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Classon, Elisabet
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Publications (10 of 22) Show all publications
Stenfelt, S., Lunner, T., Ng, E., Lidestam, B., Zekveld, A., Sörqvist, P., . . . Rönnberg, J. (2016). Auditory, signal processing, and cognitive factors  influencing  speech  perception  in  persons with hearing loss fitted with hearing aids – the N200 study. In: : . Paper presented at IHCON2016, International Hearing Aid Research Conference, Tahoe City, California, USA, August 10–14, 2016. , Article ID B46.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Auditory, signal processing, and cognitive factors  influencing  speech  perception  in  persons with hearing loss fitted with hearing aids – the N200 study
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess aided speech-in-noise outcomes and relate those measures to auditory sensitivity and processing, different types of cognitive processing abilities, and signal processing in hearing aids.

Material and method: Participants were 200 hearing-aid wearers, with a mean age of 60.8 years, 43% females, with average hearing thresholds in the better ear of 37.4 dB HL. Tests of auditory functions were hearing thresholds, DPOAEs, tests of fine structure processing, IHC dead regions, spectro-temporal modulation, and speech recognition in quiet (PB words). Tests of cognitive processing function were tests of phonological skills, working memory, executive functions and inference making abilities, and general cognitive tests (e.g., tests of cognitive decline and IQ). The outcome test variables were the Hagerman sentences with 50 and 80% speech recognition levels, using two different noises (stationary speech weighted noise and 4-talker babble), and three types of signal processing (linear gain, fast acting compression, and linear gain plus a non-ideal binary mask). Another sentence test included typical and atypical sentences with contextual cues that were tested both audio-visually and in an auditory mode only. Moreover, HINT and SSQ were administrated.

Analysis: Factor analyses were performed separate for the auditory, cognitive, and outcome tests.

Results: The auditory tests resulted in two factors labeled SENSITIVITY and TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE, the cognitive tests in one factor (COGNITION), and the outcome tests in the two factors termed NO CONTEXT and CONTEXT that relates to the level of context in the different outcome tests. When age was partialled out, COGNITION was moderately correlated with the TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and NO CONTEXT factors but only weakly correlated with the CONTEXT factor. SENSITIVITY correlated weakly with TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and CONTEXT, and moderately with NO CONTEXT, while TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE showed weak correlation with CONTEXT and moderate correlation with NO CONTEXT. CONTEXT and NO CONTEXT had a  moderate correlation. Moreover, the overall results of the Hagerman sentences showed 0.9 dB worse SNR with fast acting compression compared with linear gain and 5.5 dB better SNR with linear  gain and noise reduction compared with only linear gain.

Conclusions: For hearing aid wearers, the ability to recognize speech in noise is associated with both sensory and cognitive processing abilities when the speech materials have low internal context. These associations are less prominent when the speech material has contextual cues.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159504 (URN)
Conference
IHCON2016, International Hearing Aid Research Conference, Tahoe City, California, USA, August 10–14, 2016
Available from: 2019-08-09 Created: 2019-08-09 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, T., Classon, E. & Rönnberg, J. (2014). Den hjärnvänliga arbetsplatsen: kognition, kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar och arbetsmiljö. Arbetsmiljöverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Den hjärnvänliga arbetsplatsen: kognition, kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar och arbetsmiljö
2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Dagens arbetsliv ställer allt större krav på kognitiva förmågor. Vi arbetar alltmer med information inte bara i traditionellt intellektuella yrken, utan även inom industri, hantverk och sjukvård. Informationsteknologi i form av datorer, avancerad teknisk utrustning och andra komplexa system blir allt viktigare att kunna hantera. Detta ställer nya krav på arbetsmiljöarbetet, något som gäller för alla arbetstagare, men särskilt för de av oss som har en kognitiv funktionsnedsättning.

I denna rapport sammanfattar vi arbetsmiljörelaterade hinder förknippade med nedsatt funktion inom nio kognitiva områden: språk, exekutiva funktioner, minnesfunktioner, visuospatiala funktioner, snabbhet, uppmärksamhet, emotion/social kognition, mental trötthet samt global kognitiv förmåga/intelligens. Vi uppmärksammar även mental trötthet (”fatigue”) som ett viktigt problemområde i  sammanhanget.

