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Zekveld, A., Kramer, S. E., Rönnberg, J. & Rudner, M. (2019). In a Concurrent Memory and Auditory Perception Task, the Pupil Dilation Response Is More Sensitive to Memory Load Than to Auditory Stimulus Characteristics. Ear and Hearing, 40(2), 272-286
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In a Concurrent Memory and Auditory Perception Task, the Pupil Dilation Response Is More Sensitive to Memory Load Than to Auditory Stimulus Characteristics
2019 (English)In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 272-286Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Speech understanding may be cognitively demanding, but it can be enhanced when semantically related text cues precede auditory sentences. The present study aimed to determine whether (a) providing text cues reduces pupil dilation, a measure of cognitive load, during listening to sentences, (b) repeating the sentences aloud affects recall accuracy and pupil dilation during recall of cue words, and (c) semantic relatedness between cues and sentences affects recall accuracy and pupil dilation during recall of cue words.

Design: Sentence repetition following text cues and recall of the text cues were tested. Twenty-six participants (mean age, 22 years) with normal hearing listened to masked sentences. On each trial, a set of four-word cues was presented visually as text preceding the auditory presentation of a sentence whose meaning was either related or unrelated to the cues. On each trial, participants first read the cue words, then listened to a sentence. Following this they spoke aloud either the cue words or the sentence, according to instruction, and finally on all trials orally recalled the cues. Peak pupil dilation was measured throughout listening and recall on each trial. Additionally, participants completed a test measuring the ability to perceive degraded verbal text information and three working memory tests (a reading span test, a size-comparison span test, and a test of memory updating).

Results: Cue words that were semantically related to the sentence facilitated sentence repetition but did not reduce pupil dilation. Recall was poorer and there were more intrusion errors when the cue words were related to the sentences. Recall was also poorer when sentences were repeated aloud. Both behavioral effects were associated with greater pupil dilation. Larger reading span capacity and smaller size-comparison span were associated with larger peak pupil dilation during listening. Furthermore, larger reading span and greater memory updating ability were both associated with better cue recall overall.

Conclusions: Although sentence-related word cues facilitate sentence repetition, our results indicate that they do not reduce cognitive load during listening in noise with a concurrent memory load. As expected, higher working memory capacity was associated with better recall of the cues. Unexpectedly, however, semantic relatedness with the sentence reduced word cue recall accuracy and increased intrusion errors, suggesting an effect of semantic confusion. Further, speaking the sentence aloud also reduced word cue recall accuracy, probably due to articulatory suppression. Importantly, imposing a memory load during listening to sentences resulted in the absence of formerly established strong effects of speech intelligibility on the pupil dilation response. This nullified intelligibility effect demonstrates that the pupil dilation response to a cognitive (memory) task can completely overshadow the effect of perceptual factors on the pupil dilation response. This highlights the importance of taking cognitive task load into account during auditory testing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2019
Keywords
Listening effort; Memory processing; Pupil dilation response; Speech perception
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155558 (URN)10.1097/AUD.0000000000000612 (DOI)000459769700006 ()29923867 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061056453 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council

