liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Greczynski, GrzegorzORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4898-5115
Publications (10 of 55) Show all publications
Magnuson, M., Tengdelius, L., Greczynski, G., Eriksson, F., Jensen, J., Lu, J., . . . Högberg, H. (2019). Compositional dependence of epitaxial Tin+1SiCn MAX-phase thin films grown from a Ti3SiC2 compound target. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 37(2), Article ID 021506.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compositional dependence of epitaxial Tin+1SiCn MAX-phase thin films grown from a Ti3SiC2 compound target
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, no 2, article id 021506Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The authors investigate sputtering of a Ti3SiC2 compound target at temperatures ranging from RT (no applied external heating) to 970 °C as well as the influence of the sputtering power at 850 °C for the deposition of Ti3SiC2 films on Al2O3(0001) substrates. Elemental composition obtained from time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis shows an excess of carbon in all films, which is explained by differences in the angular distribution between C, Si, and Ti, where C scatters the least during sputtering. The oxygen content is 2.6 at. % in the film deposited at RT and decreases with increasing deposition temperature, showing that higher temperatures favor high purity films. Chemical bonding analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows C–Ti and Si–C bonding in the Ti3SiC2 films and Si–Si bonding in the Ti3SiC2 compound target. X-ray diffraction reveals that the phases Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5 can be deposited from a Ti3SiC2 compound target at substrate temperatures above 850 °C and with the growth of TiC and the Nowotny phase Ti5Si3Cx at lower temperatures. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy shows epitaxial growth of Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5 on TiC at 970 °C. Four-point probe resistivity measurements give values in the range ∼120 to ∼450 μΩ cm and with the lowest values obtained for films containing Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2019
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154004 (URN)10.1116/1.5065468 (DOI)000460437200051 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; Swedish Energy Research [43606-1]; Carl Tryggers Foundation [CTS16:303, CTS14:310, CTS 17:166]; Knut 

Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2019-03-20Bibliographically approved
Magnuson, M., Greczynski, G., Eriksson, F., Hultman, L. & Högberg, H. (2019). Electronic Structure of ß-Ta Films from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and First-principles Calculations. Applied Surface Science, 470, 607-612
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic Structure of ß-Ta Films from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and First-principles Calculations
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 470, p. 607-612Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The electronic structure and chemical bonding of ß-Ta synthesized as a thin 001-oriented film (space group P 21m) is investigated by 4f core level and valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared to α-Ta bulk. For the b-phase, the 4f7/2 peak is located at 21.91 eV and with the 4f5/2 at 23.81 eV which is 0.16 eV higher compared to the corresponding 4f peaks of the a-Ta reference. We suggest that this chemical shift originates from higher resistivity and tensile strain in the ß-Ta film. Furthermore, the 5d-5s states at the bottom of the valence band are shifted by 0.75 eV towards higher binding energy in ß-Ta compared to α-Ta. This is a consequence of the lower number of nearest neighbors with four in ß-Ta compared to eight in the α-Ta phase. The difference in the electronic structures, spectral line shapes of the valence band and the energy positions of the Ta 4f, 5p core-levels of b-Ta versus a-Ta are discussed in relation to calculated states of ß-Ta and α-Ta. In particular, the lower number of states at the Fermi level of ß-Ta (0.557 states/eV/atom) versus α-Ta (1.032 states/eV/atom) that according to Mott’s law should decrease the conductivity in metals and affect the stability by charge redistribution in the valence band. This is experimentally supported from resistivity measurements of the film yielding a value of ~170 µW cm in comparison to α-Ta bulk with a reported value of ~13.1 µW cm.

