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Dadfar, Hossein
Publications (10 of 53) Show all publications
Dadfar, H., Dahlgaard, J. J., Afazeli, S. & Brege, S. (2015). Quality, export and domestic market performance: the case of pharmaceutical firms in Iran. Total quality management and business excellence (Online), 26(9-10), 938-957
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality, export and domestic market performance: the case of pharmaceutical firms in Iran
2015 (English)In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 26, no 9-10, p. 938-957Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines the relationship between export involvement/performance and domestic market performance of pharmaceutical enterprises in Iran, an area which has remained largely unresearched. The study seeks to address the following three research objectives: first, to assess the export performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies; second, to assess the performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies in the domestic market; and third, to examine the relationship between export involvement/performance and domestic market performance. Although existing literature claims that local performance (rivalry) leads to export performance, this study reveals that in the Iranian pharmaceutical industry, export involvement and performance enhance local market performance. The study provides empirical evidence on the relationship between export performance and domestic market performance, and adds depth to the understanding of the reasons why the traditional views did not explain the situation. A comprehensive literature review was used to build our conceptual and analytical framework upon the Export Performance (EXPERF) model for export performance evaluation. The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model and assessment indicators of Innovativeness, Learning and Lean indices were used for measuring domestic performance. By using clustering, six clusters of similar companies were identified and the centroids of the six clusters chosen to verify the relationship between export performance and domestic performance. Correlation analyses confirmed that there was a significant positive relation between export performance and domestic performance. This means that export performance results in better domestic performance, and vice versa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR and FRANCIS LTD, 2015
Keywords
export performance; EXPERF; domestic market performance; EFQM Excellence Model; self-assessment; ILL index; Iranian pharmaceutical industry
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122201 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2015.1068593 (DOI)000362175300002 ()
Available from: 2015-10-26 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Ebadzadeh Semnani, S. S., Dadfar, H. & Brege, S. (2015). The role of export clusters in export performance of SMEs: the case of Iranian energy industry. Quality Innovation Prosperity, 19(2), 137-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of export clusters in export performance of SMEs: the case of Iranian energy industry
2015 (English)In: Quality Innovation Prosperity, ISSN 1335-1745, E-ISSN 1338-984X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 137-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This study was carried out with the aim of exploring the effects of export clusters formation on export performance of SMEs in Iranian energy industry. 

Methodology/Approach: The study was undertaken through having three case studies, each on a different export cluster currently active within Iranian energy industry. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews with both managers and members of each export cluster as well as study of their archival documents.  

Findings: The results confirmed that all three export clusters managed to successfully identify their members’ needs and undertook certain measures within their own authority and control, to mitigate these risks. Moreover, the secondary data showed positive growth rate of export level after the establishment of these export clusters. Interestingly, the strong suits of all three export clusters were mainly related to communication and relationship aspects. These three factors were: ability to create Informal Network within members, Public Relations and Training/Consultation.  

Research Limitation/implication: This study was limited to the export clusters in Iranian energy industry, and on a cross-sectional time horizon basis. It therefore cannot be generalized to all industries and we might witness certain changes in findings if the study is undertaken at different point in time. However, the study shed light on certain important aspects such as nature of relationships within the members of each cluster, the role of trust management and social power as well as the need to place more focus on SMEs in export clusters. 