Available from: 2019-03-26 Created: 2019-03-26 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Wang, Y., Zekveld, A., Wendt, D., Lunner, T., Naylor, G. & Kramer, S. E. (2018). Pupil light reflex evoked by light-emitting diode and computer screen: Methodology and association with need for recovery in daily life. PLoS ONE, 13(6), Article ID e0197739.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pupil light reflex evoked by light-emitting diode and computer screen: Methodology and association with need for recovery in daily life
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 6, article id e0197739Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives Pupil light reflex (PLR) has been widely used as a method for evaluating parasympathetic activity. The first aim of the present study is to develop a PLR measurement using a computer screen set-up and compare its results with the PLR generated by a more conventional setup using light-emitting diode (LED). The parasympathetic nervous system, which is known to control the rest and digest response of the human body, is considered to be associated with daily life fatigue. However, only few studies have attempted to test the relationship between self-reported daily fatigue and physiological measurement of the parasympathetic nervous system. Therefore, the second aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between daily-life fatigue, assessed using the Need for Recovery scale, and parasympathetic activity, as indicated by the PLR parameters. Design A pilot study was conducted first to develop a PLR measurement set-up using a computer screen. PLRs evoked by light stimuli with different characteristics were recorded to confirm the influence of light intensity, flash duration, and color on the PLRs evoked by the system. In the subsequent experimental study, we recorded the PLR of 25 adult participants to light flashes generated by the screen set-up as well as by a conventional LED set-up. PLR parameters relating to parasympathetic and sympathetic activity were calculated from the pupil responses. We tested the split-half reliability across two consecutive blocks of trials, and the relationships between the parameters of PLRs evoked by the two set-ups. Participants rated their need for recovery prior to the PLR recordings. Results PLR parameters acquired in the screen and LED set-ups showed good reliability for amplitude related parameters. The PLRs evoked by both set-ups were consistent, but showed systematic differences in absolute values of all parameters. Additionally, higher need for recovery was associated with faster and larger constriction of the PLR. Conclusions This study assessed the PLR generated by a computer screen and the PLR generated by a LED. The good reliability within set-ups and the consistency between the PLRs evoked by the set-ups indicate that both systems provides a valid way to evoke the PLR. A higher need for recovery was associated with faster and larger constricting PLRs, suggesting increased levels of parasympathetic nervous system activity in people experiencing higher levels of need for recovery on a daily basis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2018
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149474 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0197739 (DOI)000435090700026 ()29897946 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|FP7 People: Marie-Curie Actions [607373]; Medical Research Council [MC_UU_00010/4]; Oticon Foundation

Available from: 2018-07-05 Created: 2018-07-05 Last updated: 2019-06-27
Ohlenforst, B., Zekveld, A., Jansma, E. P., Wang, Y., Naylor, G., Lorens, A., . . . Kramer, S. E. (2017). Effects of Hearing Impairment and Hearing Aid Amplification on Listening Effort: A Systematic Review. Ear and Hearing, 38(3), 267-281
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Hearing Impairment and Hearing Aid Amplification on Listening Effort: A Systematic Review
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2017 (English)In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 267-281Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To undertake a systematic review of available evidence on the effect of hearing impairment and hearing aid amplification on listening effort. Two research questions were addressed: Q1) does hearing impairment affect listening effort? and Q2) can hearing aid amplification affect listening effort during speech comprehension? Design: English language articles were identified through systematic searches in PubMed, EMBASE, Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, and PsyclNFO from inception to August 2014. References of eligible studies were checked. The Population, Intervention, Control, Outcomes, and Study design strategy was used to create inclusion criteria for relevance. It was not feasible to apply a meta-analysis of the results from comparable studies. For the articles identified as relevant, a quality rating, based on the 2011 Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group guidelines, was carried out to judge the reliability and confidence of the estimated effects. Results: The primary search produced 7017 unique hits using the keywords: hearing aids OR hearing impairment AND listening effort OR perceptual effort OR ease of listening. Of these, 41 articles fulfilled the Population, Intervention, Control, Outcomes, and Study design selection criteria of: experimental work on hearing impairment OR hearing aid technologies AND listening effort OR fatigue during speech perception. The methods applied in those articles were categorized into subjective, behavioral, and physiological assessment of listening effort. For each study, the statistical analysis addressing research question Q1 and/or Q2 was extracted. In seven articles more than one measure of listening effort was provided. Evidence relating to Q1 was provided by 21 articles that reported 41 relevant findings. Evidence relating to Q2 was provided by 27 articles that reported 56 relevant findings. The quality of evidence on both research questions (Q1 and Q2) was very low, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group guidelines. We tested the statistical evidence across studies with nonparametric tests. The testing revealed only one consistent effect across studies, namely that listening effort was higher for hearing-impaired listeners compared with normal-hearing listeners (Q1) as measured by electroencephalographic measures. For all other studies, the evidence across studies failed to reveal consistent effects on listening effort. Conclusion: In summary, we could only identify scientific evidence from physiological measurement methods, suggesting that hearing impairment increases listening effort during speech perception (Q1). There was no scientific, finding across studies indicating that hearing aid amplification decreases listening effort (Q2). In general, there were large differences in the study population, the control groups and conditions, and the outcome measures applied between the studies included in this review. The results of this review indicate that published listening effort studies lack consistency, lack standardization across studies, and have insufficient statistical power. The findings underline the need for a common conceptual framework for listening effort to address the current shortcomings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2017
Keywords
Behavioral measures; Hearing aid amplification; Hearing impairment; Listening effort; Physiologic measures; Quality rating; Speech comprehension; Subjective ratings
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139418 (URN)10.1097/AUD.0000000000000396 (DOI)000404120700006 ()28234670 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85013801436 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|European Commission [FP7-LISTEN607373]

