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Vasiliauskas, Remigijus
Publications (10 of 24) Show all publications
Mammadov, S., Ristein, J., Koch, R. J., Ostler, M., Raidel, C., Wanke, M., . . . Seyller, T. (2014). Polarization doping of graphene on silicon carbide. 2D MATERIALS, 1(3), 035003
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polarization doping of graphene on silicon carbide
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2014 (English)In: 2D MATERIALS, ISSN 2053-1583, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 035003-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The doping of quasi-freestanding graphene (QFG) on H-terminated, Si-face 6H-, 4H-, and 3C-SiC is studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy close to the Dirac point. Using semi-insulating as well as n-type doped substrates we shed light on the contributions to the charge carrier density in QFG caused by (i) the spontaneous polarization of the substrate, and (ii) the band alignment between the substrate and the graphene layer. In this way we provide quantitative support for the previously suggested model of polarization doping of graphene on SiC (Ristein et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 246104).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP Publishing: Hybrid Open Access, 2014
Keywords
graphene; silicon carbide; polytype; doping; XPS; ARPES
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119276 (URN)10.1088/2053-1583/1/3/035003 (DOI)000354986900010 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|European Union [604391]; DFG within the Collaborative Research Centre [SFB 953]; DFG [SPP 1459, SE 1087/10-1]; European Science Foundation under the EUROCORES Programme EuroGraphene [SE 1087/9-1]

Available from: 2015-06-12 Created: 2015-06-12 Last updated: 2015-06-12
Vasiliauskas, R., Marinova, M., Syväjärvi, M., Polychroniadis, E. K. & Yakimova, R. (2014). Polytype transformation and structural characteristics of 3C-SiC on 6H-SiC substrates. Journal of Crystal Growth, 395, 109-115
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polytype transformation and structural characteristics of 3C-SiC on 6H-SiC substrates
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 395, p. 109-115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The 3C-SiC (111) was grown on on-axis 6H-SiC substrates in a temperature interval ranging from 1675oC where 3C-SiC nucleated, to 1825oC where coverage of the substrate by 3C-SiC was  nearly  100%.  The  6H-  to  3C-SiC  transformation  was  not  abrupt  and  two  different transitions could be observed. The first one occurs before or during 3C-SiC nucleation and consists  of 6H-,  3C-, 15R-SiC  and other  unresolved  stacking  sequences.  The second  one appears due to 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC competition  during the growth and results in non flat needle-like interface. A proposed model elucidates connection between four-fold twins nucleating at the 6H-/3C-SiC interface and the formation of depressions at the surface of the 3C-SiC layer.

Keywords
Nucleation; Characterization; Crystal structure; Vapor phase cpitaxy; Cubic silicon carbide
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76364 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2014.03.021 (DOI)000335906000019 ()
Available from: 2012-04-05 Created: 2012-04-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Yazdi, G., Vasiliauskas, R., Iakimov, T., Zakharov, A., Syväjärvi, M. & Yakimova, R. (2013). Growth of large area monolayer graphene on 3C-SiC and a comparison with other SiC polytypes. Carbon, 57, 477-484
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth of large area monolayer graphene on 3C-SiC and a comparison with other SiC polytypes
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2013 (English)In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 57, p. 477-484Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Epitaxial graphene growth was performed on the Si-terminated face of 4H-, 6H-, and 3C-SiC substrates by silicon sublimation from SiC in argon atmosphere at a temperature of 2000 degrees C. Graphene surface morphology, thickness and band structure have been assessed by using atomic force microscopy, low-energy electron microscopy, and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, respectively. Differences in the morphology of the graphene layers on different SiC polytypes is related mainly to the minimization of the terrace surface energy during the step bunching process. The uniformity of silicon sublimation is a decisive factor for obtaining large area homogenous graphene. It is also shown that a lower substrate surface roughness results in more uniform step bunching with a lower distribution of step heights and consequently better quality of the grown graphene. Large homogeneous areas of graphene monolayers (over 50 x 50 mu m(2)) have been grown on 3C-SiC (1 1 1) substrates. The comparison with the other polytypes suggests a similarity in the surface behaviour of 3C- and 6H-SiC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-94597 (URN)10.1016/j.carbon.2013.02.022 (DOI)000319030000055 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|FP7 EU project Concept Graphene and the Swedish Research Council (VR)|2011-44472010-3511 Grafic ESF|