Originality/Value of paper: Even though there are recently many studies on the concept of export clusters and their positive impacts on the growth in export of various countries throughout the world; but so far, there had been no similar study undertaken with a focus on Iran and not enough empirical evidence had previously been provided on export clusters performance in a developing country.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copyright: Technical University of Kosice, 2015
Keywords
Export cluster performance, Internal relationships, Internationalization of SMEs, Trust management
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126614 (URN)10.12776/QIP.V19I2.612 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Dadfar, H., Dahlgaard, J. J., Brege, S. & Javadian Arzaghi, B. (2014). International strategic alliances in the Iranian pharmaceutical industry: an analysis of key success and failure factors. Paper presented at 16th Conference on Quality Management and Organizational Development (QMOD); SLOVENIA; SEP 04-06, 2013. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 25(7-8), 812-826
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International strategic alliances in the Iranian pharmaceutical industry: an analysis of key success and failure factors
2014 (English)In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 25, no 7-8, p. 812-826Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aims to identify key success/failure factors in international strategicalliances (ISAs) in the Iranian pharmaceutical industry, an area which has remainedlargely unexamined. The literature review, and an expert panel’s views, led us tostudy 33 success factors. These factors, based upon their importance in strategic andstructural configuration of the alliance formation process, were grouped as contentand process-oriented. A combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches wasused for data collection and analysis. The results confirmed that all 33 factors areeffective in alliance success, which is an extension of earlier research. The studyreveals 8 of the most important success factors, and 11 of the most prevalent failurefactors. The findings also showed that six of the eight most important success factorsare process-oriented variables. This confirms that trust, mutual understanding anddeveloping strong inter-organisational relationships are extremely important in thesuccess of alliances in the Iranian Pharmaceutical industry. However, 8 of 11 failurefactors are content-oriented, which means that the failed alliances mainly hadproblems in the alliances’ strategic and structural design. The qualitative studysupports the quantitative results and adds to the high importance of the soft aspect ofthe alliances’ success including: the culture of collaboration, open-mindedness,relationship-building ability, parties’ proper knowledge of each other’s businessculture/working attitudes, and effective communication. Besides, in Iran, the localgovernment and public institutes have significant impact on the success of thealliances. One of the more significant findings that emerged from this study is that‘success’ can mean different things to different people/partners, so success andfailure should be seen from both parties’ perspectives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2014
Keywords
inter-firm collaboration; international strategic alliances; key success and failure factors in strategic alliances; success/failure situations; pharmaceutical industry
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106460 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2014.906109 (DOI)000340174600009 ()
Conference
16th Conference on Quality Management and Organizational Development (QMOD); SLOVENIA; SEP 04-06, 2013
Available from: 2014-05-08 Created: 2014-05-08 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Saeedi, M. R., Dadfar, H. & Brege, S. (2014). The impact of inward international licensing on absorptive capacity of SMEs. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 6(2/3), 164-180
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of inward international licensing on absorptive capacity of SMEs
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 6, no 2/3, p. 164-180Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – This study aims to examine the impacts of inward international licensing (IIL) on the absorptive capacity (ACAP) of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in a developing economy. Design/methodology/approach – The study is explorative, qualitative and elaborative in nature. Therefore, a multiple case study was selected and performed as the research strategy. The data were collected from four pharmaceutical SMEs licensed from European pharmaceutical large-scale enterprises. Findings – The results confirm that IIL has a strong effect on acquisition, assimilation, transformation and exploitation as absorptive factors. Furthermore, the results have been enhanced by several contextual factors of ACAP human resources, inter-and intra-firm relationships, internal knowledge and managerial and strategic aspects. These contextual factors have also been influenced by IIL. Originality/value – From the licensee perspective in a developing context, examining the extant literature on non-equity strategic alliances shows that very few studies have empirically examined the impact of this kind of alliance, such as IIL, on SMEs’ ACAP. On this basis, the study provides evidence that non-equity strategic alliances, particularly IIL, enhance SMEs’ capabilities such as ACAP. In other words, to overcome SMEs’ resource limitations and inadequate capabilities, IIL provides opportunities for them to obtain capabilities and critical resources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2014
Keywords
Iran, Absorptive capacity, SMEs, Learning, Dynamic capabilities, Inward international licensing
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110824 (URN)10.1108/IJQSS-02-2014-0011 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-09-23 Created: 2014-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Dadfar, H., Brege, S. & Ebadzadeh Semnani, S. S. (2013). Customer involvement in Service production, delivery and quality: the challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 5(1), 46-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Customer involvement in Service production, delivery and quality: the challenges and opportunities
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 46-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to explore the role of customer involvement in service production and its possible effects on the quality of service delivery as well as customer satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach – Since the nature of the study is exploratory, the case study approach was adopted. The paper focusses on customer involvement in the context of service production and delivery system in service organization rather than in the context of customer organization. The authors looked at supplier involvement as well, due to the fact that a lack of sufficient information from a supplier or lack of proper training may inhibit customers' successful involvement. A detailed case study was carried out on a sample of four service providers: a general contractor, a chemical process engineer, a software developer and a language institute as well as a service buyer case – a Petrochemical Holding Company. In total the paper includes five cases.

