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West, Janne
Publications (10 of 27) Show all publications
Borga, M., West, J., Bell, J., Harvey, N., Romu, T., Heymsfield, S. & Dahlqvist Leinhard, O. (2018). Advanced body composition assessment: From body mass index to body composition profiling. Journal of Investigative Medicine, 66, 887-895
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advanced body composition assessment: From body mass index to body composition profiling
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Investigative Medicine, ISSN 1081-5589, E-ISSN 1708-8267, Vol. 66, p. 887-895Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper gives a brief overview of common non-invasive techniques for body composition analysis and a more in-depth review of a body composition assessment method based on fat-referenced quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Earlier published studies of this method are summarized, and a previously un-published validation study, based on 4.753 subjects from the UK Biobank imaging cohort, comparing the quantitative MRI method with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is presented. For whole-body measurements of adipose tissue (AT) or fat and lean tissue (LT), DXA and quantitative MRI show excellent agreement with linear correlation of 0.99 and 0.97, and coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.5 % and 4.6 % for fat (computed from AT) and lean tissue respectively, but the agreement was found significantly lower for visceral adipose tissue, with a CV of more than 20 %. The additional ability of MRI to also measure muscle volumes, muscle AT infiltration and ectopic fat in combination with rapid scanning protocols and efficient image analysis tools make quantitative MRI a powerful tool for advanced body composition assessment. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2018
Keywords
Body-composition-analysis, MRI, UK Biobank
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Medical Image Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145624 (URN)10.1136/jim-2018-00072 (DOI)000435456400001 ()29581385 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-08 Created: 2018-03-08 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
West, J., Dahlqvist Leinhard, O., Romu, T., Thomas, E. L., Borga, M. & Bell, J. (2016). Body Composition Analysis In Large Scale Population Studies using Dixon Water-Fat Separated Imaging. In: : . Paper presented at International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Singapore, May 7-13, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body Composition Analysis In Large Scale Population Studies using Dixon Water-Fat Separated Imaging
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Water-fat separated MRI, based on Dixon imaging techniques enables high soft-tissue contrast and the separation of fat and muscle compartments. This study investigate the feasibility and success-rate of one recently described method for MR data-acquisition and body composition analysis, in a large-scale population study. The first 1,000 subjects in the UK Biobank imaging cohort were scanned, quality assured and included for body composition analysis. Volumes of visceral adipose tissue, abdominal subcutaneous tissue, and thigh muscles were calculated. This study showed that the rapid MR-examination was sufficiently robust to achieve very high success-rate for body composition analysis. 

National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Medical Image Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128987 (URN)
Conference
International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Singapore, May 7-13, 2016
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
Romu, T., West, J., Spetz, A.-C., Lindblom, H., Lindh Åstrand, L., Hammar, M., . . . Dahlqvist Leinhard, O. (2016). The effect of flip-angle on body composition using calibrated water-fat MRI.. In: : . Paper presented at International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Singapore, May 7-13, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of flip-angle on body composition using calibrated water-fat MRI.
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study tested how the flip angle affects body composition analysis by MRI, if adipose tissue is used as an internal intensity reference. Whole-body water-fat images with flip angle 5° and 10° were collected from 29 women in an ongoing study. The images were calibrated based on the adipose tissue signal and whole-body total adipose, lean and soft tissue volumes were measured. A mean difference of 0.29 L, or 0.90 % of the average volume, and a coefficient of variation of 0.40 % was observed for adipose tissue.

