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Al Haji, G., Fowler, S. & Andersson Granberg, T. (2018). Smart traffic calming measures for smart cities - a pre-study. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smart traffic calming measures for smart cities - a pre-study
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Traffic calming measures, such as speed bumps and elevated crossing points, are used to reduce speed, to prevent overtaking and generally contribute to a safer traffic situation. However, they might also cause increased response times for rescue vehicles (e.g. ambulances or fire trucks). An alternative to the conventional traffic calming measures is so-called smart traffic calming measures. These can determine when a vehicle approaches, whose journey should not be hindered, and adjust to allow for free passage for this vehicle.

This report gives an overview of the problem, and some examples of smart  traffic calming measures are discussed. Special focus is put on the wireless communication necessary to detect emergency vehicles. Furthermore, existing challenges and possible solutions for traffic calming measures and the communication needed to make them smart are discussed.

Abstract [sv]

Trafiklugnande åtgärder, såsom vägbulor och förhöjda övergångsställen, används för att minska hastigheten, hindra farliga omkörningar och generellt bidra till en säkrare trafiksituation. Dock kan de också bidra till att insatstiderna för räddningsfordon (t.ex. ambulanser eller räddningstjänstens släckbilar) förlängs. Ett alternativ till de konventionella trafiklugnande åtgärderna, är s.k. smarta trafiklugnade åtgärder. Dessa kan avgöra när ett fordon närmar sig, vars färd inte bör hindras, och anpassa sig så att fri färd för detta fordon tillåts.

I denna rapport ges en översikt av problemet, och några exempel på smarta trafiklugnade åtgärder diskuteras, med fokus på sådana som hämtar information och styrs med hjälp av trådlös kommunikation. Vidare diskuteras existerande utmaningar och möjliga lösningar för trafiklugnande åtgärder och den kommunikation som krävs för att göra dem smarta.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. p. 20
Series
CARER Report ; 22
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Computer Engineering Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145386 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-27 Created: 2018-02-27 Last updated: 2018-02-27Bibliographically approved
Cen, S., Zhang, X., Lei, M., Fowler, S. & Dong, X. (2018). Stochastic geometry modeling and energy efficiency analysis of millimeter wave cellular networks. Wireless networks, 24(7), 2565-2578
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stochastic geometry modeling and energy efficiency analysis of millimeter wave cellular networks
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2018 (English)In: Wireless networks, ISSN 1022-0038, E-ISSN 1572-8196, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 2565-2578Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Current wireless networks face unprecedented challenges because of the exponentially increasing demand for mobile data and the rapid growth in infrastructure and power consumption. This study investigates the optimal energy efficiency of millimeter wave (mmWave) cellular networks, given that these networks are some of the most promising 5G-enabling technologies. Based on the stochastic geometry, a mathematical framework of coverage probability is proposed and the optimal energy efficiency is obtained with coverage performance constraints. Numerical results show that increasing the base station density damages coverage performance exceeding the threshold. This work demonstrates an essential understanding of the deployment and dynamic control of energy-efficient mmWave cellular networks.