Available from: 2017-08-07 Created: 2017-08-07 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Ohlenforst, B., Zekveld, A., Lunner, T., Wendt, D., Naylor, G., Wang, Y., . . . Kramer, S. E. (2017). Impact of stimulus-related factors and hearing impairment on listening effort as indicated by pupil dilation. Hearing Research, 351, 68-79
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of stimulus-related factors and hearing impairment on listening effort as indicated by pupil dilation
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2017 (English)In: Hearing Research, ISSN 0378-5955, E-ISSN 1878-5891, Vol. 351, p. 68-79Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has reported effects of masker type and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as indicated by the peak pupil dilation (PPD) relative to baseline during speech recognition. At about 50% correct sentence recognition performance, increasing SNRs generally results in declining PPDs, indicating reduced effort. However, the decline in PPD over SNRs has been observed to be less pronounced for hearing-impaired (HI) compared to normal-hearing (NH) listeners. The presence of a competing talker during speech recognition generally resulted in larger PPDs as compared to the presence of a fluctuating or stationary background noise. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay between hearing-status, a broad range of SNRs corresponding to sentence recognition performance varying from 0 to 100% correct, and different masker types (stationary noise and single-talker masker) on the PPD during speech perception. Twenty-five HI and 32 age-matched NH participants listened to sentences across a broad range of SNRs, masked with speech from a single talker (-25 dB to +15 dB SNR) or with stationary noise (-12 dB to +16 dB). Correct sentence recognition scores and pupil responses were recorded during stimulus presentation. With a stationary masker, NH listeners show maximum PPD across a relatively narrow range of low SNRs, while HI listeners show relatively large PPD across a wide range of ecological SNRs. With the single-talker masker, maximum PPD was observed in the mid-range of SNRs around 50% correct sentence recognition performance, while smaller PPDs were observed at lower and higher SNRs. Mixed-model ANOVAs revealed significant interactions between hearing-status and SNR on the PPD for both masker types. Our data show a different pattern of PPDs across SNRs between groups, which indicates that listening and the allocation of effort during listening in daily life environments may be different for NH and HI listeners. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Hearing impairment; Speech recognition; Pupil dilation; Listening effort; Signal-to-noise ratio
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139538 (URN)10.1016/j.heares.2017.05.012 (DOI)000405155500007 ()28622894 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85020735333 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|European Commission [FP7-LISTEN607373]

Available from: 2017-08-08 Created: 2017-08-08 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Stenfelt, S., Lunner, T., Ng, E., Lidestam, B., Zekveld, A., Sörqvist, P., . . . Rönnberg, J. (2016). Auditory, signal processing, and cognitive factors  influencing  speech  perception  in  persons with hearing loss fitted with hearing aids – the N200 study. In: : . Paper presented at IHCON2016, International Hearing Aid Research Conference, Tahoe City, California, USA, August 10–14, 2016. , Article ID B46.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Auditory, signal processing, and cognitive factors  influencing  speech  perception  in  persons with hearing loss fitted with hearing aids – the N200 study
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess aided speech-in-noise outcomes and relate those measures to auditory sensitivity and processing, different types of cognitive processing abilities, and signal processing in hearing aids.

