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Magnuson, M., Tengdelius, L., Eriksson, F., Samuelsson, M., Broitman, E., Greczynski, G., . . . Högberg, H. (2019). Reactive magnetron sputtering of tungsten target in krypton/trimethylboron atmosphere. Thin Solid Films, 688, Article ID 137384.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reactive magnetron sputtering of tungsten target in krypton/trimethylboron atmosphere
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2019 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 688, article id 137384Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

W-B-C films were deposited on Si(100) substrates held at elevated temperature by reactive sputtering from a W target in Kr/trimethylboron (TMB) plasmas. Quantitative analysis by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that the films are W-rich between ~ 73 and ~ 93 at.% W. The highest metal content is detected in the film deposited with 1 sccm TMB. The C and B concentrations increase with increasing TMB flow to a maximum of ~18 and ~7 at.%, respectively, while the O content remains nearly constant at 2-3 at.%. Chemical bonding structure analysis performed after samples sputter-cleaning reveals C-W and B-W bonding and no detectable W-O bonds. During film growth with 5 sccm TMB and 500 o C or with 10 sccm TMB and 300-600 o C thin film X-ray diffraction shows the formation of cubic 100-oriented WC1-x with a possible solid solution of B. Lower flows and lower growth temperatures favor growth of W and W2C, respectively. Depositions at 700 and 800 o C result in the formation of WSi2 due to a reaction with the substrate. At 900 o C, XPS analysis shows ~96 at.% Si in the film due to Si interdiffusion. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal a fine-grained microstructure for the deposited WC1-x films. Nanoindentation gives hardness values in the range from ~23 to ~31 GPa and reduced elastic moduli between ~220 and 280 GPa in the films deposited at temperatures lower than 600 o C. At higher growth temperatures the hardness decreases by a factor of 3 to 4 following the formation of WSi2 at 700-800 o C and Si-rich surface at 900 o C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
W-B-C films, reactive magnetron sputtering, trimethylboron, nanoindentation, Xray photoelectron spectroscopy, thin film X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160243 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2019.06.034 (DOI)000485256500039 ()2-s2.0-85067891667 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-09-13 Created: 2019-09-13 Last updated: 2019-11-14Bibliographically approved
Flores-Ruiz, F. J., Tucker, M., Bakoglidis, K., Yu, X., Gellman, A. J., Herrera-Gomez, A., . . . Broitman, E. (2018). Micro-tribological performance of fullerene-like carbon and carbon-nitride surfaces. Tribology International, 128, 104-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Micro-tribological performance of fullerene-like carbon and carbon-nitride surfaces
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2018 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 128, p. 104-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We studied the microtribological behavior of amorphous and fullerene-like (FL) carbon and carbon-nitride coatings deposited by filtered-cathodic-arc. All films show similar friction coefficients but different wear mechanisms. The FL films exhibit a surface swelling with the formation of a layer that thickens during the test, limiting wear and maintaining a low friction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on worn FL film surfaces show an increase in the sp(2)-content, indicating that the lubricious layer generated by the wear process is probably the result of re-hybridization due to plasticity induced by localized shear. In contrast, the wear results of the amorphous films, involving tribomechanical and tribochemical surface phenomena, show that the surface layer formed during sliding is a precursor to the onset of wear.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2018
Keywords
Fullerene-like films; Microtribology; Carbon-nitride films; Carbon films
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151760 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2018.07.009 (DOI)000444929200010 ()2-s2.0-85050145167 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO Mat LiU) [2009 00971]; SSF synergy grant FUNCASE; COST Action [MP1303]; FOINS - CONACYT Project [2016-01-2488]; VIEP-BUAP Projects

