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Andersson, Torbjörn
Publications (8 of 8) Show all publications
Andersson, T. (2021). Aesthetic Flexibility: In Industrial Design Practice. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aesthetic Flexibility: In Industrial Design Practice
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Competition among companies that produce complex or large product portfolios has created a need to use modularity strategies not only to flexibly manage technical complexity in a cost-effective manner but also to produce visually appealing products. This research aims to understand how the visual appearance of products is affected by modular product development strategies and creates coherent product brands. Thus, this study examines the intersection of design aesthetics, product portfolio management, product brand management, and design management. Specifically, this study aims to understand how such strategies constrain and generate possibilities when the industrial design process concerns itself with visual appearance. 

The main research approach has been qualitative multi-case methodology (Miles et al, 2014; Eisenhardt, 1989) and design theory building (Chakrabarti and Blessing, 2016) that collects data through interviews, experimentation, and theoretical studies based on findings in the literature. Sixteen face-to-face interviews were conducted with design vice presidents, senior designers, and senior design engineers at five Swedish manufacturers from the automotive, MedTech, consumer goods, commercial vehicles, and materials handling industries. 

This approach has resulted in the description of three theoretical models and a design method, product gist, for investigating prototypicality in a product category. Aesthetic flexibility reflects the requirement that under certain circumstances an industrial designer has to plan for future (as yet unknown) changes in a design. 

Each of the three theoretical models has a different focus: one model describes three ways manufacturing companies organise a strategic in-house design function; one model describes how design decisions are made on a general level through an intuitive and knowledge-based judgment process; and one model describes the strategies a manager needs to consider when developing an existing product portfolio and how the strategies influence industrial design practice. 

Understanding visual flexibility serves as a starting point for further investigations of how development strategies affect visual product design. This understanding provides industrial designers insight into how they can develop product systems that share design components across product lines to promote brand identity. The findings of this work illustrate and explain a complex and multi-facetted design phenomenon that many designers manage more or less intuitively today; therefore, this study advances the understanding of the field for academics, teachers, and professional designers. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2021. p. 112
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2131
Keywords
industrial design, product development, product modularity, product branding, and dual decision-making.
National Category
Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173826 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-173826 (DOI)9789179296810 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-03-29, ACAS, A-Building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Linköpings universitet
Available from: 2021-03-09 Created: 2021-03-09 Last updated: 2021-03-11Bibliographically approved
Andersson, T. (2016). Aesthetic Flexibility: Modularity of Visual Form in Product Portfolios and Branded Products. (Licentiate dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aesthetic Flexibility: Modularity of Visual Form in Product Portfolios and Branded Products
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The increase in competition amongst companies that produce complex or large product portfolios has created a need to utilise modularity strategies not only to flexibly manage technical complexity in a costeffective manner but also for visual appearance. This research aims to understand how the visual appearance of products is affected by modular product development strategies. Specifically, the aim is to understand how such strategies induce constraints and generate possibilities for management of visual appearance in the design process.

Five studies have been conducted during the course of this licentiate thesis. Two were conducted with professionals and students in design, while the remaining three are theoretical studies based on findings in the literature, theory building, and experimental research. The goal has been to investigate how designers work when they are put to the task of changing and developing the designs of complex products that are part of a portfolio. The challenge has been to study what suitable strategies exist that manage complex products and product brands, then investigate how these influence designers’ practices.

The first study examined how coherence towards a product category influences the design of new products. The outcome of the study was a method to explore visual coherence and diversity in the appearance of a product category.

The remaining four studies investigated how modularity, brand management and the redesign of product portfolios influence a design process. The second study described a design phenomenon known as aesthetic flexibility, which was further explored in studies three and five. The outcome from these studies was a proposal for four aesthetic flexibility strategies.

The fourth study investigated in what way portfolio extension strategies found in brand management and design research are related, and how such strategies influence aesthetic flexibility. The results from study four were illustrated as a model.

The main contribution of this work is the phenomenon of ‘aesthetic flexibility’, which helps understand the factors that influence designers when working with branded modular products. Understanding visual flexibility serves as a starting point in further investigations of how different development strategies affect the possibilities for visual product design.

