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Pettersson, Karl
Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Larsson, L. V., Ericson, L., Uebel (Pettersson), K. & Krus, P. (2019). Low-Level Control of Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions for Heavy Mobile Working Machines. Energies, 12(9), Article ID 1683.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-Level Control of Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions for Heavy Mobile Working Machines
2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 1683Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fuel efficiency has become an increasingly important property of heavy mobile working machines. As a result, Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions (HMTs) are often considered for the propulsion of these vehicles. The introduction of hybrid HMTs does, however, come with a number of control-related challenges. To date, a great focus in the literature has been on high-level control aspects, concerning optimal utilization of the energy storage medium. In contrast, the main topic of this article is low-level control, with the focus on dynamic response and the ability to realize requested power flows accurately. A static decoupled Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) control strategy, based on a linear model of a general hybrid HMT, is proposed. The strategy is compared to a baseline approach in Hardware-In-the-Loop (HWIL) simulations of a reference wheel loader for two drive cycles. It was found that an important benefit of the decoupled control approach is that the static error caused by the system’s cross-couplings is minimized without introducing integrating elements. This feature, combined with the strategy’s general nature, motivates its use for multiple-mode transmissions in which the transmission configuration changes between the modes. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
hydromechanical transmissions, hybridization, control, construction machinery; decoupled control, hardware-in-the-loop
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157504 (URN)10.3390/en12091683 (DOI)000469761700099 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P39367-2
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency (Energimyndigheten) [P39367-2]

Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-08-21Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, K., Heybroek, K., Mattsson, P. & Krus, P. (2017). A novel hydromechanical hybrid motion system for construction machines. International Journal of Fluid Power, 18(1), 17-28
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel hydromechanical hybrid motion system for construction machines
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Fluid Power, ISSN 1439-9776, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper deals with a novel type of hybrid motion system for construction machines based on a common pressure rail shared between a hydromechanical power-split transmission and secondary controlled work hydraulics. A construction machine with driveline and work functions is a complex coupled motion system and the design of an effective hybrid system needs to take both subsystems into account. Studies on energy efficient hybrid systems for construction machines have hitherto principally focused on one subsystem at a time - work hydraulics or driveline. The paper demonstrates a use case with a specific transmission concept proposal for a medium-sized wheel loader. The system is modelled and simulated using an optimal energy management strategy based on dynamic programming. The results show the benefits of a throttle-free bidirectional link between the machine's subsystems and the energy storage, while taking advantage of the complex power flows of the power-split transmission.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis, 2017
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142329 (URN)10.1080/14399776.2016.1210423 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-10-26 Created: 2017-10-26 Last updated: 2017-11-09Bibliographically approved
Uebel, K. (2017). Conceptual Design of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptual Design of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis explores the conceptual design process of complex hydromechanical transmissions for mobile working machines. Efficient methods for design optimisation and controller development are presented to support the final concept selection.

In the endeavour to develop new fuel-efficient driveline solutions for construction machines and off-road equipment new complex hydromechanical transmission concepts are being investigated. This pursuit is driven by stricter emission legislation, high fuel prices and a desire for a greener image both for customers and manufacturers. The trend towards more complex transmission architectures increases the need for more sophisticated product development methods. Complex multiple-mode transmissions are difficult to design and prototype and can be realised in a great number of architectures. By introducing a secondary energy storage in the machine the design space expands further for both hardware and software. There is accordingly a need for more reliable concept assessment in early design stages and the possibility to support concurrent engineering throughout the development process.

Previous research on the design and development of hydromechanical transmissions has been limited to analysis of fixed concept designs or design optimization using very simple performance indicators. Existing methodologies for electrified on-road vehicles are not suitable for off-road working machines with hydromechanical transmissions and hydraulic energy storage.

The proposed conceptual design process uses detailed quasi-static simulation models and targets to optimise the fuel efficiency of the specific machine specifications and operations. It is also shown how high-speed dynamic simulations can be used for controller development and hardware-in-the-loop simulations to support an efficient product design process. The methods are demonstrated for typical use cases targeting new transmission development for construction machines. Software control development is also treated using control optimisation and real-time simulation. Finally a novel hybrid hydromechanical motion system is presented for which an efficient design process is crucial to its end performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. p. 70
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1883
National Category
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142895 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-142895 (DOI)9789176854471 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-08, ACAS, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

In the printed verison the series name Linköping studies in Arts and Science is incorrect. The correct series name is Linköping studies in science and technology. Dissertations.