Den första delen av rapporten ger en bakgrund till området. Avsnittet ger en kort översikt över neuropsykologi och kognitiv neurovetenskap.

Den andra delen sammanfattar kunskap om omfattningen av problemet: hur vanliga är kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar i arbetslivet? En stor del av de människor som är i yrkesverksam ålder antingen har, eller kommer någon gång under yrkeslivet att drabbas av kognitiva funktionsproblem. Vi uppskattar att detta berör en femtedel till en tredjedel av de yrkesverksamma. Eftersom kognitiv funktionsnivå långt ifrån enbart beror på individens begränsningar till följd av sjukdom eller annan funktionsnedsättning, utan även på miljön och dess krav på individen, är problemen och lösningar på dessa både giltiga och viktiga för alla.

Rapportens andra del visar att kognitiv nedsättning inte begränsas till ett enstaka funktionellt område, exempelvis minnesbesvär, utan kan innefatta flera av de funktionella områden som berörs. Det finns alltså ingen enkel koppling mellan en sjukdom och vilka kognitiva funktionsproblem den medför för den enskilde arbetstagaren. Problemen måste ses i ljuset av både de erfarenheter och begränsningar den enskilde personen har och den aktuella arbetsuppgiften.

Rapportens tredje del diskuterar mer ingående arbetsmiljörelaterade konsekvenser av kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar. Den börjar med att sammanfatta en modell för att analysera funktionsnedsättningar som en produkt av fyra samverkande faktorer: individen (till exempel kognitiva funktionsbegränsningar efter en sjukdom), individens förhållningssätt (till exempel motivation), arbetsuppgiften och miljön. En kognitiv funktionsproblematik finns aldrig enbart i en av dessa faktorer utan i skärningspunkten mellan dessa faktorer. Av detta skäl är kunskap om arbetsmiljömässiga aspekter av kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar giltig för alla. Även de som inte har nedsatt kognitiv funktion hamnar i situationer där faktorer kopplade till miljön eller arbetsuppgiften (eller vår inställning till uppgiften) resulterar i att kognitiva förmågor belastas!

Vidare identifierar och sammanfattar rapportens tredje del praktiska lösningar som stödjer arbetsförmåga vid nedsättning av funktioner inom de nio områden som rapporten omfattar: språk, exekutiva funktioner, minnesfunktioner, visuospatiala funktioner, snabbhet, uppmärksamhet, emotion/social kognition, mental trötthet samt global kognitiv förmåga/intelligens. Särskilt betonas att det idag finns många tillgängliga men sannolikt mindre ofta utnyttjade åtgärder som kan utnyttjas för att mildra eller eliminera arbetsmiljöproblem relaterade till kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar. Rapporten redovisar sju sådana övergripande åtgärder. Därtill diskuteras kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar i samband med arbetstagare som är över 65 år och arbetsgivarens roll. Avslutningsvis identifieras kunskapsbehov för fortsatt arbete inom området.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Arbetsmiljöverket, 2014. p. 89
Series
Arbetsmiljöverket (AMV), ISSN 1650-3171 ; 2014:2
Keywords
Arbetsmiljö, Sverige, Kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar
National Category
Agricultural Occupational Health and Safety
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114545 (URN)
Available from: 2015-02-26 Created: 2015-02-26 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Ng, H. N., Classon, E., Larsby, B., Arlinger, S., Lunner, T., Rudner, M. & Rönnberg, J. (2014). Dynamic relation between working memory capacity and speech recognition in noise during the first six months of hearing aid use. Trends in Hearing, 18, 1-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic relation between working memory capacity and speech recognition in noise during the first six months of hearing aid use
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2014 (English)In: Trends in Hearing, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 18, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first six months of hearing aid use. Twentyseven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise (SRTs) were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at three and six months post-fitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and SRT during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first six months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of SRT when hearing aids were first fitted, but that pure-tone average hearing threshold (PTA) was the main predictor six months later. This indicates that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise before than after six months of use. We argue that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals but that as familiarization proceeds, engagement of working memory capacity is reduced.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2014
Keywords
Speech recognition, cognitive abilities, working memory, acclimatization, hearing aid
National Category
Health Sciences Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98285 (URN)10.1177/2331216514558688 (DOI)000354484700002 ()
Available from: 2013-10-07 Created: 2013-10-07 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
Classon, E. (2013). Correction: Early ERR signature of hearing impairment in visual rhyme judgment. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 897
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correction: Early ERR signature of hearing impairment in visual rhyme judgment
2013 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, p. 897-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