Keywords
Millimeter wave;Energy efficiency;Stochastic geometry;Dynamic control
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151028 (URN)10.1007/s11276-016-1441-6 (DOI)
Projects
DETERMINE
Available from: 2018-09-22 Created: 2018-09-22 Last updated: 2018-09-28
Mushtaq, M. S., Fowler, S., Augustin, B. & Mellouk, A. (2016). QoE in 5G Cloud Networks using Multimedia Services. In: 2016 IEEE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING CONFERENCE: . Paper presented at IEEE Wireless Communication and Networking Conference (WCNC’16). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>QoE in 5G Cloud Networks using Multimedia Services
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING CONFERENCE, IEEE Computer Society, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The 4G standard Long Term Evolution-Advanced(LTE-A) has been deployed in many countries. Now, technologyis evolving towards the 5G standard since it is expecting tostart its service in 2020. The 5G cellular networks will mainlycontain in cloud computing and primarily Quality of Service(QoS) parameters (e.g. delay, loss rate, etc.) influence thecloud network performance. The impact of user perceivedQuality of Experience (QoE) using multimedia services, andapplication significantly relies on the QoS parameters. The keychallenge of 5G technology is to reduce the delay less thanone millisecond. In this paper, we have described a methodthat minimizes the overall network delay for multimediaservices; which are constant bit rate (VoIP) and variablebit rate (video) traffic model. We also proposed a methodthat measures the user’s QoE for video streaming trafficusing the network QoS parameters, i.e. delay and packet lossrate. The performance of proposed QoE method is comparedwith QoV method, and our proposed QoE method performsbest by carefully handle the impact of QoS parameters. Theresults show that our described method successfully reduces theoverall network delays, which result to maximize the user’s QoE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2016
Series
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, ISSN 1525-3511
Keywords
QoE; QoS; 5G; Cloud; VoIP; Video; Multimedia Services.
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128164 (URN)10.1109/WCNC.2016.7565173 (DOI)000388603103053 ()978-1-4673-9814-5 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Wireless Communication and Networking Conference (WCNC’16)
Available from: 2016-05-19 Created: 2016-05-19 Last updated: 2016-12-27Bibliographically approved
Mushtaq, M. S., Mellouk, A., Augustin, B. & Fowler, S. (2016). QoE Power-Efficient Multimedia Delivery Method for LTE-A. IEEE Systems Journal, 10(2), 749-760
Open this publication in new window or tab >>QoE Power-Efficient Multimedia Delivery Method for LTE-A
2016 (English)In: IEEE Systems Journal, ISSN 1932-8184, E-ISSN 1937-9234, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 749-760Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The fastest growing of multimedia services overfuture wireless communication system demand more networkresources, efficient delivery of multimedia service with highusers satisfaction, and power optimization of User Equipments(UEs). The resources and power optimization are significant infuture mobile computing systems, because emerging multimediaservices consume more resources and power. The 4G standard ofLTE-A wireless system has adopted the Discontinuous Reception(DRX) method to extend and optimize the UE battery life,while there is no standard scheduling method to distribute theradio resources among the UE. This paper presents a downlinkscheduler, i.e. Quality of Experience (QoE) Power EfficientMethod (QEPEM) for LTE-A, which efficiently allocates theradio resources and optimizes the use of UE power using theDRX mechanism. We investigates how the different durationof DRX Light and Deep Sleep cycle influences the QoS andQoE of end users, using VoIP over the LTE-A. The QEPEMis evaluated with the traditional methods, in terms of SystemThroughput, Fairness Index, Packet Loss Rate, and PacketDelay. The QEPEM measures the user’s QoE, and feedback toeNodeB for scheduling decisions along with other importantparameters. Our proposed method reduces the packet delay,packet loss, and increases the fairness and UE’s power savingwith high users satisfaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Communications Society, 2016
Keywords
QoE; QoS; LTE; Power Saving; Scheduling; VoIP; DRX; Light Sleep; Deep Sleep; Multimedia
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117941 (URN)10.1109/JSYST.2015.2435994 (DOI)000383258600033 ()
Available from: 2015-08-22 Created: 2015-05-18 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Fowler, S., Shahidullah, A. O., Osman, M., Karlsson, J. M. & Yuan, D. (2015). Analytical evaluation of extended DRX with additional active cycles for light traffic. The International Journal of Computer Networks (COMNET), Elsevier, 77, 90-102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analytical evaluation of extended DRX with additional active cycles for light traffic
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2015 (English)In: The International Journal of Computer Networks (COMNET), Elsevier, ISSN 1389-1286, Vol. 77, p. 90-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract LTE and LTE-Advanced mobile technologies have integrated discontinuous reception (DRX) power saving method to optimize the power consumption at the user equipment (UE). The DRX method was proposed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), and since then, the traffic behavior has been analyzed in several studies with a standard 3-state DRX model to describe the trade-off between power saving and delay. In this paper, we presented a novel 4-state and 5-state 3GPP LTE DRX mechanisms. The proposed mechanisms were developed by augmenting (an) active state(s) to deep and/or light sleep cycle of standard 3-state DRX for handling a small burst of packets, thereby bypassing the process of returning to the timer-dependent active mode. We have generated analytical models using a semi-Markov process for bursty packet data traffic and evaluated these augmented DRX mechanisms against a standard 3-state DRX method. Overall, the analytical results from varying timing parameters showed that our augmented DRX (both 4-state and 5-state) improved power saving factor (ranging between 1% and 8%) and reduced delay (ranging between 20% and 60%) compared to the standard 3-state DRX. Furthermore, the magnitude of improvement for both delay and power-saving was somewhat greater in 5-state than 4-state.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
LTE, LTE-Advanced, DRX, Power saving, Delay, Semi-Markov process
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114286 (URN)10.1016/j.comnet.2014.11.020 (DOI)000349502300006 ()
Projects
EC-FP7 Marie Curie CIG Grant, Proposal number: 294182
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Available from: 2015-02-17 Created: 2015-02-17 Last updated: 2016-03-02Bibliographically approved
Fowler, S., Sarfraz, J., Abbas, M. M. & Angelakis, V. (2015). Gaussian semi-Markov Model based on Real Video Multimedia Traffic. In: IEEE (Ed.), IEEE International Conference on Communications Communications (ICC) 2015: . Paper presented at IEEE ICC 2015 - Communications Software, Services and Multimedia Applications Symposium, 8-12 June 2015, London, UK (pp. 6971-6976). IEEE Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gaussian semi-Markov Model based on Real Video Multimedia Traffic