Available from: 2018-10-08 Created: 2018-10-08 Last updated: 2018-10-17Bibliographically approved
Gontad, F., Lorusso, A., Klini, A., Broitman, E., Perrone, A. & Fotakis, C. (2016). Fabrication of Nb/Pb structures through ultrashort pulsed laser deposition. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 34(4), Article ID 041501.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of Nb/Pb structures through ultrashort pulsed laser deposition
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 34, no 4, article id 041501Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work reports the fabrication of Nb/Pb structures with an application as photocathode devices. The use of relatively low energy densities for the ablation of Nb with ultrashort pulses favors the reduction of droplets during the growth of the film. However, the use of laser fluences in this ablation regime results in a consequent reduction in the average deposition rate. On the other hand, despite the low deposition rate, the films present a superior adherence to the substrate and an excellent coverage of the irregular substrate surface, avoiding the appearance of voids or discontinuities on the film surface. Moreover, the low energy densities used for the ablation favor the growth of nanocrystalline films with a similar crystalline structure to the bulk material. Therefore, the use of low ablation energy densities with ultrashort pulses for the deposition of the Nb thin films allows the growth of very adherent and nanocrystalline films with adequate properties for the fabrication of Nb/Pb structures to be included in superconducting radiofrequency cavities. (C) 2016 American Vacuum Society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER INST PHYSICS, 2016
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130406 (URN)10.1116/1.4948529 (DOI)000379588000019 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Integrative Initiative of European Laser Research Infrastructures LASERLAB [002028]; Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN); Italian Ministry of Research in the framework of FIRB [RBFR12NK5K]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]

Available from: 2016-08-15 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2017-11-28
Tengdelius, L., Broitman, E., Lu, J., Eriksson, F., Birch, J., Nyberg, T., . . . Högberg, H. (2016). Hard and elastic epitaxial ZrB2 thin films on Al2O3(0001) substrates deposited by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 compound target. Acta Materialia, 111, 166-172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hard and elastic epitaxial ZrB2 thin films on Al2O3(0001) substrates deposited by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 compound target
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2016 (English)In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 111, p. 166-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) exhibits high hardness and high melting point, which is beneficial for applications in for e.g. metal cutting. However, there is limited data on the mechanical properties of ZrB2 films and no data on epitaxial films. In this study, ZrB2(0001) thin films, with thicknesses up to 1.2 μm, have been deposited on Al2O3(0001) substrates by direct current magnetron sputtering from a compound target. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show that the films grow epitaxially with two domain types exhibiting different in-plane epitaxial relationships to the substrate. The out-of-plane epitaxial relationship was determined to ZrB2(0001)|Al2O3(0001) and the in-plane relationships of the two domains to ZrB2[100]‖Al2O3[100] and ZrB2[110]‖Al2O3[100]. Mechanical properties of the films, evaluated by nanoindentation, showed that all films exhibit hardness values above 45 GPa, a reduced Young's modulus in the range 350–400 GPa, and a high elastic recovery of 70% at an applied load of 9000 μN.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Borides, Epitaxial growth, Mechanical properties, Nanoindentation, Sputter deposition
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128612 (URN)10.1016/j.actamat.2016.03.064 (DOI)000375812100018 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council (VR) [621-2010-3921]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

Available from: 2016-05-25 Created: 2016-05-25 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Broitman, E., Tengdelius, L., Hangen, U. D., Lu, J., Hultman, L. & Högberg, H. (2016). High-temperature nanoindentation of epitaxial ZrB2 thin films. Scripta Materialia, 124, 117-120
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-temperature nanoindentation of epitaxial ZrB2 thin films
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2016 (English)In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 124, p. 117-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We use in-situ heated nanoindentation to investigate the high-temperature nanomechanical properties of epitaxial and textured ZrB2 films deposited by magnetron sputtering. Epitaxial films deposited on 4H-SiC(0001) show a hardness decrease from 47 GPa at room temperature to 33 GPa at 600 °C, while the reduced elastic modulus does not change significantly. High resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) with selected area electron diffraction of the indented area in a 0001-textured film reveals a retained continuous ZrB2 film and no sign of crystalline phase transformation, despite massive deformation of the Si substrate. HRTEM analysis supports the high elastic recovery of 96% in the films.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Sputtering; Borides; Ceramic thin film; Nanoindentation; Transmission electron microscopy
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130917 (URN)10.1016/j.scriptamat.2016.06.033 (DOI)000383294200027 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; Swedish Research Council (VR) [621-2010-3921]

