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Persson, A. & Sundevall, F. (2019). Conscripting Women: Gender, Soldiering, and Military Service in Sweden 1965–2018. Women's History Review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conscripting Women: Gender, Soldiering, and Military Service in Sweden 1965–2018
2019 (English)In: Women's History Review, ISSN 0961-2025, E-ISSN 1747-583XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This article explores how women, men, and gender equality in the military have been debated, made sense of, regulated, and dealt with in Swedish contemporary history. It takes its empirical point of departure in 1965, when the issue of military conscription for women was first raised in Sweden, and ends with the implementation of so called gender-neutral conscription in 2018. The study is based on a wide range of sources, collected through a combination of extensive archival work, ethnographic studies, and interviews. The analysis shows how men have been the standard against which women were measured throughout the period studied. Women service members were simultaneously perceived both as a problem and as a solution to a range of problems in the organisation. Women’s ‘different’ bodies were considered problematic, while staff shortages and demands for specific personnel qualities rendered the ‘woman soldier’ a solution, in particular in relation to international missions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
Conscription, national service, gender equality, military employment, military officers, Swedish Armed Forces, värnplikt, officersyrket, arbetsliv, militärt arbete, jämställdhet, Försvarsmakten
National Category
Work Sciences Gender Studies Economic History History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155777 (URN)10.1080/09612025.2019.1596542 (DOI)000463542400001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-01066NordForsk, 88041
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council [2017-01066]; NordForsk [88041]

Available from: 2019-03-22 Created: 2019-03-26 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
Wijma, B., Persson, A., Ockander, M. & Brüggemann, J. (2019). Kränkningar i vården är vanligt förekommande: Viktigt med aktivt arbete mot att patienter kränks. Läkartidningen, 1-6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kränkningar i vården är vanligt förekommande: Viktigt med aktivt arbete mot att patienter kränks
2019 (Swedish)In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, p. 1-6Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Trots goda intentioner hos vårdpersonal upplever patienter ofta möten i vården som misslyckade. Det kan vara möten där patienten har fått en helt korrekt medicinsk behandling, men av andra anledningar upplever sig kränkt eller överkörd. Ofta lägger vårdgivare inte ens märke till att det sker. Om patienten i efterhand försöker få upprättelse är det heller inte säkert att ett sådant samtal når sitt syfte. Ämnet kränkningar i vården är tabubelagt och känslomässigt laddat. För att ge legitimitet åt insatser att hjälpa personal att motverka kränkningar behövs därför en god kunskapsbas.

Med denna utgångspunkt startades för 20 år sedan ett nytt forskningsfält om kränkningar i vården vid enheten för genus och medicin, Linköpings universitet. I denna artikel redovisar forskargruppen några av sina resultat och lärdomar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Läkartidningen Förlag AB, 2019
National Category
Medical Ethics Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153881 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-16 Created: 2019-01-16 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Brüggemann, J., Persson, A. & Wijma, B. (2019). Understanding and preventing situations of abuse in health care: Navigation work in a Swedish palliative care setting. Social Science and Medicine, 222, 52-58
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding and preventing situations of abuse in health care: Navigation work in a Swedish palliative care setting
2019 (English)In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 222, p. 52-58Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In their everyday work, health professionals find themselves in situations that they perceive to be abusive to patients. Such situations can trigger feelings of shame and guilt, making efforts to address the problem among colleagues a challenge. This article analyzes how health professionals conceptualize abusive situations, and how they develop collective learning and explore preventive strategies. It is based on an interactive research collaboration with a hospice and palliative care clinic in Sweden during 2016–2017. The empirical material consists of group discussions and participant observations collected during interactive drama workshops for all clinic staff. Based on three types of challenges in the material, identified through thematic analysis, we establish the concept of navigation work to show how health professionals prevent or find ways out of challenging and potentially abusive situations. First, the navigation of care landscapes shows how staff navigate the different territories of the home and the ward, reflecting how spatial settings construct the scope of care and what professionals consider to be potentially abusive situations. Second, the negotiation of collective navigations addresses the professionals' shared efforts to protect patients through the use of physical and relational boundaries, or mediating disrupted relationships. Third, the navigation of tensions in care highlights professionals’ strategies in the confined action space between coercing and neglecting patients who oppose necessary care procedures. Theoretically, the concept of navigation work draws upon work on care in practice, and sheds light on the particular kind of work care professionals do, and reflect on doing, in order to navigate the challenges of potentially abusive situations. By providing a perspective and shared vocabulary, the concept may also elicit ways in which this work can be verbalized, shared, and developed in clinical practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Sweden; Abuse in health care; Navigation work; Care practice; Interactive research; Qualitative study; Forum play
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153753 (URN)10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.12.035 (DOI)000459838900006 ()30599436 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059148325 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council [2014-2749]

Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-03-20Bibliographically approved
Persson, A. & Sundevall, F. (2016). Kvinnor och män som lösning och problem: kön, jämställdhet och militärt arbete 1965-2015 (1ed.). In: Klas Kronberg (Ed.), Sömmerskor, tornsvalor och soldater: kvinnors försvarsarbete i Sverige sedan första världskriget (pp. 83-109). Stockholm: Armémuseet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kvinnor och män som lösning och problem: kön, jämställdhet och militärt arbete 1965-2015
2016 (Swedish)In: Sömmerskor, tornsvalor och soldater: kvinnors försvarsarbete i Sverige sedan första världskriget / [ed] Klas Kronberg, Stockholm: Armémuseet , 2016, 1, p. 83-109Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Armémuseet, 2016 Edition: 1
Series
Armémuseums årsbok, ISSN 0349-1048 ; 74
Keywords
Värnplikt, Historia, Genusaspekter, Sverige
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129937 (URN)9789186478490 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-07-01 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2016-08-11Bibliographically approved
Sundevall, F. & Persson, A. (2016). LGBT in the military: Policy development in Sweden 1944–2014. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 13(2), 119-129
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LGBT in the military: Policy development in Sweden 1944–2014
2016 (English)In: Sexuality Research & Social Policy, ISSN 1868-9884, E-ISSN 1553-6610, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 119-129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article contributes to the growing field of research on military LGBT policy development by exploring the case of Sweden, a non-NATO-member nation regarded as one of the most progressive in terms of the inclusion of LGBT personnel. Drawing on extensive archival work, the article shows that the story of LGBT policy development in the Swedish Armed Forces from 1944 to 2014 is one of long periods of status quo and relative silence, interrupted by leaps of rapid change, occasionally followed by the re-appearance of discriminatory policy. The analysis brings out two periods of significant change, 1971–1979 and 2000–2009, here described as turns in LGBT policy. During the first turn, the military medical regulation protocol’s recommendation to exempt gay men from military service was the key issue. During these years, homosexuality was classified as mental illness, but in the military context it was largely framed in terms of security threats, both on a national level (due to the risk of blackmail) and for the individual homosexual (due to the homophobic military environment). In the second turn, the focus was increasingly shifted from the LGBT individual to the structures, targeting the military organization itself. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there was no ban against LGBT people serving in the Swedish Armed Forces, but that ways of understanding and regulating sexual orientation and gender identity have nonetheless shaped the military organization in fundamental ways, and continue to do so.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keywords
LGBT, Policy, Armed forces, Discrimination, Working life, Military service, Sweden
National Category
Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126223 (URN)10.1007/s13178-015-0217-6 (DOI)000374575800003 ()
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, FOA10Amund-007
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research [2012-0934]; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences [FOA10Amund-007, FOA12Amund-010]

Available from: 2016-03-18 Created: 2016-03-18 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Brüggemann, A. J. & Persson, A. (2016). Using forum play to prevent abuse in health care organizations: A qualitative study exploring potentials and limitations for learning. Education for Health, 29(3), 217-222
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using forum play to prevent abuse in health care organizations: A qualitative study exploring potentials and limitations for learning
2016 (English)In: Education for Health, ISSN 1357-6283, E-ISSN 1469-5804, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 217-222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

Abuse in health care organizations is a pressing issue for caregivers. Forum play, a participatory theater model, has been used among health care staff to learn about and work against abuse. This small-scale qualitative study aims to explore how forum play participants experience the potentials and limitations of forum play as an educational model for continued professional learning at a hospital clinic.

METHODS:

Fifteen of 41 members of staff of a Swedish nephrology clinic, primarily nurses, voluntarily participated in either one or two forum play workshops, where they shared experiences and together practiced working against abuse in everyday health care situations. Interviews were conducted after the workshops with 14 of the participants, where they were asked to reflect on their own and others' participation or nonparticipation, and changes in their individual and collective understanding of abuse in health care.