2015 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Communications Communications (ICC) 2015 / [ed] IEEE, IEEE Press, 2015, p. 6971-6976Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) introduced the new radio access technology, LTE (Long Term Evolution) and LTE-Advanced, which has the capability to provide larger bandwidth and low latencies on a wireless network in order to fulfill the demand of Users' Equipment (UEs) with acceptable Quality of Service (QoS). One of the data-heavy applications that has exploded on the market is Video. This calls for accurate modeling of video traffic. To ensure the quality and correctness of complex systems with Video traffic, it is important to evaluate the behavior of the traffic in the heterogeneous environment. This paper presents measurements on LTE Video traffic which were performed in a real environment. We derived a semi-Markov model which accurately reproduces the statistics of composite Video measurements over LTE network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2015
Series
IEEE International Conference on Communications, ISSN 1550-3607
Keywords
LTE; semi-Markov; lognormal; Gaussian Mixture Model; Real Video Traffic; Empirical Data
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117277 (URN)10.1109/ICC.2015.7249437 (DOI)000371708107033 ()
Conference
IEEE ICC 2015 - Communications Software, Services and Multimedia Applications Symposium, 8-12 June 2015, London, UK
Projects
EC-FP7 Marie Curie CIG grant, Proposal number: 294182;European Unions Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no [609094 RERUM].
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 609094EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 294182
Available from: 2015-08-22 Created: 2015-04-22 Last updated: 2016-04-20Bibliographically approved
Bitam, S., Mellouk, A. & Fowler, S. (2015). MQBV: multicast quality of service swarm bee routing for vehicular ad hoc networks. Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, 15(9), 1391-1404
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MQBV: multicast quality of service swarm bee routing for vehicular ad hoc networks
2015 (English)In: Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, ISSN 1530-8669, E-ISSN 1530-8677, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 1391-1404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are witnessing in recent years a rapid development for road transmissions and are considered as one of the most important types of next generation networks, in which drivers can have access anywhere and anytime to information. However, vehicles have to deal with many challenges such as the links failures due to their frequent mobility as well as limited degrees of freedom in their mobility patterns. In this paper, we propose a new quality of service multicast and multipath routing protocol for VANETs, based on the paradigm of bees communication, called multicast quality of service swarm bee routing for VANETs (MQBV). The MQBV finds and maintains robust routes between the source node and all multicast group members. Therefore, the average end-to-end delay and the normalized overhead load should be reduced, while at the same time increasing the average bandwidth and the packet delivery ratio. Extensive simulation results were obtained using ns-2 simulator in a realistic VANET settings and demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed protocol. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley: 12 months, 2015
Keywords
vehicular ad hoc network; routing; bee swarm; quality of service; road safety
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120040 (URN)10.1002/wcm.2420 (DOI)000355738200008 ()
Available from: 2015-07-06 Created: 2015-07-06 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Mushtaq, M. S., Fowler, S., Augustin, B. & Mellouk, A. (2015). QoE in 5G Wireless Cellular Networks based on Mobile Cloud Network. In: : . Paper presented at IEEE INFOCOM Workshop (MMCloudCom). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>QoE in 5G Wireless Cellular Networks based on Mobile Cloud Network
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The 4G standard Long Term Evolution-Advanced(LTE-A) has been deployed in many countries. Now, technologyis evolving towards the 5G standard since it is expecting tostart its services in 2020. The 5G cellular networks will mainlycontain in cloud computing and primarily Quality of Service(QoS) parameters (e.g. delay, loss rate, etc.) influence the cloudnetwork performance. The impact of user perceived Quality ofExperience (QoE) significantly relies on the QoS parameters. Thekey challenge of 5G technology is to reduce the delay less thanone millisecond. In this paper, we have described a method thatminimizes the overall network delay for constant bit rate (VoIP)and variable bit rate (video) traffic model. We also proposed amethod that measures the user’s QoE for video streaming trafficusing the network QoS parameters, i.e. delay and packet lossrate. The performance of proposed QoE method is comparedwith QoV method, and our proposed QoE method performsbest by carefully handle the impact of QoS parameters. Theresults show that our described method successfully reduces theoverall network delays, which result to maximize the user’s QoE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2015
Keywords
QoE; 5G; Mobile Cloud Computing; LTE; LTE-A: QoS; Video; VoIP;Cloud
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117748 (URN)
Conference
IEEE INFOCOM Workshop (MMCloudCom)
Available from: 2015-08-22 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2015-10-21Bibliographically approved
Sajid Mushtaq, M., Fowler, S., Mellouk, A. & Augustin, B. (2015). QoE/QoS-aware LTE downlink scheduler for VoIP with power saving. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 51, 29-46
Open this publication in new window or tab >>QoE/QoS-aware LTE downlink scheduler for VoIP with power saving
2015 (English)In: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 51, p. 29-46Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The emerging and fastest growing multimedia services such as Skype, GTalk and interactive video gaming have created new challenges for wireless communication technologies, especially in terms of resource allocation and power optimization of User Equipments (UEs). The efficient resources and the power optimization are very important in the next communication systems because new multimedia services are more resource and power hungry. Having more traffic flow in the downlink as compared to the uplink, the resource allocation schemes in the downlink are more important than those in the uplink. In this paper, we have proposed a new downlink scheduling scheme, known as Quality-aware DRX (Q-DRX) Scheme, for Long Term Evaluation (LTE) wireless networks that not only improves the Quality of Service (QoS) to satisfy the users experience of multimedia services but also saves the UEs power by using the Discontinuous Reception (DRX). This paper investigates how the different durations of DRX Light and Deep Sleep cycles affect the QoS and influence the Quality of Experience (QoE) of end users, in the context of Voice over IP (VoIP) traffic delivery over the LTE wireless network. The performance of the Q-DRX scheme is evaluated with traditional scheduling schemes, in the perception of the following important parameters, System Throughput, Throughput Fairness Index, Packet Loss Rate and Packet Delay. Our proposed Q-DRX Scheme successfully minimized the packets delay and packets loss by considering the key parameters of QoS with fair resources distribution among the UEs to achieve a high satisfaction level. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
QoE; QoS; LTE; Power saving; VoIP
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117788 (URN)10.1016/j.jnca.2014.02.001 (DOI)000352659200003 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|CELTIC European Project IPNQSIS; EC-FP7 Marie Curie CIG Grant [294182]

Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Melzi, S., Napoli, S., Pollastro, A. & Fowler, S. (2014). An Heterogeneous wireless networks testbed for Smart Environment scenarios. In: Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), 2014 IEEE 19th International Workshop on: . Paper presented at Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), 2014 IEEE 19th International Workshop on (pp. 173-177). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Heterogeneous wireless networks testbed for Smart Environment scenarios
2014 (English)In: Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), 2014 IEEE 19th International Workshop on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 173-177Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Smart Environments are environments where heterogeneous wireless networks are implemented and connected together both in terms of networking and in terms of functionalities, thus providing an abstraction layer to higher level applications that can exploit the interplay of such technologies to obtain killer features. In order to obtain real advantages from the integration of heterogeneous components the scenarios shall be clearly understood and analysed;therefore this paper classifies the different scenarios and network architectures that can be employed in creating a Smart Environment. Moreover, real life experimenting is needed, through testbeds and trial installations; our testbed is therefore described, as well as some results on the effects achieved by interconnecting different technologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2014
Keywords
radio networks;smart cities;heterogeneous components;heterogeneous wireless networks testbed;smart environment scenarios;Bluetooth;IEEE 802.11 Standards;Logic gates;Protocols;Wireless communication;Wireless sensor networks;Zigbee
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117751 (URN)10.1109/CAMAD.2014.7033229 (DOI)
Conference
Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), 2014 IEEE 19th International Workshop on
Projects
no: 324515 MESH-WISE (FP7 MC-IAPP)no: 609094 RERUM (FP7/2007-2013)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Available from: 2015-05-08 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2015-06-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0019-8411

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