Findings – The study reveals that even though co-production of the customers with the service provider is a must, however, it has different effects on the quality of service produced depending on the situation and the nature of services offered. In the cases of the complex engineering services – general contractor and chemical engineering – that service requirements and technical specifications were provided by the customers, and service providers were chosen by open bidding process, there were instances where the co-production could lead to malfunction of the service. This was evident in the cases when the inappropriate technical specifications and requirements were provided by the customer hindering the service provider to deliver services smoothly. On the other hand, in the cases of new software development process and language institute, it had been evident that the involvement of customers – with a sound customer involvement management – has tremendous positive effects and lead to greater productivity and customer satisfaction. In the case of the petrochemical company and international service providers, educating the suppliers/service providers by the buyer, to a large extent, could solve the service quality problems in terms of on time delivery, costs and technical conformity as stressed by buyers.

Originality/value – The study provides empirical evidence regarding customer involvement in the service production and its possible effects on the quality of service delivery as well as customer satisfaction and sheds light on the situations that customer involvement is a success or a threat. The research also contributes to the understanding of how the nature of services, the level and scope of customer involvement as well as building relationship and trust amongst the customer and the service provider affect the outcome of customer-service provider co-production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013
Keywords
Customer involvement, Customer roles, Service specification selection, Dimensions of customer-suplier relationship, Service quality, Customer satisfction, Iran
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92766 (URN)10.1108/17566691311316248 (DOI)
Projects
Internationalization, MBA ProMA
Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Asgharian, E., Dadfar, H. & Brege, S. (2013). Entrepreneurial orientation in franchising systems: A franchisee perspective. In: : . Paper presented at The European Entrepreneurship: How Entrepreneurs (Should) Act in Global Business Environment, Fifth Anniversary International Conference , 9 -11 September 2013, Albena, Varna, Bulgaria. , 2(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial orientation in franchising systems: A franchisee perspective
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Despite the importance of entrepreneurial activities and the role of franchisees in the generation of new ideas and innovations in the franchise system, there are limited studies on the conduct of the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) within the context of franchising and from the franchisee perspective. Although in a franchise system, the franchisor always tries to develop the standardization across the system to take advantage of cost minimization, different local environments require some flexibilities and adaptation in a franchisor policy (Falbe et al., 1999). Therefore, the franchisor should balance between standardization and adaptation, and display the entrepreneurial behaviors to take advantage of local market opportunities (Bradach, 1997). Given the important role of franchising in global wealth creation, understanding the extent to which an EO is desirable in franchise systems is an area which merits attention (Dada and Watson, 2012). Therefore, this study examines the entrepreneurial orientation in the franchised outlets. Findings from this study show that innovativeness in a franchise system is different in the core and peripheral elements of a product or service. The franchisor in a franchise system restricts the franchisees for innovation in "peripheral" elements of products. In addition, the franchisor concentrates on the innovation in the "core" elements. Both the franchisor and franchisee equally share the risk in a franchise system, and the franchisee takes even more risk in entering the new market and bearing the financial risk. The franchisee's autonomy in a franchise system is limited to the decision making about the peripheral elements. The franchisor almost always thinks about the future and seeks new opportunity in the industry; in fact, the franchisor in a system proactively looks for new opportunities. In contrast, the franchisees in a franchise system aggressively react to local competitors and apply the proper strategy to overcome them.

