liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 30) Show all publications
Stenberg, P., Danielsson, Ö., Erdtman, E., Sukkaew, P., Ojamäe, L., Janzén, E. & Pedersen, H. (2017). Matching precursor kinetics to afford a more robust CVD chemistry: a case study of the C chemistry for silicon carbide using SiF4 as Si precursor. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 5, 5818-5823
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Matching precursor kinetics to afford a more robust CVD chemistry: a case study of the C chemistry for silicon carbide using SiF4 as Si precursor
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 5, p. 5818-5823Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is one of the technology platforms forming the backbone of the semiconductor industry and is vital in the production of electronic devices. To upscale a CVD process from the lab to the fab, large area uniformity and high run-to-run reproducibility are needed. We show by a combination of experiments and gas phase kinetics modeling that the combinations of Si and C precursors with the most well-matched gas phase chemistry kinetics gives the largest area of of homoepitaxial growth of SiC. Comparing CH4, C2H4 and C3H8 as carbon precursors to the SiF4 silicon precursor, CH4 with the slowest kinetics renders the most robust CVD chemistry with large area epitaxial growth and low temperature sensitivity. We further show by quantum chemical modeling how the surface chemistry is impeded by the presence of F in the system which limits the amount of available surface sites for the C to adsorb.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137446 (URN)10.1039/c7tc00138j (DOI)000403571200024 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation (KAW) project Isotopic Control for Ultimate Material Properties; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research project SiC - the Material for Energy-Saving Power Electronics [EM11-0034]; Swedish Government Strategic Research

Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2018-10-08Bibliographically approved
Danielsson, Ö., Li, X., Ojamäe, L., Janzén, E., Pedersen, H. & Forsberg, U. (2016). A model for carbon incorporation from trimethyl gallium in chemical vapor deposition of gallium nitride. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 4(4), 863-871
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A model for carbon incorporation from trimethyl gallium in chemical vapor deposition of gallium nitride
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 863-871Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor material can become semi-insulating when doping with carbon. Semi-insulating buffer layers are utilized to prevent leakage currents in GaN high power devices. Carbon is inherently present during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of GaN from the use of trimethyl gallium (TMGa) as precursor. TMGa decomposes in the gas phase, releasing its methyl groups, which could act as carbon source for doping. It is previously known that the carbon doping levels can be controlled by tuning the CVD process parameters, such as temperature, pressure and precursor flow rates. However, the mechanism for carbon incorporation from TMGa is not yet understood. In this paper, a model for predicting carbon incorporation from TMGa in GaN layers grown by CVD is proposed. The model is based on ab initio quantum chemical calculations of molecular adsorption and reaction energies. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, with a chemical kinetic model for decomposition of the precursors and reactions in the gas phase, to calculate gas phase compositions at realistic process conditions, together with the proposed model, we obtain good correlations with measurements, for both carbon doping concentrations and growth rates, when varying the inlet NH3/TMGa ratio. When varying temperature (800 – 1050°C), the model overpredicts carbon doping concentrations at the lower temperatures, but predicts growth rates well, and the agreement with measured carbon doping concentrations is good above 1000°C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016
National Category
Physical Sciences Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118113 (URN)10.1039/c5tc03989d (DOI)000368839700027 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF); Swedish Defence Material Administration (FMV)

Vid tiden för disputation förelåg publikationen endast som manuskript

Available from: 2015-05-22 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Bergsten, J., Li, X., Nilsson, D., Danielsson, Ö., Pedersen, H., Janzén, E., . . . Rorsman, N. (2016). AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with intentionally doped GaN buffer using propane as carbon precursor. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 55, 05FK02-1-05FK02-4, Article ID 05FK02.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with intentionally doped GaN buffer using propane as carbon precursor
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-4922, E-ISSN 1347-4065, Vol. 55, p. 05FK02-1-05FK02-4, article id 05FK02Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) fabricated on a heterostructure grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using analternative method of carbon (C) doping the buffer are characterized. C-doping is achieved by using propane as precursor, as compared to tuningthe growth process parameters to control C-incorporation from the gallium precursor. This approach allows for optimization of the GaN growthconditions without compromising material quality to achieve semi-insulating properties. The HEMTs are evaluated in terms of isolation anddispersion. Good isolation with OFF-state currents of 2 ' 10%6A/mm, breakdown fields of 70V/μm, and low drain induced barrier lowering of0.13mV/V are found. Dispersive effects are examined using pulsed current–voltage measurements. Current collapse and knee walkout effectslimit the maximum output power to 1.3W/mm. With further optimization of the C-doping profile and GaN material quality this method should offer aversatile approach to decrease dispersive effects in GaN HEMTs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2016
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128077 (URN)10.7567/JJAP.55.05FK02 (DOI)000374697600081 ()
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-05-16 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Sukkaew, P., Ojamäe, L., Kordina, O., Janzén, E. & Danielsson, Ö. (2016). Thermochemical Properties of Halides and Halohydrides of Silicon and Carbon. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 5(2), P27-P35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermochemical Properties of Halides and Halohydrides of Silicon and Carbon
Show others...
2016 (English)In: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, E-ISSN 2162-8777, Vol. 5, no 2, p. P27-P35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Atomization energies, enthalpies of formation, entropies as well as heat capacities of the SiHnXm and CHnXm systems, with X being F, Cl and Br, have been studied using quantum chemical calculations. The Gaussian-4 theory (G4) and Weizman-1 theory as modified by Barnes et al. 2009 (W1RO) have been applied in the calculations of the electronic, zero point and thermal energies. The effects of low-lying electronically excited states due to spin orbit coupling were included for all atoms and diatomic species by mean of the electronic partition functions derived from the experimental or computational energy splittings. The atomization energies, enthalpies of formation, entropies and heat capacities derived from both methods were observed to be reliable. The thermochemical properties in the temperature range of 298-2500 K are provided in the form of 7-coefficient NASA polynomials. (C) The Author(s) 2015. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC, 2016
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124117 (URN)10.1149/2.0081602jss (DOI)000365748800023 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research