Material and method: Participants were 200 hearing-aid wearers, with a mean age of 60.8 years, 43% females, with average hearing thresholds in the better ear of 37.4 dB HL. Tests of auditory functions were hearing thresholds, DPOAEs, tests of fine structure processing, IHC dead regions, spectro-temporal modulation, and speech recognition in quiet (PB words). Tests of cognitive processing function were tests of phonological skills, working memory, executive functions and inference making abilities, and general cognitive tests (e.g., tests of cognitive decline and IQ). The outcome test variables were the Hagerman sentences with 50 and 80% speech recognition levels, using two different noises (stationary speech weighted noise and 4-talker babble), and three types of signal processing (linear gain, fast acting compression, and linear gain plus a non-ideal binary mask). Another sentence test included typical and atypical sentences with contextual cues that were tested both audio-visually and in an auditory mode only. Moreover, HINT and SSQ were administrated.

Analysis: Factor analyses were performed separate for the auditory, cognitive, and outcome tests.

Results: The auditory tests resulted in two factors labeled SENSITIVITY and TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE, the cognitive tests in one factor (COGNITION), and the outcome tests in the two factors termed NO CONTEXT and CONTEXT that relates to the level of context in the different outcome tests. When age was partialled out, COGNITION was moderately correlated with the TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and NO CONTEXT factors but only weakly correlated with the CONTEXT factor. SENSITIVITY correlated weakly with TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and CONTEXT, and moderately with NO CONTEXT, while TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE showed weak correlation with CONTEXT and moderate correlation with NO CONTEXT. CONTEXT and NO CONTEXT had a  moderate correlation. Moreover, the overall results of the Hagerman sentences showed 0.9 dB worse SNR with fast acting compression compared with linear gain and 5.5 dB better SNR with linear  gain and noise reduction compared with only linear gain.