National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Medical Image Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128989 (URN)
Conference
International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Singapore, May 7-13, 2016
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
West, J., Romu, T., Spetz, A.-C., Lindblom, H., Lindh Åstrand, L., Borga, M., . . . Dahlqvist Leinhard, O. (2015). Automatic combined whole-body muscle and fat volume quantification using water-fat separated MRI in postmenopausal women. In: International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting: Proceedings. Paper presented at 23rd International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 30 - June 5, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automatic combined whole-body muscle and fat volume quantification using water-fat separated MRI in postmenopausal women
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2015 (English)In: International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting: Proceedings, 2015Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Quantitative and exact measurements of fat and muscle in the body are important when addressing some of the greatest health-challenges today. In this study whole-body combined regional muscle and fat volume quantification was validated in a group of postmenopausal women, where the body composition is changing. Twelve subjects were scanned with a 4-echo 3D gradient-echo sequence. Water and fat image volumes were calculated using IDEAL, and image intensity correction was performed. Subsequently, automatic tissue segmentation was established using non-rigid morphon based registration. Whole-body regional fat and muscle segmentation could be performed with excellent test-retest reliability, in a single 7-minutes MR-scan.

National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Medical Image Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128992 (URN)
Conference
23rd International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 30 - June 5, 2015
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
West, J., Aalto, A., Tisell, A., Dahlqvist Leinhard, O., Landtblom, A.-M., Smedby, Ö. & Lundberg, P. (2014). Normal Appearing and Diffusely Abnormal White Matter in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis, Assessed with Quantitative MR: Optimization for clinical usage. PLoS ONE, 9(4), e95161
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Normal Appearing and Diffusely Abnormal White Matter in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis, Assessed with Quantitative MR: Optimization for clinical usage
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2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 4, p. e95161-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a sensitive technique for detecting white matter (WM) MS lesions, but the relation with clinical disability is low. Because of this, changes in both ‘normal appearing white matter’ (NAWM) and ‘diffusely abnormal white matter’ (DAWM) have been of interest in recent years. MR techniques, including quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) and quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (qMRS), have been developed in order to detect and  quantify such changes.

In this study, a combination of qMRI and qMRS was used to investigate NAWM and DAWM in typical MS patients and in MS patients with low number of WM lesions. Patient data were compared to ‘normal white matter’ (NWM) in healthy controls.

Methods: QMRI and qMRS measurements were performed on a 1.5T Philips MR-scanner. 35 patients with clinically definite MS and 20 healthy controls were included. Fifteen of the patients showed few WM lesions (‘MRIneg‘) and 20 showed radiologically typical findings (‘MRIpos’). QMRI properties were determined in ROIs of NAWM, DAWM and WM lesions in the MS groups and of NWM in controls. Descriptive statistical analysis and comparisons were performed. Correlations were calculated between qMRI measurements and (1) clinical parameters and (2) WM metabolite concentrations. Regression analyses were performed with brain parenchyma fraction and MSSS.

Results: NAWM in the MRIneg group was significantly different from NAWM in the MRIpos group and NWM. In addition, R1 and R2 of NAWM in the MRIpos group correlated negatively with EDSS and MSSS. DAWM was significantly different from NWM, but similar in the two MS groups. N-acetyl aspartate correlated negatively with R1 and R2 in MRIneg. Finally, R2 of DAWM was associated with BPF.

Conclusions: Changes in NAWM and DAWM are independent pathological entities in the disease. Combined qMRI and qMRS measurements of NAWM and DAWM provide important markers for disease status.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2014
Keywords
Multiple Sclerosis, Quantitative MRI, Quantitative MRS, QMRI, MRS
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103041 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0095161 (DOI)000335226500062 ()
Available from: 2014-01-10 Created: 2014-01-10 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
West, J. (2014). Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain: Applications for Tissue Segmentation and Multiple Sclerosis. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain: Applications for Tissue Segmentation and Multiple Sclerosis
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive technique for assessing white matter (WM) lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is a low correlation between MRI findings and clinical disability. Because of this, other pathological changes are of interest, including changes in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and diffusely abnormal white matter (DAWM). Even so, the mechanisms leading to permanent disability in MS remain unclear.

In contrast to conventional MRI, quantitative MRI (qMRI) is aimed at the direct measurement of the physical tissue properties, such as the relaxation times, T1 and T2, as well as the proton density (PD). QMRI is promising for characterising and quantifying changes in MS and for brain tissue segmentation.