Available from: 2016-01-22 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Yazdanfar, M., Kalered, E., Danielsson, Ö., Kordina, O., Nilsson, D., Ivanov, I. G., . . . Pedersen, H. (2015). Brominated chemistry for chemical vapor deposition of electronic grade SiC. Chemistry of Materials, 27(3), 793-801
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brominated chemistry for chemical vapor deposition of electronic grade SiC
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 793-801Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chlorinated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) chemistry for growth of homoepitaxial layers of silicon carbide (SiC) has paved the way for very thick epitaxial layers in short deposition time as well as novel crystal growth processes for SiC. Here, we explore the possibility to also use a brominated chemistry for SiC CVD by using HBr as additive to the standard SiC CVD precursors. We find that brominated chemistry leads to the same high material quality and control of material properties during deposition as chlorinated chemistry and that the growth rate is on average 10 % higher for a brominated chemistry compared to chlorinated chemistry. Brominated and chlorinated SiC CVD also show very similar gas phase chemistries in thermochemical modelling. This study thus argues that brominated chemistry is a strong alternative for SiC CVD since the deposition rate can be increased with preserved material quality. The thermochemical modelling also suggest that the currently used chemical mechanism for halogenated SiC CVD might need to be revised.

National Category
Chemical Sciences Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111075 (URN)10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b00074 (DOI)000349934500016 ()
Available from: 2014-10-07 Created: 2014-10-07 Last updated: 2018-06-19Bibliographically approved
Li, X., Bergsten, J., Nilsson, D., Danielsson, Ö., Pedersen, H., Rorsman, N., . . . Forsberg, U. (2015). Carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane for high electron mobility transistor applications: Growth and device results. Applied Physics Letters, 107(26), 262105
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane for high electron mobility transistor applications: Growth and device results
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 107, no 26, p. 262105-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The creation of a semi insulating (SI) buffer layer in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) devices is crucial for preventing a current path beneath the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this investigation, we evaluate the use of a gaseous carbon gas precursor, propane, for creating a SI GaN buffer layer in a HEMT structure. The carbon doped profile, using propane gas, is a two stepped profile with a high carbon doping (1.5 x 10(18) cm(-3)) epitaxial layer closest to the substrate and a lower doped layer (3 x 10(16) cm(-3)) closest to the 2DEG channel. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurement shows a uniform incorporation versus depth, and no memory effect from carbon doping can be seen. The high carbon doping (1.5 x 10(18) cm(-3)) does not influence the surface morphology, and a roughness root-mean-square value of 0.43 nm is obtained from Atomic Force Microscopy. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements show very sharp peaks and no structural degradation can be seen related to the heavy carbon doped layer. HEMTs are fabricated and show an extremely low drain induced barrier lowering value of 0.1 mV/V, demonstrating an excellent buffer isolation. The carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane gas is compared to samples using carbon from the trimethylgallium molecule, showing equally low leakage currents, demonstrating the capability of growing highly resistive buffer layers using a gaseous carbon source. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER INST PHYSICS, 2015
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125161 (URN)10.1063/1.4937575 (DOI)000368442300020 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Defense Materiel Administration (FMV); Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF)

Available from: 2016-02-15 Created: 2016-02-15 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Li, X., Bergsten, J., Nilsson, D., Danielsson, Ö., Pedersen, H., Rorsman, N., . . . Forsberg, U. (2015). Intentionally carbon doped GaN buffer layer for HEMT application: growth and device results.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intentionally carbon doped GaN buffer layer for HEMT application: growth and device results
Show others...
2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The creation of a semi-insulating (SI) buffer layer in AlGaN/GaN HEMT devices is crucial for preventing a current path beneath the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Here we evaluate the use of a carbon precursor, propane, for creating a SI GaN buffer layer. The carbon doping profile obtained from SIMS measurement shows a very uniform incorporation versus depth and no significant memory effect from carbon doping is seen, allowing for the creation of a very abrupt profile. The high carbon doping (1.5×1018 cm-3) does not influence the surface morphology. HRXRD ω rocking curve showed a FWHM of 200 arcsec of the (0002) and 261 arcsec for (10-12) reflection of the GaN, respectively. HEMT devices were processed on the epitaxial layers. An extremely low drain induced barrier lowering value of 0.1 mV/V was measured for a HEMT with a gate length of 0.2 𝜇m. This demonstrates the capability of growing a highly resistive buffer layer using intentional carbon doping.