RESULTS:

Before the workshops, the informants were either hesitant or very enthusiastic toward the drama-oriented form of learning. Afterward, they all agreed that forum play was a very effective way of individual as well as collective learning about abuse in health care. However, they saw little effect on their work at the clinic, primarily understood as a consequence of the fact that many of their colleagues did not take part in the workshops.

DISCUSSION:

This study, based on the analysis of forum play efforts at a single hospital clinic, suggests that forum play can be an innovative educational model that creates a space for reflection and learning in health care practices. It might be especially fruitful when a sensitive topic, such as abuse in health care, is the target of change. However, for the effects to reach beyond individual insights and a shared understanding among a small group of participants, strategies to include all members of staff need to be explored.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2016
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136916 (URN)28406106 (PubMedID)
Note

DOI does not work: 10.4103/1357-6283.204215

Available from: 2017-05-01 Created: 2017-05-01 Last updated: 2018-11-15
Tjeder, D., Sundevall, F. & Persson, A. (2014). Gendering Peace, 1850-2000: A framework of analysis (1ed.). In: Anders Ahlbäck & Fia Sundevall (Ed.), Gender, war and peace: Breaking up the borderlines (pp. 40-59). Joensuu: University press of eastern Finland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gendering Peace, 1850-2000: A framework of analysis
2014 (English)In: Gender, war and peace: Breaking up the borderlines / [ed] Anders Ahlbäck & Fia Sundevall, Joensuu: University press of eastern Finland , 2014, 1, p. 40-59Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This article / conference paper lies within the framework of alarger research project concerning the feminization of peace, that is, how peace work was transformed from a masculine arena to one primarily associated with and populated by women. We aim to explain how peace work was feminized, analyse the gendering of peace over time and discuss how the feminization process affected the status of the peace question.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Joensuu: University press of eastern Finland, 2014 Edition: 1
Keywords
Peace work, Gender, Feminization
National Category
History and Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113556 (URN)978-952-5934-60-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-01-22 Created: 2015-01-22 Last updated: 2015-01-28
Persson, A. (2013). Gendered military divisions: doing peacekeeping as part of the postnational defence. Kvinder, Køn og Forskning, 22(2), 30-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gendered military divisions: doing peacekeeping as part of the postnational defence
2013 (English)In: Kvinder, Køn og Forskning, ISSN 0907-6182, E-ISSN 2245-6937, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 30-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Syddansk Universitetsforlag, 2013
National Category
Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104901 (URN)
Available from: 2014-03-02 Created: 2014-03-02 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Persson, A. (2012). An unintended side effect of pepper spray: Gender trouble and “repair work” in an Armed Forces unit. Men and Masculinities, 15(2), 132-151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An unintended side effect of pepper spray: Gender trouble and “repair work” in an Armed Forces unit
2012 (English)In: Men and Masculinities, ISSN 1097-184X, E-ISSN 1552-6828, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 132-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article tells the story of how pepper spray disrupted the everyday ways of being military men in a Swedish Armed Forces unit. It aims to show how military men are done and undone in the context of a highly strenuous military exercise. It is based on an ethnographic study carried out in a Swedish international service unit. The analysis shows how the exercise taught the soldiers how to behave as military men. Furthermore, it discusses the intimate forms of camaraderie that the soldiers practice and problematizes the scene of constraint that compulsory heterosexuality constitutes for their homosocial bonds. Theoretically, the article draws upon studies of men and masculinities and employs the concepts of homosociality and compulsory heterosexuality. By developing “repair work” as an analytical tool, it contributes to an understanding of how masculinities are done within, as well as beyond, the military context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2012
Keywords
Gender, masculinities, military, repair work, homosociality, sexualities
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71234 (URN)10.1177/1097184X11429596 (DOI)000304818700003 ()
Note
On the day of the defence date the status of this article was: Manuscript.Available from: 2011-10-07 Created: 2011-10-07 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Persson, A. (2011). Changing boundaries, defending boundaries: Gender relations in the Swedish Armed Forces. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changing boundaries, defending boundaries: Gender relations in the Swedish Armed Forces
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Att förändra och försvara gränser : Genusrelationer i den svenska Försvarsmakten
Abstract [en]

This thesis aims to show how gender is done in the Swedish Armed Forces, against the backdrop of its transition into an international defence organization and the international resolutions that call for gender mainstreaming in peacekeeping operations. In the so-called “New Armed Forces”, traditional demarcations that have separated civilian employees from members of the military officer profession are no longer self-evident. At the same time, what it means to be men and women in the military is changing.