Available from: 2016-08-31 Created: 2016-08-31 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
Olsson, S., Broitman, E., Garbrecht, M., Birch, J., Hultman, L. & Eriksson, F. (2016). Mechanical and Tribological Properties of AlCuFe Quasicrystal and Al(Si)CuFe Approximant Thin Films. Journal of Materials Research, 31(2), 232-240
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical and Tribological Properties of AlCuFe Quasicrystal and Al(Si)CuFe Approximant Thin Films
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 232-240Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multilayered thin films of Al/Cu/Fe have been prepared by magnetron sputtering and annealed into the quasicrystalline or approximant phases, for Al2O3 or Si substrates, respectively. The nanomechanical and nanotribological properties; hardness, elastic modulus, friction and toughness, have been measured using a triboindenter and analytical methods. The approximant phase, annealed at 600 °C for 4 h, proved to be harder and had higher elastic modulus values than the quasicrystalline phase, about, 15.6 GPa and 258 GPa, respectively. The fracture toughness of the approximant, <0.1 MPa/m½, was however inferior to that of the quasicrystals with 1.5 MPa/m½. The friction coefficients were measured in a range of 0.10-0.14 for the quasicrystalline and approximant thin films.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2016
Keywords
quasicrystal, approximant, thin film, hardness, elastic modulus, friction, toughness, tribology, TEM, STEM, XRD
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96907 (URN)10.1557/jmr.2015.384 (DOI)000371704900007 ()
Note

Funding agencies:  Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area Grant in Materials Science (SFO Mat-LiU) on Advanced Functional Materials

Available from: 2013-08-29 Created: 2013-08-29 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Rivera-Tello, C. D., Broitman, E., Flores-Ruiz, F. J., Jimenez, O. & Flores, M. (2016). Mechanical properties and tribological behavior at micro and macro-scale of WC/WCN/W hierarchical multilayer coatings. Tribology International, 101, 194-203
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical properties and tribological behavior at micro and macro-scale of WC/WCN/W hierarchical multilayer coatings
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2016 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 101, p. 194-203Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is known that a hierarchical configuration helps to improve adhesion to the substrate and reduce the effects that generate a sharp change in a conventional multilayer coating, like interface stresses. We present a study of the mechanical properties and tribological behavior at the micro and macro scale of WC/WCN/W multilayer coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering, combining soft and hard layers with a hierarchical architecture. Variations in the number of layers and thicknesses, as well as the distribution within the coating are determinant to obtain the adequate mechanical properties in order to reduce the wear rate. It was found that the coating with high hierarchical configuration presented lower wear rates, in comparison to single layer and low hierarchical configuration coatings. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2016
Keywords
Hierarchical multilayers; Magnetron sputtering; Tribological behavior; Wear
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130367 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2016.04.017 (DOI)000379563700021 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|CONACYT-CDTI [189207]; CONACYT (REDISYT) [254790]; CONACYT [297914/225114, CB-2012-01#179304, 166286]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]; SSF frame program FUNCASE Functional Carbides and Advanced Surface Engineering; LIDTRA [123630]

Available from: 2016-08-15 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2017-11-28
Broitman, E., Flores-Ruiz, F. J., Di Giulio, M., Gontad, F., Lorusso, A. & Perrone, A. (2016). Microstructural, nanomechanical, and microtribological properties of Pb thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation techniques. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 34(2), 021505
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructural, nanomechanical, and microtribological properties of Pb thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation techniques
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 021505-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, the authors compare the morphological, structural, nanomechanical, and microtribological properties of Pb films deposited by thermal evaporation (TE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques onto Si (111) substrates. Films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, surface probe microscopy, and x-ray diffraction in theta-2 theta geometry to determine their morphology, root-mean-square (RMS) roughness, and microstructure, respectively. TE films showed a percolated morphology with densely packed fibrous grains while PLD films had a granular morphology with a columnar and tightly packed structure in accordance with the zone growth model of Thornton. Moreover, PLD films presented a more polycrystalline structure with respect to TE films, with RMS roughness of 14 and 10 nm, respectively. Hardness and elastic modulus vary from 2.1 to 0.8 GPa and from 14 to 10 GPa for PLD and TE films, respectively. A reciprocal friction test has shown that PLD films have lower friction coefficient and wear rate than TE films. Our study has demonstrated for first time that, at the microscale, Pb films do not show the same simple lubricious properties measured at the macroscale. (C) 2015 American Vacuum Society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
A V S AMER INST PHYSICS, 2016
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127283 (URN)10.1116/1.4936080 (DOI)000372352300027 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN); Italian Ministry of Research of FIRB [RBFR12NK5K]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area Grant in Materials Science (SFO Mat-LiU) on Advanced Functional Materials