National Category
Physical Sciences Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118112 (URN)
Available from: 2015-05-22 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
Li, X., Danielsson, Ö., Pedersen, H., Janzén, E. & Forsberg, U. (2015). Precursors for carbon doping of GaN in chemical vapor deposition. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, 33(2), 021208
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Precursors for carbon doping of GaN in chemical vapor deposition
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, ISSN 1071-1023, E-ISSN 1520-8567, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 021208-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), acetylene (C2H2), propane (C3H8), iso-butane (i-C4H10), and trimethylamine [N(CH3)(3)] have been investigated as precursors for intentional carbon doping of (0001) GaN in chemical vapor deposition. The carbon precursors were studied by comparing the efficiency of carbon incorporation in GaN together with their influence on morphology and structural quality of carbon doped GaN. The unsaturated hydrocarbons C2H4 and C2H2 were found to be more suitable for carbon doping than the saturated ones, with higher carbon incorporation efficiency and a reduced effect on the quality of the GaN epitaxial layers. The results indicate that the C2H2 molecule as a direct precursor, or formed by the gas phase chemistry, is a key species for carbon doping without degrading the GaN quality; however, the CH3 species should be avoided in the carbon doping chemistry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2015
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117385 (URN)10.1116/1.4914316 (DOI)000351751100024 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF); Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV)

Available from: 2015-04-24 Created: 2015-04-24 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Booker, I. D., Ul Hassan, J., Lilja, L., Beyer, F., Karhu, R., Bergman, J. P., . . . Janzén, E. (2014). Carrier Lifetime Controlling Defects Z(1/2) and RB1 in Standard and Chlorinated Chemistry Grown 4H-SiC. Crystal Growth & Design, 14(8), 4104-4110
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carrier Lifetime Controlling Defects Z(1/2) and RB1 in Standard and Chlorinated Chemistry Grown 4H-SiC
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 4104-4110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

4H-SiC epilayers grown by standard and chlorinated chemistry were analyzed for their minority carrier lifetime and deep level recombination centers using time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and standard deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Next to the well-known Z(1/2) deep level a second effective lifetime killer, RB1 (activation energy 1.05 eV, electron capture cross section 2 x 10(-16) cm(2), suggested hole capture cross section (5 +/- 2) x 10(-15) cm(2)), is detected in chloride chemistry grown epilayers. Junction-DLTS and bulk recombination simulations are used to confirm the lifetime killing properties of this level. The measured RB1 concentration appears to be a function of the iron-related Fe1 level concentration, which is unintentionally introduced via the corrosion of reactor steel parts by the chlorinated chemistry. Reactor design and the growth zone temperature profile are thought to enable the formation of RB1 in the presence of iron contamination under conditions otherwise optimal for growth of material with very low Z(1/2) concentrations. The RB1 defect is either an intrinsic defect similar to RD1/2 or EH5 or a complex involving iron. Control of these corrosion issues allows the growth of material at a high growth rate and with high minority carrier lifetime based on Z(1/2) as the only bulk recombination center.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2014
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110278 (URN)10.1021/cg5007154 (DOI)000340080400049 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|The Swedish Energy Agency; Swedish Research Council (VR); Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF); LG Innotek

Available from: 2014-09-05 Created: 2014-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Yazdanfar, M., Danielsson, Ö., Kordina, O., Janzén, E. & Pedersen, H. (2014). Finding the Optimum Chloride-Based Chemistry for Chemical Vapor Deposition of SiC. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 3(10), P320-P323
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finding the Optimum Chloride-Based Chemistry for Chemical Vapor Deposition of SiC
Show others...
2014 (English)In: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, E-ISSN 2162-8777, Vol. 3, no 10, p. P320-P323Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide with a chloride-based chemistry can be done using several different silicon and carbon precursors. Here, we present a comparative study of SiCl4, SiHCl3, SiH4+HCl, C3H8, C2H4 and CH4 in an attempt to find the optimal precursor combination. We find that while the chlorinated silanes SiCl4 and especially SiHCl3 give higher growth rate than natural silane and HCl, SiH4+HCl gives better morphology at C/Si around 1 and SiCl4 gives the best morphology at low C/Si. Our study shows no effect on doping incorporation with precursor chemistry. We suggest that these results can be explained by the number of reaction steps in the gas phase chemical reaction mechanisms for producing SiCl2, which is the most important Si species, and by formation of organosilicons in the gas phase. As carbon precursor, C3H8 or C2H4 are more or less equal in performance with a slight advantage for C3H8, CH4 is however not a carbon precursor that should be used unless extraordinary growth conditions are needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ECS, 2014
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111074 (URN)10.1149/2.0111410jss (DOI)000341962100011 ()
Available from: 2014-10-07 Created: 2014-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8116-9980

Search in DiVA

Show all publications