Keywords
β-Ta films, Valence band measurements, First-principles calculations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, High power impulse magnetron sputtering
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152876 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.11.096 (DOI)000454997100069 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]; Swedish Energy Research [43606-1]; Carl Tryggers Foundation [CTS16:303, CTS14:310, CTS 17:166]; Knut and Alice Wallenber

Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2019-01-21
Magnuson, M., Tengdelius, L., Eriksson, F., Samuelsson, M., Broitman, E., Greczynski, G., . . . Högberg, H. (2019). Reactive magnetron sputtering of tungsten target in krypton/trimethylboron atmosphere. Thin Solid Films, 688, Article ID 137384.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reactive magnetron sputtering of tungsten target in krypton/trimethylboron atmosphere
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 688, article id 137384Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

W-B-C films were deposited on Si(100) substrates held at elevated temperature by reactive sputtering from a W target in Kr/trimethylboron (TMB) plasmas. Quantitative analysis by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that the films are W-rich between ~ 73 and ~ 93 at.% W. The highest metal content is detected in the film deposited with 1 sccm TMB. The C and B concentrations increase with increasing TMB flow to a maximum of ~18 and ~7 at.%, respectively, while the O content remains nearly constant at 2-3 at.%. Chemical bonding structure analysis performed after samples sputter-cleaning reveals C-W and B-W bonding and no detectable W-O bonds. During film growth with 5 sccm TMB and 500 o C or with 10 sccm TMB and 300-600 o C thin film X-ray diffraction shows the formation of cubic 100-oriented WC1-x with a possible solid solution of B. Lower flows and lower growth temperatures favor growth of W and W2C, respectively. Depositions at 700 and 800 o C result in the formation of WSi2 due to a reaction with the substrate. At 900 o C, XPS analysis shows ~96 at.% Si in the film due to Si interdiffusion. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal a fine-grained microstructure for the deposited WC1-x films. Nanoindentation gives hardness values in the range from ~23 to ~31 GPa and reduced elastic moduli between ~220 and 280 GPa in the films deposited at temperatures lower than 600 o C. At higher growth temperatures the hardness decreases by a factor of 3 to 4 following the formation of WSi2 at 700-800 o C and Si-rich surface at 900 o C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
W-B-C films, reactive magnetron sputtering, trimethylboron, nanoindentation, Xray photoelectron spectroscopy, thin film X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160243 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2019.06.034 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067891667 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-09-13 Created: 2019-09-13 Last updated: 2019-09-18Bibliographically approved
Magnuson, M., Tengdelius, L., Greczynski, G., Hultman, L. & Högberg, H. (2018). ­Chemical Bonding in Epitaxial ZrB2 Studied by X-ray Spectroscopy. Thin Solid Films, 649, 89-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>­Chemical Bonding in Epitaxial ZrB2 Studied by X-ray Spectroscopy
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 649, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The chemical bonding in an epitaxial ZrB2 film is investigated by Zr K-edge (1s) X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies and compared to the ZrB2 compound target from which the film was synthesized as well as a bulk α-Zr reference. Quantitative analysis of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy spectra reveals at the surface: ~5% O in the epitaxial ZrB2 film, ~19% O in the ZrB2 compound target and ~22% O in the bulk α-Zr reference after completed sputter cleaning. For the ZrB2 compound target, X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows weak but visible   11, 111, and 220 peaks from monoclinic ZrO2 together with peaks from ZrB2 and where the intensity distribution for the ZrB2 peaks show a randomly oriented target material.  For the bulk α-Zr reference no peaks from any crystalline oxide were visible in the diffractogram recorded from the 0001-oriented metal. The Zr K-edge absorption from the two ZrB2 samples demonstrate more pronounced oscillations for the epitaxial ZrB2 film than in the bulk ZrB2 attributed to the high atomic ordering within the columns of the film. The XANES exhibits no pre-peak due to lack of p-d hybridization in ZrB2, but with a chemical shift towards higher energy of 4 eV in the film and 6 eV for the bulk compared to α-Zr (17.993 keV) from the charge-transfer from Zr to B. The 2 eV larger shift in bulk ZrB2 material suggests higher oxygen content than in the epitaxial film, which is supported by XPS. In EXAFS, the modelled cell-edge in ZrB2 is slightly smaller in the thin film (a=3.165 Å, c=3.520 Å) in comparison to the bulk target material (a=3.175 Å, c=3.540 Å) while in hexagonal closest-packed metal (α-phase, a=3.254 Å, c=5.147 Å). The modelled coordination numbers show that the EXAFS spectra of the epitaxial ZrB2 film is highly anisotropic with strong in-plane contribution, while the bulk target material is more isotropic. The Zr-B distance in the film of 2.539 Å is in agreement with the calculated value from XRD data of 2.542 Å. This is slightly shorter compared to that in the ZrB2 compound target 2.599 Å, supporting the XANES results of a higher atomic order within the columns of the film compared to bulk ZrB2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Zirconium boride, thin films, bond distances, chemical bonding, X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144578 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2018.01.021 (DOI)000427524100015 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Research [43606-1]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) through the synergy grant FUNCASE [RMA11-0029]; Carl Trygger Foundation [CTS16:303, CTS14:310]; Swedish Research Council (VR) [621-2010 3921]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Fou

