intervention From the study population, 1494 men were randomly allocated to be screened by including every sixth man from a list of dates of birth. These men were invited to be screened every third year from 1987 to 1996. On the first two occasions screening was done by digital rectal examination only. From 1993, this was combined with prostate specific antigen testing, with 4 mu g/L as cut off. On the fourth occasion (1996), only men aged 69 or under at the time of the investigation were invited. Main outcome measures Data on tumour stage, grade, and treatment from the South East Region Prostate Cancer Register. Prostate cancer specific mortality up to 31 December 2008. Results In the four screenings from 1987 to 1996 attendance was 1161/1492 (78%), 957/1363 (70%), 895/1210 (74%), and 446/606 (74%), respectively. There were 85 cases (5.7%) of prostate cancer diagnosed in the screened group and 292 (3.9%) in the control group. The risk ratio for death from prostate cancer in the screening group was 1.16 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.73). In a Cox proportional hazard analysis comparing prostate cancer specific survival in the control group with that in the screened group, the hazard ratio for death from prostate cancer was 1.23 (0.94 to 1.62; P=0.13). After adjustment for age at start of the study, the hazard ratio was 1.58 (1.06 to 2.36; P=0.024). Conclusions After 20 years of follow-up the rate of death from prostate cancer did not differ significantly between men in the screening group and those in the control group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
B M J PUBLISHING GROUP, BRITISH MED ASSOC HOUSE, TAVISTOCK SQUARE, LONDON WC1H 9JR, ENGLAND, 2011
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67564 (URN)10.1136/bmj.d1539 (DOI)000289201600001 ()
Note
Original Publication: Gabriel Sandblom, Eberhard Varenhorst, Johan Rosell, Owe Lofman and Per Carlsson, Randomised prostate cancer screening trial: 20 year follow-up, 2011, BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, (342), d1539, . http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d1539 Copyright: Authors Available from: 2011-04-18 Created: 2011-04-18 Last updated: 2011-05-09
Hedlund, P. r., Johansson, R., Damber, J. E., Hagerman, I., Henriksson, P., Iversen, P., . . . Varenhorst, E. (2011). Significance of pretreatment cardiovascular morbidity as a risk factor during treatment with parenteral oestrogen or combined androgen deprivation of 915 patients with metastasized prostate cancer: Evaluation of cardiovascular events in a randomized trial. Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, 45(5), 346-353
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Significance of pretreatment cardiovascular morbidity as a risk factor during treatment with parenteral oestrogen or combined androgen deprivation of 915 patients with metastasized prostate cancer: Evaluation of cardiovascular events in a randomized trial
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2011 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 346-353Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective. This study aimed to evaluate prognostic risk factors for cardiovascular events during treatment of metastatic prostate cancer patients with high-dose parenteral polyoestradiol phosphate (PEP, Estradurin (R)) or combined androgen deprivation (CAD) with special emphasis on pretreatment cardiovascular disease. Material and methods. Nine-hundred and fifteen patients with T0-4, Nx, M1, G1-3, hormone- naive prostate cancer were randomized to treatment with PEP 240 mg i.m. twice a month for 2 months and thereafter monthly, or to flutamide (Eulexin (R)) 250 mg per os three times daily in combination with either triptorelin (Decapeptyl (R)) 3.75 mg i.m. per month or on an optional basis with bilateral orchidectomy. Pretreatment cardiovascular morbidity was recorded and cardiovascular events during treatment were assessed by an experienced cardiologist. A multivariate analysis was done using logistic regression. Results. There was a significant increase in cardiovascular events during treatment with PEP in patients with previous ischaemic heart disease (p = 0.008), ischaemic cerebral disease (p = 0.002), intermittent claudication (p = 0.031) and especially when the whole group of patients with pretreatment cardiovascular diseases was analysed together (p andlt; 0.001). In this group 33% of the patients had a cardiovascular event during PEP treatment. In the multivariate analysis PEP stood out as the most important risk factor for cardiac complications (p = 0.029). Even in the CAD group there was a significant increase in cardiovascular events in the group with all previous cardiovascular diseases taken together (p = 0.036). Conclusions. Patients with previous cardiovascular disease are at considerable risk of cardiovascular events during treatment with high-dose PEP and even during CAD therapy. Patients without pretreatment cardiovascular morbidity have a moderate cardiovascular risk during PEP treatment and could be considered for this treatment if the advantages of this therapy, e. g. avoidance of osteopenia and hot flushes and the low price, are given priority.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa Healthcare, 2011
Keywords
cardiovascular events, cardiovascular risk factors, combined androgen deprivation, parenteral oestrogen therapy, prostate cancer, randomized multicentre trial, skeletal metastases
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71771 (URN)10.3109/00365599.2011.585820 (DOI)000295890500008 ()
Note
Funding Agencies|Ferring AB, Malmo, Sweden||Ferring Laegemidler A/S Copenhagen, Denmark||Pharmacia AB, Uppsala, Sweden||Schering-Plough AB, Stockholm, Sweden||Available from: 2011-11-04 Created: 2011-11-04 Last updated: 2017-12-08
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