Available from: 2013-06-27 Created: 2013-06-27 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Darakchieva, V., Boosalis, A., Zakharov, A. A., Hofmann, T., Schubert, M., Tiwald, T. E., . . . Yakimova, R. (2013). Large-area microfocal spectroscopic ellipsometry mapping of thickness and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on Si- and C-face of 3C-SiC(111). Applied Physics Letters, 102(21), 213116
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-area microfocal spectroscopic ellipsometry mapping of thickness and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on Si- and C-face of 3C-SiC(111)
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2013 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 21, p. 213116-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Microfocal spectroscopic ellipsometry mapping of the electronic properties and thickness of epitaxial graphene grown by high-temperature sublimation on 3C-SiC (111) substrates is reported. Growth of one monolayer graphene is demonstrated on both Si- and C-polarity of the 3C-SiC substrates and it is shown that large area homogeneous single monolayer graphene can be achieved on the Si-face substrates. Correlations between the number of graphene monolayers on one hand and the main transition associated with an exciton enhanced van Hove singularity at ∼4.5 eV and the free-charge carrier scattering time, on the other are established. It is shown that the interface structure on the Si- and C-polarity of the 3C-SiC(111) differs and has a determining role for the thickness and electronic properties homogeneity of the epitaxial graphene.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2013
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96134 (URN)10.1063/1.4808379 (DOI)000320620400073 ()
Available from: 2013-08-14 Created: 2013-08-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Vasiliauskas, R., Malinovskis, P., Mekys, A., Syväjärvi, M., Storasta, J. & Yakimova, R. (2013). Polytype Inclusions in Cubic Silicon Carbide. In: Alexander A. Lebedev, Sergey Yu. Davydov, Pavel A. Ivanov and Mikhail E. Levinshtein (Ed.), Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2012: . Paper presented at 9th European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ECSCRM 2012), 2-6 September 2012, St. Petersburg, Russia (pp. 335-338). Trans Tech Publications, 740-742
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polytype Inclusions in Cubic Silicon Carbide
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2013 (English)In: Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2012 / [ed] Alexander A. Lebedev, Sergey Yu. Davydov, Pavel A. Ivanov and Mikhail E. Levinshtein, Trans Tech Publications , 2013, Vol. 740-742, p. 335-338Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we review our research on 6H-SiC polytype inclusions in 3C-SiC layers, which were grown on nominally on-axis 6H-SiC substrates using sublimation epitaxy. More than 90% coverage by 3C-SiC is typically achieved at growth temperature of 1775 degrees C. The main reason for the polytype inclusions to appear is local supersaturation non-uniformities over the sample surface which appear due to the temperature gradient and spiral growth nature of 6H-SiC. On the 6H-SiC spirals with small steps supersaturation is smaller and 3C-SiC nucleation and growth is diminished. Due to surface free energy and surface diffusion differences, polytype inclusions appear differently when 3C-SiC is grown on the Si- and C-faces. The 6H-SiC inclusions as well as twin boundaries act as neutral scattering centers and lower charge carrier mobility

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications, 2013
Series
Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476 ; 740-742
Keywords
3C-SiC; polytype inclusions; supersaturation; charge carrier mobility
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96513 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.740-742.335 (DOI)000319785500079 ()978-3-03785-624-6 (ISBN)
Conference
9th European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ECSCRM 2012), 2-6 September 2012, St. Petersburg, Russia
Available from: 2013-08-21 Created: 2013-08-20 Last updated: 2013-08-29Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, J., Puglisi, D., Vasiliauskas, R., Lloyd Spetz, A. & Yakimova, R. (2013). Thickness uniformity and electron doping in epitaxial graphene on SiC. Paper presented at 9th European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ECSCRM 2012). Materials Science Forum, 740-742, 153-156
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thickness uniformity and electron doping in epitaxial graphene on SiC
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2013 (English)In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 740-742, p. 153-156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Large variations have been observed in the thickness uniformity and carrier concentration of epitaxial graphene grown on SiC by sublimation for samples grown under identical conditions and on nominally on-axis hexagonal SiC (0001) substrates. We have previously shown that these issues are both related to the morphology of the graphene-SiC surface after sublimation growth. Here we present a study on how the substrate polytype, substrate surface morphology and surface restructuring during sublimation growth affect the uniformity and carrier concentration in epitaxial graphene on SiC. These issues were investigated employing surface morphology mapping by atomic force microscopy coupled with local surface potential mapping using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications, 2013
Keywords
epitaxial graphene on SiC; thickness uniformity; unintentional doping; scanning Kelvin probe microscopy
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96504 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.740-742.153 (DOI)000319785500037 ()
Conference
9th European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ECSCRM 2012)
Available from: 2013-08-23 Created: 2013-08-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Vasiliauskas, R., Juillaguer, S., Syväjärvi, M. & Yakimova, R. (2012). Cubic SiC formation on the C-face of 6H-SiC (0001) substrates. Journal of Crystal Growth, 348(1), 91-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cubic SiC formation on the C-face of 6H-SiC (0001) substrates
2012 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 348, no 1, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nucleation and subsequent growth of cubic SiC (111) on Si- and C-faces of nominally on-axis 6H-SiC substrates was investigated.  More uniform nuclei and twin boundary distribution was observed when 3C-SiC was grown on the C-face. This was attributed to a lower critical supersaturation ratio. A new type of defects which appear as pits in the C-face 3C-SiC layers related to homoepitaxial  6H-SiC  spiral growth was found and described.  The evaluation  of the growth driving force for both polar faces showed that the homoepitaxial 6H-SiC spirals were not overgrown on the C-face  due to low maximum  supersaturation  ratio. The XRD ω-rocking  characterization shows a better structural quality of the 3C-SiC was grown on the Si-face, however on the C-face the uniformity over the whole sample was higher. Unintentional doping by N (~1016  cm-3) was slightly higher on the C-face while Al doping was higher (~1014  cm-3) on the Si-face of the grown material, similarly to the doping of hexagonal SiC polytypes.