The findings of this work serve to illustrate and explain a complex and multi-facetted design phenomenon which many designers manage more or less intuitively today, thus advancing academics’, teachers’ and professional designers’ understanding of the field.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. p. 72
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1754
Keywords
Aesthetic flexibility, industrial design, product modularity, brand extension, product portfolio development, carry-over, face-lift
National Category
Design Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129551 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-129551 (DOI)978-91-7685-741-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2016-06-17, ACAS, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 14:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-06-21 Created: 2016-06-21 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
Andersson, T. & Warell, A. (2015). Aesthetic Flexibility in the Management of Visual Product Branding. Paper presented at 6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the Affiliated Conferences, AHFE 2015, 26–30 July 2015Las Vegas, United States. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 2191-2198
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aesthetic Flexibility in the Management of Visual Product Branding
2015 (English)In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 2191-2198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper will investigate the strategic design decision-making of an in-house designer in a company with a large product portfolio, with respect to how designers plan for future visual alterations of the product. In-house designers have to think strategically about the creation of recognition and differentiation through design because they influence the company’s overall strategies. Therefore, while balancing aesthetic and semiotic qualities of the product, designers have to consider current as well as future needs for recognition and product differentiation. The ability to do so is affected by cost and brand positioning strategy. An exploratory study was setup to investigate what design strategies could be found in an industrial design team employed by a company. The study exposed how in-house designers could strategically incorporate aesthetic flexibility in product parts in order to create opportunities for faster facelifts or redesigns. The importance of managing carry-over details in larger product portfolios was also discovered. To carry over parts from different products is an important way for a company to save money, development time and at the same time increase brand recognition through repetition. Carry-over can be an aid to enhance visual recognition, but it can also be a hindrance when the designer needs to create differencing design values. Most products have a lifespan before they need to be updated or redesigned, which depends on the competition in a product segment. This makes it extra important for designers to have an understanding of when to incorporate carry-over details and when not to. A model was created to describe how carry-over details, design cues and aesthetic flexibility could be managed in a product portfolio. The model is based on Rune Monö’s works and brand management literature, with an emphasis on the brand positioning framework of Point of Difference, Point of Parity and brand extension by Keller et al.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Strategic Design Decisions, Brand extension, Visual recognition, Product management, In-house designers, Carry-over
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129547 (URN)10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.360 (DOI)000383740302042 ()
Conference
6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the Affiliated Conferences, AHFE 2015, 26–30 July 2015Las Vegas, United States
Available from: 2016-06-21 Created: 2016-06-21 Last updated: 2021-03-09Bibliographically approved
Berglund, M., Andersson, T., Hedbrant, J., Pavlasevic, V. & Stålhand, J. (2015). Understanding the user beyond ‘common sense’ – teaching Product Ergonomics to design engineering students. In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA: . Paper presented at 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015. International Ergonomics Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the user beyond ‘common sense’ – teaching Product Ergonomics to design engineering students
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2015 (English)In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, International Ergonomics Association , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Multidisciplinary frameworks are needed to develop products that fit the human. Ergonomics is a multifaceted field that encompasses physical, cognitive and organizational aspects, and it is therefore a suitable subject to be taught to design engineering students.

The objective of this paper was to describe and reflect upon how a systems perspective on Ergonomics is developed and conveyed in a course in Product Ergonomics to engineering students at the Design and Product Development (DPD) programme at Linköping University, Sweden. The paper is based on the authors’ experiences from teaching the course in Product Ergonomicsas well ason 52 students’ written reflections about their view on Ergonomics before and after taking the course.

Means and ideas for teaching Ergonomics with a systems perspective included organizing a theoretical introduction into weekly themes and thereafter integrating and applying these themes in a product concept project under supervision of a multidisciplinary teacher team.

The paper also reflects on how the systems perspective of Ergonomics is planned for and realized in the intended, implemented and attained curriculum.

Abstract [en]

Practitioner Summary: Ergonomics is a multidisciplinary field which is suitable for product development but also may be difficult to grasp. This paper describes and reflects upon how Ergonomics was taught to facilitate the development of a systems view on Ergonomics for engineering students at Linköping University, Sweden.