Available from: 2017-11-09 Created: 2017-11-09 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, K. & Heybroek, K. (2015). Hydrauliskt hybridsystem för anläggningsmaskiner: Delat energilager är dubbelt energilager. In: : . Paper presented at Hydraulikdagarna 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrauliskt hybridsystem för anläggningsmaskiner: Delat energilager är dubbelt energilager
2015 (Swedish)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Artikeln presenterar ett nytt innovativt hydrauliskt hybridkoncept med power-split transmission och delad hydraulisk krets med arbetsfunktionerna. Systemet är sekundärreglerat med direkt koppling till ett hydrauliskt energilager. Detta ger full frihet att överföra energi mellan drivlina, arbetsfunktioner och energilager i samtliga riktningar. En anläggningsmaskin medbåde framdrivning och arbetsfunktioner är ett komplext kopplat rörelsesystem och ett effektivt hybridkoncept måste därmed ta hänsyn till båda delsystemen. I sekundärreglerade system sker transformeringen av effekt i huvudsak vid lastsidan, detvill säga från hydraulisk effekt till mekanisk effekt. Sekundärreglering passar därför för hybridisering av maskiner med flera hydrauliska delsystem eftersom den hydrauliska kretsen kan användas gemensamt av systemen utan att använda strypventiler.Därmed blir även energilagret tillgängligt för delsystemen utan ytterligare effekttransformering.

National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-116894 (URN)
Conference
Hydraulikdagarna 2015
Available from: 2015-04-09 Created: 2015-04-09 Last updated: 2015-04-20Bibliographically approved
Larsson, L. V., Pettersson, K. & Krus, P. (2015). Mode Shifting in Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions. In: ASME/BATH 2015 Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control: . Paper presented at ASME/BATH 2015 Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control, Chicago, Illinois, USA, October 12–14, 2015 (pp. 13). ASME Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mode Shifting in Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions
2015 (English)In: ASME/BATH 2015 Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control, ASME Press, 2015, p. 13-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Demands for low cost sustainable solutions have increased the use of and interest in complex hydromechanical transmissions for heavy off-road vehicles. In transmissions with multiplemodes, an important condition is to maintain the tractive force during the mode shifting event. For hybrid hydromechanical transmissions, with a direct connection to a hydraulic accumulator, the impressed system pressure caused by the hydraulic accumulator has not yet been observed to interfere with this condition. In this paper, a black box model approach is used to modify the hydraulic system after obtaining knowledge regarding how it is affected by a mode shift. A comparative study is carried out where a full vehicle model of a mobile working machine is simulated with two different hydraulic systems. The results show that different system solutions imply different demands on the included components, and that the mode shifting event is not a negligible factor in heavy hydraulic hybrid vehicles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASME Press, 2015
Keywords
Mode shifting, hydromechanical transmissions, fluid power, heavy construction machinery
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126556 (URN)10.1115/FPMC2015-9583 (DOI)000373970500045 ()978-0-7918-5723-6 (ISBN)
Conference
ASME/BATH 2015 Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control, Chicago, Illinois, USA, October 12–14, 2015
Projects
Research on Hydromechanical Transmissions and Hybrid Motion systems, RHYTHM
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P39367-1
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2019-08-21
Pettersson, K., Larsson, L. V., Larsson, K. V. & Krus, P. (2014). Simulation Aided Design and Testing of Hydromechanical Transmissions. In: The 9th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power, Matsue, 2014: . Paper presented at the 9th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power in Matsue, Shimane Japan, on October 28-31, 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation Aided Design and Testing of Hydromechanical Transmissions
2014 (English)In: The 9th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power, Matsue, 2014, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper demonstrates the use of high-speed simulation in transmission conceptual design and presents a transmission test bed for hardware-in-the-loop simulations of hydromechanical transmission concepts. Complex transmissions, such as multiple-mode hydromechanical transmissions and hydraulic hybrid transmissions, present new difficulties and costs in the development process. There is today a greater demand for more efficient product development and more work has shifted towards simulation. The Hopsan simulation package allows robust, high-speed simulations suitable for both offline and hardware-in-the-loop simulation. New simulation models for hydromechanical transmissions are developed and used to simulate a known two-mode transmission concept. The same concept is also tested in hardware-in-the-loop simulations in the proposed transmission test bed. Results show good agreement with the hardware tests and highlight the proficiency of the simulation tools.

Keywords
Hydromechanical Transmission, Hardware-in-the-loop, Hopsan
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126561 (URN)4-931070-10-8 (ISBN)
Conference
the 9th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power in Matsue, Shimane Japan, on October 28-31, 2014
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2018-03-21
Pettersson, K. (2013). Design Automation of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions. (Licentiate dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design Automation of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis proposes an automated methodology for the design of complex multiple-mode hydromechanical transmissions. High fuel prices and strict emission regulations are today drivers of the development of new fuel-efficient drive transmissions for construction machinery. Hydromechanical transmissions have high energy efficiency and a wide torque/speed conversion range. They are today strong candidates to replace the fuel-thirsty torque converters conventionally used in heavy construction machines. The trend towards more complex transmission architectures increases the need for more sophisticated product development methods. Complex multiple-mode transmissions are difficult to design and prototype and can be realised in a great number of different architectures. This increases the need for reliable concept evaluation in early design stages. The design of the transmission is also strongly coupled to its energy consumption and for a fair comparison  between transmission concepts optimal designs are necessary.