Three empirical studies form the basis of the thesis. The first consists of qualitative interviews with women pioneers in the military officer profession, and discusses how gender relations in the Swedish military have changed since the inclusion of women. The second addresses the intersecting relations of gender and occupation and is based on interviews with strategic and executive actors in the Armed Forces Headquarters. The third, ethnographic, study follows a military unit preparing for a peacekeeping mission. It focuses on gender relations in everyday work and shows how the ongoing transformation changes what it means to be military men and women.

The thesis is informed by feminist studies of organization, critical studies of men and masculinities, research on professions and occupations, and military studies. A “doing gender” approach and a relational view of both gender and occupations guide the analysis. The analysis shows how established ways of doing gender are changed and reproduced in military practices, how the emphasis on peacekeeping reshapes gender relations in military work, and how organizational boundaries are maintained and deconstructed in organizational practices. Theoretically, the thesis contributes by developing tools for analysing the practising of gender in organizations. The concept of boundary work is elaborated into a tool for analysing how demarcations of gender and occupation are accomplished in work practices. The concept Repair work is employed to capture the complexities of doing masculinities in organizations, by looking closely at situations where the everyday practising of gender is disturbed.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling syftar till att visa hur genus görs i den svenska Försvarsmakten, mot bakgrund av organisationens förändring från invasionsförsvar till insatsförsvar. Denna process kopplas till kraven på jämställdhetsintegrering inom fredsbevarande arbete. I den så kallade ”nya Försvarsmakten” är de gränser som tidigare skilt civilanställda från yrkesofficerare inte längre självklara. Samtidigt förändras de innebörder som kön ges i organisationen.

Avhandlingen bygger på tre empiriska studier. Den första består av kvalitativa intervjuer med några av de första kvinnliga yrkesofficerarna i Sverige och diskuterar hur genusrelationerna har förändras sedan kvinnor gavs tillträde till officersyrket. Den andra, som inriktar sig på hur genus- och yrkesrelationer samverkar, bygger på intervjuer med aktörer på ledande och strategiska positioner i Försvarsmaktens högkvarter. Den tredje studien är etnografisk och följer ett internationellt insatsförband under förberedelserna för en fredsbevarande insats. Den undersöker hur genusrelationer skapas i det dagliga arbetet och visar hur den pågående förändringen omformar de betydelser som kvinnor och män tillskrivs i militären.

Den tidigare forskning som avhandlingen knyter an till är genus- och organisationsforskning, kritiska studier av män och maskulinitet, forskning om yrken och professioner samt samhällsvetenskapliga militärstudier. Genomgående används ett ”doing gender”-perspektiv samt ett relationellt förhållningsätt till genus såväl som yrke. Analysen visar hur etablerade sätt att göra kön förändras och reproduceras i militära praktiker, hur betoningen på fredsbevarande arbete omformar genusrelationer samt hur gränser upprätthålls och dekonstrueras i organisatoriska praktiker. Avhandlingen bidrar med nya teoretiska verktyg för att förstå genuspraktiker i organisationer. Begreppet gränsarbete vidareutvecklas till ett begrepp som visar hur genus- och yrkesgränser görs i det dagliga arbetet. Begreppet reparationsarbete tydliggör de komplexa praktiker genom vilka maskulinitet görs då det vardagliga genusskapandet sätts ur spel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011. p. 95 + papers 1-4
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 546
Keywords
Gender, gender relations, military, civilian employees, organization, Resolution 1325, change, masculinities, homosociality, boundary work, repair work, peacekeeping, Sweden, Genus, genusrelationer, militären, civilanställda, organisation, Resolution 1325, förändring, maskuliniteter, homosocialitet, gränsarbete, reparationsarbete, fredsbevarande arbete, Sverige
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71257 (URN)978-91-7393-060-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-10-28, VAL, Vallfarten, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-10-07 Created: 2011-10-07 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7715-0478

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