Available from: 2018-01-29 Created: 2018-01-29 Last updated: 2018-11-29Bibliographically approved
Greczynski, G., Primetzhofer, D. & Hultman, L. (2018). Reference binding energies of transition metal carbides by core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy free from Ar+ etching artefacts. Applied Surface Science, 436, 102-110
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reference binding energies of transition metal carbides by core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy free from Ar+ etching artefacts
2018 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 436, p. 102-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core level binding energies (BEs) for the widely-applicable groups IVb-VIb transition metal carbides (TMCs) TiC, VC, CrC, ZrC, NbC, MoC, HfC, TaC, and WC. Thin film samples are grown in the same deposition system, by dc magnetron co-sputtering from graphite and respective elemental metal targets in Ar atmosphere. To remove surface contaminations resulting from exposure to air during sample transfer from the growth chamber into the XPS system, layers are either (i) Ar+ ion-etched or (ii) UHV-annealed in situ prior to XPS analyses. High resolution XPS spectra reveal that even gentle etching affects the shape of core level signals, as well as BE values, which are systematically offset by 0.2-0.5 eV towards lower BE. These destructive effects of Ar+ ion etch become more pronounced with increasing the metal atom mass due to an increasing carbon-to-metal sputter yield ratio. Systematic analysis reveals that for each row in the periodic table (3d, 4d, and 5d) C 1s BE increases from left to right indicative of a decreased charge transfer from TM to C atoms, hence bond weakening. Moreover, C 1s BE decreases linearly with increasing carbide/metal melting point ratio. Spectra reported here, acquired from a consistent set of samples in the same instrument, should serve as a reference for true deconvolution of complex XPS cases, including multinary carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018
Keywords
TiC; XPS; Magnetron sputtering; Binding energy; VC; CrC; NbC; ZrC; MoC; HfC; TaC; WC
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145736 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.11.264 (DOI)000425723100011 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Aforsk foundation [16-359]; Carl Tryggers Stiftelse [CTS 15:219, CTS 14:431]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation Scholar [KAW2016.0358]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) [RIF14-0053]

Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-04-20
Greczynski, G., Zhirkov, I., Petrov, I., Greene, J. E. & Rosén, J. (2017). Gas rarefaction effects during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering of groups IVb and VIb transition metals in Ar. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 35(6), Article ID 060601.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gas rarefaction effects during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering of groups IVb and VIb transition metals in Ar
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 35, no 6, article id 060601Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The authors use energy- and time-dependent mass spectrometry to analyze the evolution of metal- and gas-ion fluxes incident at the substrate during high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of groups IVb and VIb transition-metal (TM) targets in Ar. For all TMs, the time-and energy-integrated metal/gas-ion ratio at the substrate plane NMe+/NAr+ increases with increasing peak target current density J(T,peak) due to rarefaction. In addition, NMe+/NAr+ exhibits a strong dependence on metal/gas-atom mass ratio m(Me)/m(g) and varies from similar to 1 for Ti (m(Ti)/m(Ar) = 1.20) to similar to 100 for W (m(W)/m(Ar) = 4.60), with J(T,peak) maintained constant at 1 A/cm(2). Time-resolved ion-energy distribution functions confirm that the degree of rarefaction scales with m(Me)/m(g): for heavier TMs, the original sputtered-atom Sigmund-Thompson energy distributions are preserved long after the HiPIMS pulse, which is in distinct contrast to lighter metals for which the energy distributions collapse into a narrow thermalized peak. Hence, precise timing of synchronous substrate-bias pulses, applied in order to reduce film stress while increasing densification, is critical for metal/gas combinations with m(Me)/m(g) near unity, while with m(Me)/m(g) amp;gt;amp;gt; 1, the width of the synchronous bias pulse is essentially controlled by the metal-ion time of flight. The good agreement between results obtained in an industrial system employing 440 cm(2) cathodes and a laboratory-scale system with a 20 cm(2) target is indicative of the fundamental nature of the phenomena. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2017
Keywords
Time of flight mass spectrometry, Metalloids, Wave mechanics, Physical vapor deposition, Semiconductor device fabrication
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143365 (URN)10.1116/1.4989674 (DOI)000415685300001 ()2-s2.0-85024128172 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council VR [2014-5790]; Aforsk Foundation [16-359]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009 00971]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [KAW 2015.0043]

Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Ghafoor, N., Eriksson, F., Andrew, A., Gullikson, E., Franz, S., Greczynski, G. & Birch, J. (2017). Impact of B4C co-sputtering on structure and optical performance of Cr/Sc multilayer X-ray mirrors. Optics Express, 25(15), 18274-18287
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of B4C co-sputtering on structure and optical performance of Cr/Sc multilayer X-ray mirrors
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 25, no 15, p. 18274-18287Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of B4C incorporation during magnetron sputter deposition of Cr/Sc multilayers intended for soft X-ray reflective optics is investigated. Chemical analysis suggests formation of metal: boride and carbide bonds which stabilize an amorphous layer structure, resulting in smoother interfaces and an increased reflectivity. A near-normal incidence reflectivity of 11.7%, corresponding to a 67% increase, is achieved at λ = 3.11 nm upon adding 23 at.% (B + C). The advantage is significant for the multilayer periods larger than 1.8 nm, where amorphization results in smaller interface widths, for example, giving 36% reflectance and 99.89% degree of polarization near Brewster angle for a multilayer polarizer. The modulated ion-energy-assistance during the growth is considered vital to avoid intermixing during the interface formation even when B + C are added.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Optical Society of America, 2017
National Category
Natural Sciences Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139944 (URN)10.1364/oe.25.018274 (DOI)000408584400128 ()28789315 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85025823281 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Science Council; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009 00971]

Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Schmidt, S., Czigany, Z., Wissting, J., Greczynski, G., Janzén, E., Jensen, J., . . . Hultman, L. (2016). A comparative study of direct current magnetron sputtering and high power impulse magnetron sputtering processes for CNX thin film growth with different inert gases. Diamond and related materials, 64, 13-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparative study of direct current magnetron sputtering and high power impulse magnetron sputtering processes for CNX thin film growth with different inert gases
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 64, p. 13-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges of carbon in different inert gas mixtures (N-2/Ne, N-2/Ar, and N-2/Kr) were investigated for the growth of carbon-nitride (CNX) thin films. Ion mass spectrometry showed that energies of abundant plasma cations are governed by the inert gas and the N-2-to-inert gas flow ratios. The population of ion species depends on the sputter mode; HiPIMS yields approximately ten times higher flux ratios of ions originating from the target to process gas ions than DCMS. Exceptional are discharges in Ne with N-2-to-Ne flow ratios <20%. Here, cation energies and the amount of target ions are highest without influence on the sputter mode. CNX thin films were deposited in 14% N-2/inert gas mixtures at substrate temperatures of 110 degrees C and 430 degrees C. The film properties show a correlation to the substrate temperature, the applied inert gas and sputter mode. The mechanical performance of the films is mainly governed by their morphology and composition, but not by their microstructure. Amorphous and fullerene-like CN0.14 films exhibiting a hardness of similar to 15 GPa and an elastic recovery of similar to 90% were deposited at 110 degrees C in reactive Kr atmosphere by DCMS and HiPIMS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2016
Keywords
Magnetron sputtering; Inert gases; Plasma analysis; Langmuir probe measurement; CNX film stress; CNX hardness
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128146 (URN)10.1016/j.diamond.2016.01.009 (DOI)000374608100003 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Carl Tryggers Foundation for Scientific Research; Hungarian Academy of Sciences