n/a

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Progressive Frontiers Press, 2013
Keywords
event-related potentials; hearing impairment; phonology; visual rhyme judgment; inter-stimulus interval; N2; N400; FP
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105256 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00897 (DOI)000331584300001 ()
Available from: 2014-03-14 Created: 2014-03-14 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Classon, E., Rudner, M., Johansson, M. & Rönnberg, J. (2013). Early ERP signature of hearing impairment in visual rhyme judgment. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(241)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early ERP signature of hearing impairment in visual rhyme judgment
2013 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, no 241Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Postlingually acquired hearing impairment (HI) is associated with changes in the representation of sound in semantic long-term memory. An indication of this is the lower performance on visual rhyme judgment tasks in conditions where phonological and orthographic cues mismatch, requiring high reliance on phonological representations. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used for the first time to investigate the neural correlates of phonological processing in visual rhyme judgments in participants with acquired HI and normal hearing (NH). Rhyme task word pairs rhymed or not and had matching or mismatching orthography. In addition, the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) was manipulated to be either long (800 ms) or short (50 ms). Long ISIs allow for engagement of explicit, top-down processes, while short ISIs limit the involvement of such mechanisms. We hypothesized lower behavioral performance and N400 and N2 deviations in HI in the mismatching rhyme judgment conditions, particularly in short ISI. However, the results showed a different pattern. As expected, behavioral performance in the mismatch conditions was lower in HI than in NH in short ISI, but ERPs did not differ across groups. In contrast, HI performed on a par with NH in long ISI. Further, HI, but not NH, showed an amplified N2-like response in the non-rhyming, orthographically mismatching condition in long ISI. This was also the rhyme condition in which participants in both groups benefited the most from the possibility to engage top-down processes afforded with the longer ISI. Taken together, these results indicate an early ERP signature of HI in this challenging phonological task, likely reflecting use of a compensatory strategy. This strategy is suggested to involve increased reliance on explicit mechanisms such as articulatory recoding and grapheme-to-phoneme conversion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: Frontiers Research Foundation, 2013
Keywords
event-related potentials, hearing impairment, phonology, visual rhyme judgment, inter-stimulus interval, N2, N400, FP
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92284 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00241 (DOI)000330942000001 ()
Available from: 2013-05-08 Created: 2013-05-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Signoret, C., Johnsrude, I., Classon, E. & Rudner, M. (2013). Lexical access speed determines the role of working memory in pop-out. In: Abstract book: Second International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication. Paper presented at 2nd International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication, 16-19 June 2013, Linköping, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lexical access speed determines the role of working memory in pop-out
2013 (English)In: Abstract book: Second International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication, 2013Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Prior knowledge about what is going to be said produces a clearer percept ofunintelligible noise-vocoded (NV) sentences. This is called the pop-out effect andcan be measured using a magnitude-estimation procedure. Sentence coherencesubstantially improves intelligibility of NV sentences, suggesting that semanticcontext may produce a pop-out effect. Moreover, understanding speech in challengingconditions is supported by cognitive skills such as working-memorycapacity and inference-making. In the present study, we investigated whether apop-out effect could be identified for sentence coherence and whether such a