Conclusions: For hearing aid wearers, the ability to recognize speech in noise is associated with both sensory and cognitive processing abilities when the speech materials have low internal context. These associations are less prominent when the speech material has contextual cues.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159504 (URN)
Conference
IHCON2016, International Hearing Aid Research Conference, Tahoe City, California, USA, August 10–14, 2016
Available from: 2019-08-09 Created: 2019-08-09 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Kramer, S. E., Teunissen, C. E. & Zekveld, A. (2016). Cortisol, Chromogranin A, and Pupillary Responses Evoked by Speech Recognition Tasks in Normally Hearing and Hard-of-Hearing Listeners: A Pilot Study. Ear and Hearing, 37, 126S-135S
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cortisol, Chromogranin A, and Pupillary Responses Evoked by Speech Recognition Tasks in Normally Hearing and Hard-of-Hearing Listeners: A Pilot Study
2016 (English)In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 37, p. 126S-135SArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pupillometry is one method that has been used to measure processing load expended during speech understanding. Notably, speech perception (in noise) tasks can evoke a pupil response. It is not known if there is concurrent activation of the sympathetic nervous system as indexed by salivary cortisol and chromogranin A (CgA) and whether such activation differs between normally hearing (NH) and hard-of-hearing (HH) adults. Ten NH and 10 adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss (mean age 52 years) participated. Two speech perception tests were administered in random order: one in quiet targeting 100% correct performance and one in noise targeting 50% correct performance. Pupil responses and salivary samples for cortisol and CgA analyses were collected four times: before testing, after the two speech perception tests, and at the end of the session. Participants rated their perceived accuracy, effort, and motivation. Effects were examined using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Correlations between outcomes were calculated. HH listeners had smaller peak pupil dilations (PPDs) than NH listeners in the speech in noise condition only. No group or condition effects were observed for the cortisol data, but HH listeners tended to have higher cortisol levels across conditions. CgA levels were larger at the pretesting time than at the three other test times. Hearing impairment did not affect CgA. Self-rated motivation correlated most often with cortisol or PPD values. The three physiological indicators of cognitive load and stress (PPD, cortisol, and CgA) are not equally affected by speech testing or hearing impairment. Each of them seem to capture a different dimension of sympathetic nervous system activity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2016
Keywords
Autonomic nervous system; Biomarkers; Chromogranin A; Cognitive load; Cortisol; Hearing impairment; Pupil response; Sympathetic; Sentence recognition; Stress
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130393 (URN)10.1097/AUD.0000000000000311 (DOI)000379372100015 ()27355762 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-08-15 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2019-06-27
Wang, Y., Zekveld, A., Naylor, G., Ohlenforst, B., Jansma, E. P., Lorens, A., . . . Kramer, S. E. (2016). Parasympathetic Nervous System Dysfunction, as Identified by Pupil Light Reflex, and Its Possible Connection to Hearing Impairment. PLoS ONE, 11(4), e0153566
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parasympathetic Nervous System Dysfunction, as Identified by Pupil Light Reflex, and Its Possible Connection to Hearing Impairment
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 4, p. e0153566-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context Although the pupil light reflex has been widely used as a clinical diagnostic tool for autonomic nervous system dysfunction, there is no systematic review available to summarize the evidence that the pupil light reflex is a sensitive method to detect parasympathetic dysfunction. Meanwhile, the relationship between parasympathetic functioning and hearing impairment is relatively unknown. Objectives To 1) review the evidence for the pupil light reflex being a sensitive method to evaluate parasympathetic dysfunction, 2) review the evidence relating hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity and 3) seek evidence of possible connections between hearing impairment and the pupil light reflex. Methods Literature searches were performed in five electronic databases. All selected articles were categorized into three sections: pupil light reflex and parasympathetic dysfunction, hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity, pupil light reflex and hearing impairment. Results Thirty-eight articles were included in this review. Among them, 36 articles addressed the pupil light reflex and parasympathetic dysfunction. We summarized the information in these data according to different types of parasympathetic-related diseases. Most of the studies showed a difference on at least one pupil light reflex parameter between patients and healthy controls. Two articles discussed the relationship between hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity. Both studies reported a reduced parasympathetic activity in the hearing impaired groups. The searches identified no results for pupil light reflex and hearing impairment. Discussion and Conclusions As the first systematic review of the evidence, our findings suggest that the pupil light reflex is a sensitive tool to assess the presence of parasympathetic dysfunction. Maximum constriction velocity and relative constriction amplitude appear to be the most sensitive parameters. There are only two studies investigating the relationship between parasympathetic activity and hearing impairment, hence further research is needed. The pupil light reflex could be a candidate measurement tool to achieve this goal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2016
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128960 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0153566 (DOI)000374527000026 ()27089436 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|LISTEN [607373]

Available from: 2016-06-09 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2019-06-27
Zekveld, A., Rudner, M., Kramer, S. E., Lyzenga, J. & Rönnberg, J. (2015). Cognitive processing load during listening is reduced more by decreasing voice similarity than by increasing spatial separation between target and masker speech. In: : . Paper presented at Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication (CHCCOM2015), Linköping, June 14-17, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive processing load during listening is reduced more by decreasing voice similarity than by increasing spatial separation between target and masker speech
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We investigated changes in speech recognition and cognitive processing load attributable to decreasing similarity between target and masker speech. We presented masker voices with either the same (female) gender or different gender (male) as the target speech, and/or spatially separated the target and masker speech using HRTFs. We assessed the relation between speech perception performance, the pupil response and cognitive abilities in 24 normal-hearing adults. We hypothesized that the pupil response, a measure of cognitive processing load, would be larger for co-located maskers and for same-gender compared to different-gender maskers. We further expected that better cognitive abilities would be associated with better speech perception and larger pupil responses, as the allocation of larger capacity may result in more intense mental processing.