Available from: 2016-05-19 Created: 2016-05-19 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Greczynski, G., Lu, J., Tengstrand, O., Petrov, I., Greene, J. E. & Hultman, L. (2016). Nitrogen-doped bcc-Cr films: Combining ceramic hardness with metallic toughness and conductivity. Scripta Materialia, 122, 40-44
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nitrogen-doped bcc-Cr films: Combining ceramic hardness with metallic toughness and conductivity
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 122, p. 40-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report the first results on nanostructured N-doped bcc-Cr films exhibiting the unique combination of ceramic hardness with metallic toughness and electrical conductivity at unexpectedly low N concentrations, ~ 5 at.%. The Cr:N films are deposited at 200 C in N2/Ar mixtures by high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering using tunable time-domain control of Cr+ and Cr2+ ion fluxes incident at the film growth surface. Subplanted N atoms impede annealing of metal-ion induced point defects and hinder bcc-Cr grain growth, resulting in a material with a nearly isotropic nanostructure and atomically smooth surface, rather than typical Cr:N solid solutions consisting of faceted microcolumns. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2016
Keywords
CrN, HIPIMS, Ion mass spectrometry, Magnetron sputtering, Resistivity, Thin films, Toughness, Transition-metal nitrides
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129248 (URN)10.1016/j.scriptamat.2016.05.011 (DOI)2-s2.0-84971328580 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|#2011.0143, Swedish Research Council; 2013-4018, Swedish Research Council; 2014-5790, Swedish Research Council

Available from: 2016-06-14 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2017-11-28
Greczynski, G. & Hultman, L. (2016). Peak amplitude of target current determines deposition rate loss during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering. Vacuum, 124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peak amplitude of target current determines deposition rate loss during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering
2016 (English)In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Film growth rates during DCMS and HIPIMS sputtering in Ar are measured for ten technologically relevant elemental target materials: Al, Si, Ti, Cr, Y, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, and W, spanning wide range of masses, ionization energies, and sputter yields. Surprisingly, the ratio of power-normalized HIPIMS and DCMS rates a decays exponentially with increasing peak target current density J(T)(max) for all metals. The effect of J(T)(max) on alpha is dramatic: alpha approximate to 1 in the limit of lowest J(T)(max) values tested (0.04 A/cm(2)) and decreases to only 0.12 with J(T)(max) similar to 3 A/cm(2). With the exception of Al and Si, alpha(J(T)(max)) curves overlap indicating that the debated rate loss in HIPIMS is to large extent determined by the peak amplitude of the HIPIMS target current for all tested metals. Back attraction of ionized target species is responsible for such large variation in a. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2016
Keywords
HIPIMS; Growth rate; Deposition rate; Magnetron sputtering; Ionized PVD
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125682 (URN)10.1016/j.vacuum.2015.11.004 (DOI)000369200400001 ()
Available from: 2016-03-01 Created: 2016-02-29 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4898-5115

Search in DiVA

Show all publications