Keywords
Franchising, entrepreneurial orientation, innovativeness, proactiveness, competitive aggressiveness
National Category
Engineering and Technology Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103323 (URN)
Conference
The European Entrepreneurship: How Entrepreneurs (Should) Act in Global Business Environment, Fifth Anniversary International Conference , 9 -11 September 2013, Albena, Varna, Bulgaria
Available from: 2014-01-16 Created: 2014-01-16 Last updated: 2014-01-17Bibliographically approved
Asgharian, E., Dadfar, H. & Brege, S. (2013). Entrepreneurial process in franchised outlets. Journal of WEI Business and Economics, 2(1), 59-71
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial process in franchised outlets
2013 (English)In: Journal of WEI Business and Economics, E-ISSN 2166-7918, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 59-71Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Although in recent years the study of franchise systems has been the subject of many academic studies, most of them have studied franchise systems from the franchisor's point of view, and the franchisee point of view has received only limited attention. Researchers in business fields have adopted four main perspectives in the study of franchising: strategy, economics, marketing, and entrepreneurship. From an entrepreneurship perspective, while there is no doubt about considering a franchisor's business as an entrepreneurial firm, considering the franchisee's activities during the running and managing of an outlet as an entrepreneurial firm is disputed. An entrepreneurial firm includes involvement in product innovation, commitment to calculated risk, proactiveness and aggressiveness. While the diversity of definitions about entrepreneurship has caused a problem to understand what an entrepreneurial firm is, a process-focused approach offers much unexplored potential for understanding the nature of entrepreneurship in entrepreneurial firms. Therefore, due to the pivotal role of an entrepreneurial process in the nature of entrepreneurship, and considering the entrepreneurial process as the core unit of analysis in entrepreneurial firms, this article aims to study what happens during the entrepreneurial process in a franchised outlet. This study shows, although franchisees are restricted about product innovation, and franchisor reduces the risk of business for them, the franchisor never can omit the risk for franchisee. Moreover, many product innovations in the franchise system stem from the franchisee's ideas, and the franchisor will never be able to eliminate the risk for the franchisees. The franchisee's business also encompasses all dimensions of the entrepreneurial process as the unique features of entrepreneurial firms.

Keywords
Franchising, entrepreneurial firm, entrepreneurial opportunity, entrepreneurial process, risk-taking
National Category
Engineering and Technology Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103322 (URN)
Available from: 2014-01-16 Created: 2014-01-16 Last updated: 2017-04-11Bibliographically approved
Asgharian, E., Dadfar, H. & Brege, S. (2013). Franchisees’ Activities as Entrepreneurship. In: : . Paper presented at WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings, 94-104, January 14-16, 2013 , Antalya, Turkey.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Franchisees’ Activities as Entrepreneurship
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During the last decades, franchising has turned into one of the fastest-growing business forms. Research in franchising has been viewed through the four major perspectives of economics, strategy, marketing and entrepreneurship. Although there is a consensus that the franchisors’ activities are considered as entrepreneurship, this notion is disputed with regard to franchisees. A paradox in entrepreneurial activities of the franchisee has caused doubt in considering franchisees’ activities as entrepreneurship. On the one hand, in a franchisee context, some believe opportunity is always identified and that the franchisor helps the franchisees in exploitation. On the other hand, the opposing view considers a franchisee as an entrepreneur who focuses on opportunity, risk and innovation. Ignoring the franchisees’ capabilities and abilities in innovation and introducing new products can prevent a franchise system from taking advantage of environmental change. Therefore, due to the importance of identification of unique aspects of entrepreneurship research rather than unique definition of entrepreneurship, and attention to entrepreneurial process as a core unit of analysis, this research will examine whether franchisees’ activities can be considered as entrepreneurship. According to the Shane model, the entrepreneurial process involves the existence of profitbased (objective) opportunities, risk-taking and some kind of innovation. Nature of opportunity in franchised outlets is closer to Kirznerian's view than Schumpeterian's  view. Sources of opportunities in franchised outlets are not so clear, like the introduction of a new restaurant in a storefront where none had existed before. In Schumpeter's view, according to different types of innovation, franchisees’ operations involve product-market  innovativeness to include market research, product design, and innovations in advertising and promotion. Regarding risk-taking as the third dimension of the entrepreneurial process, franchisees risk their capital. Although it seems in franchise systems that risk for the  franchisee is, to some extent, shared with the franchisor, no franchisor will be able to eliminate the financial, business and personal risk of the franchisees. The franchisor also transfers the risk of expanding into new markets to the franchisees. In sum, franchisees do almost all of the functions of other entrepreneurs, except generating new ideas in the initial step of running a business.