The present work describes a novel method of qMRI for the human brain (QMAP), and a segmentation method based on this. The developed methods were validated in control subjects and MR phantoms. Furthermore, an application in diseased human brain was demonstrated in MS patients. In all, 50 healthy controls and 35 MS patients were scanned with qMRI in a total of 225 acquisitions.

One major finding of this work was that qMRI was able to detect and quantify changes in the MS disease that were not visible using conventional MRI. In particular, it was found that DAWM appears to constitute an intermediate between focal white matter (WM) lesions and NAWM. These changes may be caused by pathological processes that are not entirely attributable to Wallerian degeneration.

This study showed that the QMAP method had high accuracy and relatively high precision, within a clinically acceptable time. This work also demonstrated that qMRI could be used for brain tissue segmentation and volume estimation of the whole brain, using pre-defined tissue characteristics. The results showed that brain tissue segmentation had high repeatability, which was somewhat lower when different geometries were acquired or different field strengths used. In particular, small differences were found between 1.5 T and 3.0 T in deep brain structures, the cerebellum and the brain stem.

This work leads the way for early clinical applications of qMRI, and the challenge for the years to come is to understand the connection between qMRI properties of the brain and underlying biology.

Abstract [sv]

Bildtagning med magnetresonanstomografi (MRT) är en teknik som kan användas för att upptäcka lesioner i vit substans hos patienter med multipel skleros (MS), men sambandet mellan lesioner och klinisk funktionsnedsättning är svagt. På grund av detta har intresset för andra patologiska processer i hjärnan ökat. Exempel är förändringar i vit substans som ser normal ut vid MRT (NAWM) och även så kallad diffus vit vävnad (DAWM). Det är emellertid fortfarande oklart vilka mekanismer i MS som leder till klinisk funktionsnedsättning.

Med kvantitativ MRT (qMRT) kan fysiologiska egenskaper i vävnaden, som till exempel relaxationstiderna (T1 och T2) samt protontäthet (PD), mätas. QMRT kan användas för att mäta förändringar i hjärnan hos MS patienter och dessutom för segmentering av hjärnvävnad vid neurodegenerativa sjukdomar.

I detta arbete beskrivs en ny metod för qMRT applicerat på den mänskliga hjärnan (QMAP) och en segmenteringsmetod som baserades på denna. Metoderna validerades både i friska kontroller och i MR fantom. Slutligen användes qMRT för att undersöka hjärnan hos MS patienter. I studierna inkluderades 50 friska kontroller och 35 MS patienter, där totalt 225 bildtagningar med QMAP utfördes.

Ett viktigt resultat var att qMRT kunde användas för att upptäcka och mäta förändringar i hjärnan hos MS patienter som inte var synliga vid konventionell MRT. DAWM utgjorde en intermediär mellan NAWM och lesioner i vit vävnad. Resultaten pekade mot att dessa förändringar inte endast orsakades av Wallerisk degeneration.

QMAP metoden hade hög noggrannhet och relativt hög precision samt kunde användas med en kliniskt relevant tid för bildtagningen. Genom att använda förhandsdefinierade vävnadsegenskaper kunde qMRT tekniken även användas för segmentering av hjärnvävnad och för att beräkna volymer. Segmenteringen hade hög repeterbarhet men den minskade något när olika geometrier eller fältstyrkor användes. Små skillnader mellan 1.5 T och 3.0 T detekterades framför allt i djupa hjärnstrukturer, lillhjärnan och hjärnstammen.