In line with previous studies, the performance benefit from different-gender compared to same-gender maskers was larger for co-located masker signals. The performance benefit of spatially-separated maskers was larger for same-gender maskers. The pupil response was larger for same-gender than for different-gender maskers, but was not reduced by spatial separation. We observed associations between better perception performance and better working memory, better information updating, and better executive abilities. The pupil response was not associated with cognitive abilities. Thus, although both gender and location differences between target and masker facilitate speech perception, only gender differences lower cognitive processing load. Increasing target-masker voice dissimilarity may facilitate target-speech perception at a later (cognitive) processing stage than increasing spatial separation. The pupil response provides information that complements speech intelligibility data.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123287 (URN)
Conference
Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication (CHCCOM2015), Linköping, June 14-17, 2015
Available from: 2015-12-09 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2019-06-27
Ohlenforst, B., Zekveld, A., Jansma, I., Wang, Y., Naylor, G., Lunner, T., . . . Kramer, S. E. (2015). Effects of hearing aid rehabilitation on listening effort a systematic literature review. In: : . Paper presented at the 3rd international Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication (CHSCOM), Linköping, Sweden, June 14-17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of hearing aid rehabilitation on listening effort a systematic literature review
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Hearing impairment negatively affects speech perception and may increase listening effort, especially under adverse conditions such as in the presence of background noise. Previous research showed that hearing-aid rehabilitation can improve speech perception performance. However, it is not clear whether it influences listening effort during speech perception. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of available evidence of the effect of hearing-aid rehabilitation on listening effort. English language articles were identified through systematic searches in PubMed, EMBASE, Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and through reference checking from inception to August 2014. The primary search produced 12210 unique hits using the key-words: hearing aids OR hearing impairment AND listening effort OR perceptual effort OR ease of listening. Three researchers independently determined eligibility of the articles. In total, about 45 articles fulfilled the search and selection criteria of: experimental work on hearing aid technologies AND listening effort OR fatigue during speech perception.

Most of the about 45 eligible studies (about 70%) measured perceived effort using subjective scales or questionnaires. Behavioral measures of listening effort mainly included dual-task paradigms. Finally, physiological measures such as provided by pupillometry, electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging objectively estimated listening effort. Some studies found that hearing-aid rehabilitation was associated with significant reductions of listening effort, while others failed to do so or even reported an increase of listening effort associated with hearing-aid rehabilitation.This review summarizes the available evidence on the effects of hearing aid rehabilitation on listening effort.

National Category
Otorhinolaryngology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126504 (URN)
Conference
the 3rd international Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication (CHSCOM), Linköping, Sweden, June 14-17
Available from: 2016-03-29 Created: 2016-03-29 Last updated: 2019-06-27
Kilman, L., Zekveld, A. A., Hällgren, M. & Rönnberg, J. (2015). Episodic long-term memory by native and non-native stories masked by speech.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Episodic long-term memory by native and non-native stories masked by speech
2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the current study was to investigate how well normal-hearing adults recalled Swedish (native) and English (non-native) fictional stories masked by speech in Swedish and English. Each story was 15 min long and divided into three parts of 5 min each. One part was masked by Swedish speech, one by English speech and one was presented unmasked as a baseline. Audibility was rated immediately after listening to each fragment. Episodic long-term memory was assessed using 24 multiple choice questions (4AFC). Every 8 questions corresponded to 5 min of recorded story and included 4 simple and 4 complex questions. Participants also performed complex span test of working memory capacity and proficiency tests in Swedish and English. The main result was that the stories in quiet were significantly better recalled than the stories masked by Swedish. Although the stimuli were correctly identified at the perceptual level, challenging listening

National Category
Clinical Medicine Neurosciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121033 (URN)
Available from: 2015-09-03 Created: 2015-09-03 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1320-6908

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