Available from: 2016-04-20 Created: 2016-04-19 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Gervacio-Arciniega, J. J., Flores-Ruiz, F. J., Diliegros-Godines, C. J., Broitman, E., Enriquez-Flores, C. I., Espinoza-Beltran, F. J., . . . Cruz, M. P. (2016). Nanofrictional behavior of amorphous, polycrystalline and textured Y-Cr-O films. Applied Surface Science, 378, 157-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanofrictional behavior of amorphous, polycrystalline and textured Y-Cr-O films
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2016 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 378, p. 157-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Differences in friction coefficients (mu) of ferroelectric YCrO3, textured and polycrystalline films, and non-ferroelectric Y-Cr-O films are analyzed. The friction coefficient was evaluated by atomic force microscopy using a simple quantitative procedure where the dependence of friction force with the applied load is obtained in only one topographical image. A simple code was developed with the MATLAB (R) software to analyze the experimental data. The code includes a correction of the hysteresis in the forward and backward scanning directions. The quantification of load exerted on the sample surface was obtained by finite element analysis of the AFM cantilever starting from its experimental dynamic information. The results show that the ferroelectric YCrO3 film deposited on a Pt(150 nm)/TiO2(30 nm)/SiO2/Si (100) substrate is polycrystalline and has a lower friction coefficient than the deposited on SrTiO3 (110), which is highly textured. From a viewpoint of industrial application in ferroelectric memories, where the writing process is electrical or mechanically achieved by sliding AFM tips on the sample, polycrystalline YCrO3 films seem to be the best candidates due to their lower mu, (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2016
Keywords
Friction; Ferroelectrics; AFM; Lead-free
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129657 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.03.110 (DOI)000376819200020 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|PAPIIT-UNAM [IN109016, IN103213, IN105414]; CONACyT [174391, 166286]; DGAPA-UNAM; CONACYT; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]

Available from: 2016-06-27 Created: 2016-06-23 Last updated: 2017-11-28
Lorusso, A., Gontad, F., Caricato, A. P., Chiadroni, E., Broitman, E. & Perrone, A. (2016). Structural and morphological properties of metallic thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for photocathode application. Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 122(3), 1-5
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural and morphological properties of metallic thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for photocathode application
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2016 (English)In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 122, no 3, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work yttrium and lead thin films have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique and characterized by ex situ different diagnostic methods. All the films were adherent to the substrates and revealed a polycrystalline structure. Y films were uniform with a very low roughness and droplet density, while Pb thin films were characterized by a grain morphology with a relatively high roughness and droplet density. Such metallic materials are studied because they are proposed as a good alternative to copper and niobium photocathodes which are generally used in radiofrequency and superconducting radiofrequency guns, respectively. The photoemission performances of the photocathodes based on Y and Pb thin films have been also studied and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2016
Keywords
Condensed Matter Physics, Optical and Electronic Materials, Nanotechnology, Characterization and Evaluation of Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces, Thin Films, Operating Procedures, Materials Treatment
National Category
Physical Sciences Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125515 (URN)10.1007/s00339-016-9717-3 (DOI)000371041700021 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN); Italian Ministry of Research [RBFR12NK5 k]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]

Available from: 2016-02-25 Created: 2016-02-25 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3277-1945

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