popouteffect would be additive to the pop-out effect generated by prior knowledge.Twenty normal-hearing native Swedish-speaking participants listened to SwedishNV (1, 3, 6 and 12 bands) and clear sentences, and rated the clarity on a 7-pointscale. The sentences were semantically coherent (e.g. “his new clothes were fromFrance”) or incoherent (e.g. “his great streets were from Smith”). Each spokenword was preceded (200 ms) by either its text equivalent or a consonant string ofmatched length. We found a pop-out effect due to sentence coherence as well asa pop-out effect due to prior knowledge. These two effects interacted, suggestingthat they are supported by different mechanisms. Lexical access speed predictedthe magnitude of pop-out due to prior knowledge. Further, in participants withslow lexical access speed, working memory capacity predicted pop-out magnitudewhile in participants with high lexical access speed, pop-out magnitude was bestpredicted by inference-making ability.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105117 (URN)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication, 16-19 June 2013, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2014-03-07 Created: 2014-03-07 Last updated: 2017-11-06
Classon, E., Ng, H. N., Arlinger, S., Kilman, L., Larsby, B., Lyxell, B., . . . Rönnberg, J. (2013). Reading span performance in 339 Swedish 50-89 year old individuals with hearing impairment: Effects of test version and age, and relation to speech recognition in noise.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reading span performance in 339 Swedish 50-89 year old individuals with hearing impairment: Effects of test version and age, and relation to speech recognition in noise
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2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Swedish reading span test (Rönnberg, Lyxell, Arlinger, & Kinnefors, 1989) is often used to assess working memory capacity (WMC) in the field of cognitive hearing science. The test has proven useful as a predictor of speech recognition in noise in adverse conditions. It has been used in a wide range of experimental studies and has been translated to several languages. The purpose of this paper was to provide reference data for the Swedish reading span test (Rönnberg et al., 1989) in a large sample of adults with hearing impairment aged 50-89 years that are representative of patients seeking rehabilitation at audiological clinics. Data from finished and ongoing projects were collated and reanalyzed for this purpose. The original full version and a shortened version of the test were compared, in terms of percentage correct. In addition, performance on the full version was compared across two different age-cohorts, 50-69 year olds and 70-89 year olds. Frequency distributions and percentile scores are reported, as well as relations with demographic variables, and speech recognition in noise. Results showed that reading span performance was related to age, but not sex, with lower scores in older participants. Pure tone hearing thresholds accounted for a small but significant amount of the variance such that higher reading span scores were related to better hearing. The frequency distributions of scores did not differ across the two versions of the test, but the long version seemed to be more sensitive to age. Performance in both versions was significantly correlated with speech recognition in noise. Regression analyses however showed that reading span explained additional variance in speech in noise recognition, after the effects of age and pure tone hearing thresholds were accounted for, only in the 50-69 year olds. These findings are discussed in relation to  age-related differences in the ability to recruit cognitive resources in the service of speech communication.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99780 (URN)
Available from: 2013-10-21 Created: 2013-10-21 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
Classon, E. (2013). Representing sounds and spellings: Phonological decline and compensatory working memory in acquired hearing impairment. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Representing sounds and spellings: Phonological decline and compensatory working memory in acquired hearing impairment
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Representationer av ljud och stavning : Försämrad fonologisk förmåga och kompensatoriskt arbetsminne vid förvärvad hörselnedsättning
Abstract [en]