Means for achieving this were to: organize the course in weekly themes in which different knowledge areas within Ergonomics were elaborated, integrate these knowledge areas in a product concept project, and have a multidisciplinary teacher team.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Ergonomics Association, 2015
Keywords
systems perspective, university education, product design
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123858 (URN)
Conference
19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015
Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2018-01-03Bibliographically approved
Berglund, M., Pavlasevic, V., Andersson, T., Hedbrant, J. & Stålhand, J. (2014). Theme-based assessment of education in design and product development. In: Proceedings of the 10th International CDIO Conference: . Paper presented at 10th International CDIO Conference, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain, June 16-19, 2014. Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Theme-based assessment of education in design and product development
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2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th International CDIO Conference, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One fundamental challenge in choosing an examination form to assess student achievements is to find an examination which, both encourages students to continuously elaborate the course content and constitutes a learning process itself. The objective of this paper is to share and reflect on the development and implementation of a new theme-based examination in a six credit course in Product Ergonomics given in the engineering programme Design and Product Development at Linköping University, Sweden. The course runs during four months and has two parts: one theoretical and one applied. The former focuses on theoretical ergonomic topics, models and methods while the latter is a project aiming at consolidating the students’ understanding of the theory by implementing the knowledge in a product development case. To encourage the students to adapt a deep learning approach, the traditional written mid-term exam for the theoretical part was abandoned and another concept developed. In the new concept, the theoretical part was split onto six weekly themes. Each theme was introduced at the beginning of the week by high-lighting main theories and models followed by a group-work assignment to be elaborated on by the students during the week. The theme was examined at the end of the week through a short written exam and a seminar to discuss and reflect upon the theme. From a student perspective, the positive outcome of the theme-based examination was peer learning and a more active learning style. The students appreciated the theme-based structure of the course. Occasionally, some students commented that weekly examinations could be perceived as stressful. The teachers perceived the students to be more acquainted with ergonomics theory and methods which increased the quality of the course project. The reported theme-based assessment is one example of implementing among others the CDIO syllabus parts 2.2 and 3.1and CDIO standards 8 and 11.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 2014
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123857 (URN)
Conference
10th International CDIO Conference, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain, June 16-19, 2014
Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2018-01-03Bibliographically approved
Andersson, T., Warell, A. & Holmlid, S. (2013). Product gist: An approach to identifying form characteristics of the current product sign. In: : . Paper presented at Conference: Crafting the Future 2013, the 10th European Academy of design ConferenceAt: Gothenburg, Sweden. Göteborg University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Product gist: An approach to identifying form characteristics of the current product sign
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In today's competitive market it is essential for companies to have a clear brand identity towards it consumers and users in order to be successful. Consumers have often a variety of products to choose from and the challenge for a company's products is to be discovered and remembered. An important factor is recognition of a product and how it is conceived through our perception which is mainly an identification process based on familiarity, resemblance or similarity. Furthermore, the visual part of the brain organizes the surrounding into patterns which are used as a guide for us, and to capture the surrounding is called getting its gist. The process of finding resemblance in a design space is often done by the designer as an implicit part in the design process. If this implicit knowledge could be more objectively visualised it might be a helpful tool to create a visual baseline of how consumers would experience the product segment. To show similarities and differences of design features quantitatively can facilitate the communication in a design development project. This paper explores how the concept of a product gist may be used to create a conceptual product sign and also how it could be used to analyse what the design space looks like in a given product segment. By quantitatively overlaying transparent pictures in a product segment visual pattern emerges that can be used as a communication tool in a design process when discussing brand recognition. In this paper a power drill is used as a simple application to illustrate the usage of the proposed product gist.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg University, 2013
Keywords
Industrial design, product aesthetics, product gist, method, current product sign, brand identity
National Category
Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173823 (URN)9789197954150 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference: Crafting the Future 2013, the 10th European Academy of design ConferenceAt: Gothenburg, Sweden
Available from: 2021-03-09 Created: 2021-03-09 Last updated: 2021-03-09Bibliographically approved
Andersson, T., Warell, A., Holmlid, S. & Ölvander, J. (2011). Desirability in the development of In-Car Infotainment Systems. In: David Wilfinger (Ed.), Workshop: User Experience in Cars. Paper presented at Interact 2011: 13th IFIP TC13 Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Lisbon, Portugal, September 5-9, 2011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Desirability in the development of In-Car Infotainment Systems
2011 (English)In: Workshop: User Experience in Cars / [ed] David Wilfinger, 2011Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a workflow for designing experiences whileinteracting with an advanced driver assistant system. Future driver assistancesystems that utilize sensors and Car2X-communication in order to detect threatsin the car environment can help the driver to avoid collisions. To increase theacceptance of such a system, the interaction between the driver and the systemshould be able to generate positive experiences. To generate those experiences,a story-based design workflow was used. Concepts created with this workflowshould be able to address specific psychological needs of the driver. Theimplementation of this workflow revealed different schemes of positiveexperiences during driver interaction in critical situations.

Keywords
Desirability, pleasure, affects, product experience, useworthiness
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89495 (URN)
Conference
Interact 2011: 13th IFIP TC13 Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Lisbon, Portugal, September 5-9, 2011
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2013-02-26 Created: 2013-02-26 Last updated: 2019-06-13
Andersson, T. & Pucar, P. (1994). Estimation of Residence Time in Continuous Flow Systems with Dynamics. Linköping: Linköping University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimation of Residence Time in Continuous Flow Systems with Dynamics
1994 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A method for estimation of residence time in continuous flow systems with varying dynamics is presented. By resampling, i.e., choosing time instants different from the given sampling instants, and interpolation between measured data points, we obtain a continuous flow system with constant residence time expressed in the new resampled time vector. We assume the flow patterns in the systems are invariant. The new data set is then used for identification of parameters in a chosen model structure. From the identified model, the residence time is readily calculated and a procedure for that is briefly described. The presented method is readily extended to enable use in recursive identification. In that case, however, as an improvement of tracking ability of an ordinary recursive routine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University, 1994. p. 21
Series
LiTH-ISY-R, ISSN 1400-3902 ; 1589
Keywords
System identification, Residence time estimation, Time-varying systems, Variable flow and/or volume, Continuous flow systems, Recursive identification
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-55175 (URN)LiTH-ISY-R-1589 (ISRN)
Available from: 2010-04-29 Created: 2010-04-29 Last updated: 2014-09-12Bibliographically approved
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