I detta arbete demonstrerades två applikationer av qMRT för hjärnan. Den största utmaningen för kommande år blir att förstå och förklara sambanden mellan qMRT och underliggande biologiska egenskaper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. p. 101
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1384
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103043 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-103043 (DOI)978-91-7519-472-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-02-14, Eken, ingång 65 (HU) plan 9, Campus US, Linkööpings universitet, Linköping, 13:02 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-01-10 Created: 2014-01-10 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
West, J., Blystad, I., Engström, M., Warntjes, M. J. & Lundberg, P. (2013). Application of Quantitative MRI for Brain Tissue Segmentation at 1.5 T and 3.0 T Field Strengths. PLoS ONE, 8(9)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of Quantitative MRI for Brain Tissue Segmentation at 1.5 T and 3.0 T Field Strengths
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2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Brain tissue segmentation of white matter (WM), grey matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are important in neuroradiological applications. Quantitative Mri (qMRI) allows segmentation based on physical tissue properties, and the dependencies on MR scanner settings are removed. Brain tissue groups into clusters in the three dimensional space formed by the qMRI parameters R1, R2 and PD, and partial volume voxels are intermediate in this space. The qMRI parameters, however, depend on the main magnetic field strength. Therefore, longitudinal studies can be seriously limited by system upgrades. The aim of this work was to apply one recently described brain tissue segmentation method, based on qMRI, at both 1.5 T and 3.0 T field strengths, and to investigate similarities and differences.

Methods

In vivo qMRI measurements were performed on 10 healthy subjects using both 1.5 T and 3.0 T MR scanners. The brain tissue segmentation method was applied for both 1.5 T and 3.0 T and volumes of WM, GM, CSF and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) were calculated on both field strengths. Repeatability was calculated for each scanner and a General Linear Model was used to examine the effect of field strength. Voxel-wise t-tests were also performed to evaluate regional differences.

Results

Statistically significant differences were found between 1.5 T and 3.0 T for WM, GM, CSF and BPF (p<0.001). Analyses of main effects showed that WM was underestimated, while GM and CSF were overestimated on 1.5 T compared to 3.0 T. The mean differences between 1.5 T and 3.0 T were -66 mL WM, 40 mL GM, 29 mL CSF and -1.99% BPF. Voxel-wise t-tests revealed regional differences of WM and GM in deep brain structures, cerebellum and brain stem.

Conclusions

Most of the brain was identically classified at the two field strengths, although some regional differences were observed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
United States: Public Library of Science, 2013
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97960 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0074795 (DOI)000324494000135 ()
Available from: 2013-09-23 Created: 2013-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-06
West, J., Blystad, I., Engström, M., Warntjes, M. J. & Lundberg, P. (2013). On fully automated whole-brain tissue segementation at 1.5 T and 3 T based on quantitative MRI.. In: : . Paper presented at International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM-MS 2013), London, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On fully automated whole-brain tissue segementation at 1.5 T and 3 T based on quantitative MRI.
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2013 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114874 (URN)
Conference
International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM-MS 2013), London, UK
Available from: 2015-03-05 Created: 2015-03-05 Last updated: 2017-11-16
West, J., Blystad, I., Engström, M., Warntjes, M. J. & Lundberg, P. (2013). QMRI of normal appearing white matter in MS patients with normal MR imaging brain scans. In: : . Paper presented at European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Biology (ESMRMB 2013), Toulouse, France.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>QMRI of normal appearing white matter in MS patients with normal MR imaging brain scans
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2013 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114870 (URN)
Conference
European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Biology (ESMRMB 2013), Toulouse, France
Available from: 2015-03-05 Created: 2015-03-05 Last updated: 2016-02-19
West, J., Aalto, A., Warntjes, M., Dahlqvist Leinhard, O., Landtblom, A.-M., Smedby, Ö. & Lundberg, P. (2012). Characterizing Normal Appearing White and Diseased Matter in Multiple Sclerosis Using Quantitative MRI. Paper presented at ISMRM 20th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 5-11 May, 2012, Melbourne, Australia.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterizing Normal Appearing White and Diseased Matter in Multiple Sclerosis Using Quantitative MRI
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2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90367 (URN)
Conference
ISMRM 20th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 5-11 May, 2012, Melbourne, Australia
Available from: 2013-03-25 Created: 2013-03-25 Last updated: 2019-06-14
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