This thesis examined phonological processing in adults with postlingually acquired moderate-to-severe hearing impairment (HI) and whether explicit working memory processing of phonology and individual working memory capacity (WMC) can compensate for degraded phonological representations in this group (papers I-III). A second aim was to provide reference data for a test of WMC, the reading span test, and to examine the relation between reading span test performance and speech recognition in noise in a larger sample of 50-89 year olds with HI (paper IV). Non-auditory tasks of phonological processing, episodic long-term memory and WMC were used in papers I-III, and both behavioral and electrophysiological measures were collected. Results showed that phonological processing was impaired in the group with HI but that WMC and explicit working memory processing of phonology could be employed to compensate for degraded phonological representations. However, this compensation may come at the cost of interfering with episodic memory encoding. An  electrophysiological marker of HI in text-based rhyme judgments was found. Paper IV presented reference data for reading span test performance in two versions of the test in individuals with HI, and results suggesting that WMC may be differentially predictive of speech recognition in noise in different age groups of older adults with HI. The clinical implications of the present results concerns the double disadvantage of individuals with lower WMC and HI. A structured assessment of WMC in rehabilitative settings would help to identify these individuals and tailor treatment to their needs. The reading span test is suggested as a suitable future candidate for clinical WMC assessment.

Abstract [sv]

I denna avhandling undersöktes fonologiska processer hos personer med postlingualt förvärvad, måttlig till mycket grav hörselnedsättning (HNS) och om inkoppling av explicit bearbetning av fonologi eller individuell arbetsminneskapacitet kan kompensera för försämrade ljudminnen i denna grupp (studie I-III). Ett andra syfte var att sammanställa referensdata för ett test av arbetsminneskapacitet, lässpann, och undersöka relationen mellan prestation på lässpann ochigenkänning av tal-i-brus i en större grupp av 50-89 åriga personer  med HNS (studie IV). Icke-auditiva test av fonologisk förmåga, episodiskt långtidsminne och arbetsminneskapacitet användes i studie I-III och både beteendedata och elektrofysiologiska data samlades in. Resultaten visade på försämrad fonologisk förmåga i gruppen med HNS men också att explicit bearbetning av fonologi och arbetsminneskapacitet kunde användas för att kompensera för försämrade fonologiska representationer i denna grupp. Denna kompensation kan dock ske på bekostnad av att inkodning i episodiska långtidsminnet störs. Vidare identifierades en elektrofysiologisk markör för HNS i en textbaserad rimuppgift. I studie IV presenterades referensdata i två versioner av lässpanntestet för personer med mild till mycket grav HN och resultat som pekar mot möjliga skillnader mellan olika åldersgrupper i hur väl arbetsminneskapacitet predicerar igenkänning av tal-i-brus. Kliniska implikationer rör den dubbla belastning det innebär att ha både en HN och relativt sänkt arbetsminneskapacitet. En strukturerad bedömning av arbetsminneskapacitet i samband med rehabilitering skulle kunna bidra till att synliggöra dessa personer och anpassa insatser efter deras behov. Lässpanntestet är ett test som i framtiden skulle kunna vara användbart i det sammanhanget.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. p. 57
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Sciences, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 591Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 54
Keywords
Acquired hearing impairment, phonology, WMC, reading span, Förvärvad hörselnedsättning, fonologi, arbetsminne, lässpann
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99786 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-99786 (DOI)978-91-7519-500-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-11-08, I:101, Hus I, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-10-21 Created: 2013-10-21 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
Classon, E., Löfkvist, U., Rudner, M. & Rönnberg, J. (2013). Verbal fluency in adults with postlingually acquired hearing impairment. Speech, Language and Hearing, 17(2), 88-100
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Verbal fluency in adults with postlingually acquired hearing impairment
2013 (English)In: Speech, Language and Hearing, ISSN 2050-571X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 88-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined verbal retrieval in participants with acquired moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing impairment (M age = 63, M education level = 13 years) compared to participants with normal hearing thresholds (M age = 62, M education level = 14 years) using the letter and category fluency tasks. Analyses of number of words produced, clustering, and switching, were conducted. There was no significant difference between the groups in category fluency performance. In letter fluency, however, the participants with hearing impairment produced significantly fewer words than the normal hearing participants and their production was characterized by fewer switches. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between demographic, auditory, and cognitive variables and letter fluency performance in the two groups. Phonological skills and auditory acuity predicted letter fluency output only in participants with hearing impairment and a hearing-related link between phonological skills, working memory capacity, and letter fluency switching was found.

Keywords
Hearing impairment, Letter fluency, Category fluency, Clustering, Switching, Phonology, Working memory capacity
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99778 (URN)10.1179/205057113X13781290153457 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-10-21 Created: 2013-10-21 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
Classon, E., Löfkvist, U., Rudner, M. & Rönnberg, J. (2013). Verbal fluency in adults with postlingually acquired hearing impairment. In: : . Paper presented at 2nd International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication, 16-19 June 2013, Linköping, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Verbal fluency in adults with postlingually acquired hearing impairment
2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105112 (URN)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication, 16-19 June 2013, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2014-03-07 Created: 2014-03-07 Last updated: 2017-11-06
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