Keywords
A1. Nucleation, A1. Characterization, A1. Polar surfaces A3. Vapor phase epitaxy, B1. Cubic Silicon Carbide.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76363 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2012.03.053 (DOI)000303937900017 ()
Note
funding agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR)| 2008-5753 |Angpanneforeningens Forskningsstiftelse||Ericssons Research Foundation||Available from: 2012-04-05 Created: 2012-04-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Vasiliauskas, R., Mekys, A., Malinovskis, P., Juillaguer, S., Syväjärvi, M., Storasta, J. & Yakimova, R. (2012). Impact of extended defects on Hall and magnetoresistivity effects in cubic silicon carbide. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 45(22), 225102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of extended defects on Hall and magnetoresistivity effects in cubic silicon carbide
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 45, no 22, p. 225102-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

From magnetoresistivity effect measurements the carrier mobility at room- temperature is 200 cm2/Vs in heteroepitaxially grown 3C-SiC on 6H-SiC by sublimation epitaxy. The main scattering mechanisms are found to be scattering by neutral impurities at low temperature and by phonons at higher temperature. The carrier concentration is in the range of 1016  cm-3, which corresponds to the concentration of residual doping by nitrogen acquired  from  photoluminescence  measurements.  Using  magnetoresistance  and  Hall mobility data we have created a simple model which quantifies the volume of the samples influenced by extended defects. A higher doping near extended defects is either not present in the samples or might be screened by the electrostatic field created by these defects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2012
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76365 (URN)10.1088/0022-3727/45/22/225102 (DOI)000305175100004 ()
Available from: 2012-04-05 Created: 2012-04-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Vasiliauskas, R., Mekys, A., Malinovskis, P., Syväjärvi, M., Storasta, J. & Yakimova, R. (2012). Influence of twin boundary orientation on magnetoresistivity effect in free standing 3C–SiC. Materials letters (General ed.), 74, 203-205
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of twin boundary orientation on magnetoresistivity effect in free standing 3C–SiC
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2012 (English)In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 74, p. 203-205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Free standing 3C–SiC (111) samples with differently oriented twin boundaries were prepared using on-axis and slightly off-axis 6H–SiC substrates. The orientation of twin boundaries causes either an enhancement or suppression of the magnetoresistance mobility. The origin of carrier mobility difference is attributed to the specific structure of these defects. The height of the barriers created by twin boundaries was found to be 0.2 eV.

Keywords
Magnetoresistance, Carrier mobility, Twin boundaries, 3C–SiC
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76368 (URN)10.1016/j.matlet.2012.01.120 (DOI)000302763200058 ()
Note
funding agencies|Swedish Research Council| 1220100821 |Swedish Energy Agency||Available from: 2012-04-05 Created: 2012-04-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Vasiliauskas, R., Marinova, M., Hens, P., Wellmann, P., Syväjärvi, M. & Yakimova, R. (2012). Nucleation Control of Cubic Silicon Carbide on 6H- Substrates. Crystal Growth & Design, 12(1), 197-204
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nucleation Control of Cubic Silicon Carbide on 6H- Substrates
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2012 (English)In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 197-204Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The nucleation of cubic (3C) SiC on on-axis 6H-SiC was investigated in the temperature range 1500–1775 °C by the technique of sublimation epitaxy. We have studied two different cases: (i) the initial homoepitaxial growth of 6H-SiC followed by nucleation of 3C-SiC and (ii) nucleation of homoepitaxial 6H-SiC islands. The supersaturation in the growth cell was calculated using the modeled source to substrate temperature difference. We show that, at low temperature and supersaturation, growth of 6H-SiC commences in spiral growth mode, which prepares the surface for 3C-SiC nucleation. Provided the supersaturation is high enough, the 3C-SiC nucleates as two-dimensional islands on terraces of the homoepitaxial 6H-SiC. Detailed structural study indicates that the 3C-SiC began to grow on defect free surfaces. From the experimental and modeling results, we show that the growth parameter window for 3C-SiC is rather narrow. Deviation from it can result in 6H-SiC growth in spiral or 2D-nucleation mode, which suggests the importance of knowledge of supersaturation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2012
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73583 (URN)10.1021/cg200929r (DOI)000298726300030 ()
Note
Funding agencies|Swedish Research Council| 1220100821 |Research and Training Network - MANSiC| 035735 |Angpanneforeningen Research Foundation||Swedish Energy Agency||Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)| 03SF0393 |Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2012-01-09 Last updated: 2017-12-08
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