Keywords
Franchisee, entrepreneurship, innovation, entrepreneurial opportunities, risk-taking
National Category
Engineering and Technology Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103321 (URN)
Conference
WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings, 94-104, January 14-16, 2013 , Antalya, Turkey
Available from: 2014-01-16 Created: 2014-01-16 Last updated: 2014-01-17Bibliographically approved
Dadfar, H., Dahlgaard, J. J., Brege, S. & Alamirhoor, A. (2013). Linkage between organisational innovation capability, product platform development and performance: The case of pharmaceutical small and medium enterprises in Iran. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 24(7-8), 819-834
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linkage between organisational innovation capability, product platform development and performance: The case of pharmaceutical small and medium enterprises in Iran
2013 (English)In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 24, no 7-8, p. 819-834Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examines the relationship between organisational innovation capability, product platform development and performance in pharmaceutical small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Iran, an area which has remained unexplored. The intensive literature review has led us to suggest an empirically tested conceptual model consisting of innovation capability, product platform and performance as well as factors/enablers shaping innovation capability in the pharmaceutical firms. Combinations of quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data collection and analysis. Eight Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) companies that produce about 80% of local manufactured API were studied. The results show that the Iranian firms have chosen an imitative strategy in technology and product development. The common pattern for technology sourcing was external. However, although all companies purchased technologies from well-known suppliers, they demonstrated significant differences in the variety of products produced and performance. The failure firms lacked sound absorptive capability. Furthermore, the firms with high performance used a combination of internal and external sources for technology and product development. The empirical analysis showed a positive relationship between innovation capabilities, technology platform, product platform and performance. The pre-requisite to this relationship was found to be effective innovation management and strength/abilities in strategy, organisational structure, learning, processes and linkage (relationship) with the customers, suppliers and alliances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2013
Keywords
innovation capability, product platform, technology platform, performance, pharmaceutical industry, Iran
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96417 (URN)10.1080/14783363.2013.791102 (DOI)000321238300006 ()
Available from: 2013-08-20 Created: 2013-08-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Saeedi, M. R., Dadfar, H. & Brege, S. (2013). SMEs networking capability (NC) development in relationship with large size enterprises (LSEs) through inward international licensing (IIL). In: : . Paper presented at European Entrepreneurship: How Entrepreneurs (Should) Act in Global Business Environment, Fifth Anniversary International Conference, 9-11 September 2013, Albena, Varna, Bulgaria.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SMEs networking capability (NC) development in relationship with large size enterprises (LSEs) through inward international licensing (IIL)
2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Many SMEs are connected to large size enterprises (LSEs) by non-equity alliances such as inward licensing. This study is an attempt to explore the impact of inward international licensing (IIL) between SMEs and LSEs as enhancing force for development of networking capability. This area has remained largely unsearched. Following this line of thought, in order to explore the impacts of IIL on the SMEs’ networking capability, a multiple-case study was chosen and performed as appropriate research strategy in the context of developing economy. The data was collected from the four pharmaceutical SMEs which have been licensed by large European pharmaceutical multinational LSEs. The results of this study reveal that the strategic alliances (licensing) between SMEs and LSEs helps the development of SMEs’ networking capability. This was particular significant in development of the main components of networking capability; such as relational initiation capability and relational developing capability.

Keywords
Networking capability, Dynamic capabilities, SMEs, Inward international licensing, Pharmaceutical industry
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105949 (URN)
Conference
European Entrepreneurship: How Entrepreneurs (Should) Act in Global Business Environment, Fifth Anniversary International Conference, 9-11 September 2013, Albena, Varna, Bulgaria
Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2014-04-22
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