Design automation and optimisation with detailed simulation models can support the industrial engineer in the design task and increase the available knowledge early in the design process. The proposed methodology uses simulation-based optimisation to design the transmission for a specific vehicle application. Various aspects of the transmission’s characteristics may be targeted, although energy efficiency is in great focus in this work. To evaluate the energy efficiency, the transmission designs are simulated using backward-facing simulations with detailed power loss models. The methodology is applicable for designing the drive transmissions of construction machines and other mobile working vehicles such as agricultural machines, forest machines and mobile mining equipment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. p. 70
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1620
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99382 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-99382 (DOI)LIU-TEK-LIC-2013:54 (Local ID)978-91-7519-504-9 (ISBN)LIU-TEK-LIC-2013:54 (Archive number)LIU-TEK-LIC-2013:54 (OAI)
Presentation
2013-10-25, ACAS, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2013-10-21Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, K. & Krus, P. (2013). Design Optimization of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions. Journal of mechanical design (1990), 135(9), 091005-1-091005-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design Optimization of Complex Hydromechanical Transmissions
2013 (English)In: Journal of mechanical design (1990), ISSN 1050-0472, E-ISSN 1528-9001, Vol. 135, no 9, p. 091005-1-091005-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Demands for higher fuel efficiency for off-highway applications motivate manufacturers to replace existing drive transmissions with more complex, high-efficiency transmissions. Increased intelligence and more advanced architectures are, however, more difficult to design and prototype. This leads to longer product development processes and a greater need for early product evaluation. The great variety of existing concepts also requires a methodology to support the choice of architecture. This paper proposes a design methodology for complex hydromechanical transmissions based on optimization. The main objective is to maximize energy efficiency and adapt the design to suit the typical operating behavior of the application. The methodology is also implemented on a multiple mode transmission concept sui for a heavy wheel loader application. It is shown that the design of the gearbox heavily influences the energy consumption and the necessity to use optimization when designing the gearbox.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ASME Press, 2013
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99379 (URN)10.1115/1.4024732 (DOI)000326172400006 ()
Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Hugo, A., Pettersson, K., Heybroek, K. & Krus, P. (2013). Modelling and Control of a Complementary Energy Recuperation System for Mobile Working Machines. In: Petter Krus, Magnus Sethson, Liselott Ericson (Ed.), : . Paper presented at 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, June 3-5, 2013, Linköping, Sweden (pp. 21-30). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling and Control of a Complementary Energy Recuperation System for Mobile Working Machines
2013 (English)In: / [ed] Petter Krus, Magnus Sethson, Liselott Ericson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, p. 21-30Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The concept of hybrid technologies for mobile working machines has gained increased attention in recent years. This paper deals with a parallel hybrid system for energy recuperation based on a two-machine hydraulic transformer. The system can be connected hydraulically to an existing hydraulic circuit as a complementary add-on system. The linear analysis of the system visualises the control difficulties coming from a low inertia, slow control dynamics of the machines and the non-linear stick-slip friction during low speeds. A control strategy based on linear control methods is proposed and evaluated in a hardware test bench. It is shown that an acceptable performance can be achieved even with fairly simple models. Additionally, a start-up procedure is proposed to start the transformer from zero speed

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013
Series
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 092
Keywords
Parallel hybrid, Energy recuperation, Hydraulic transformer
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100142 (URN)10.3384/ecp1392a3 (DOI)978-91-7519-572-8 (ISBN)
Conference
13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, June 3-5, 2013, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2013-10-29 Created: 2013-10-29 Last updated: 2018-02-02Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, K. & Krus, P. (2013). Modular Design of Hydromechanical Transmissions for Mobile Working Machines. In: Proceedings of the 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power,(SICFP2013), June 3-5, 2013, Linköping, Sweden: . Paper presented at Proceedings of the 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, (SICFP2013), June 3-5, 2013, Linköping, Sweden (pp. 113-119). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modular Design of Hydromechanical Transmissions for Mobile Working Machines
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power,(SICFP2013), June 3-5, 2013, Linköping, Sweden, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, p. 113-119Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper demonstrates an optimisation-based method to design modular gearboxes scalable for a range of applications. The design is adapted to the typical operating behaviours of the reference vehicles and considers the manufacturing costs of the gearboxes. Hydromechanical continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) are today strong candidates to replace drive line transmissions based on fuel-thirsty torque converters in many mobile working machines. The advantages include wide range of torque/speed ratios, high energy efficiency throughout the speed range and decoupling of the engine speed and the vehicle speed. Advanced multiple mode CVTs, however, are difficult to evaluate early in the product development process due to the complex architectures and the great variety of possible concepts. There is consequently an increased need for methods to design, compare and evaluate the transmission concepts. To decrease the development and manufacturing costs, there is also a need for scalable transmission concepts that can be used in several applications of different classes. The results show the proficiency of the methodology compared to a manual design process and that the energy efficiency of the transmissions are heavy coupled to the designs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013
Series
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 92
Keywords
Hydromechanical transmissions, Power-split, Design optimisation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99381 (URN)10.3384/ecp1392a12 (DOI)978-91-7519-572-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings of the 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, (SICFP2013), June 3-5, 2013, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2013-10-17 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2019-01-24Bibliographically approved
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