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Rankin, Amy
Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Rankin, A., Linder, R., Sainz, M., Rosenqvist, S., Bång, M. & Eriksson, H. (2017). City Resilience: Analysis of Strategies World-Wide. In: Proceedings of the 7th REA symposium: . Paper presented at Resilience Engineering Association Symposium Liége, Belgum, 26-29 June, 2017. Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Resilience Engineering Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>City Resilience: Analysis of Strategies World-Wide
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 7th REA symposium, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Resilience Engineering Association , 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, resilience has become an important goal for cities, particularly in the face of political uncertainty, climate change and increasing urbanisation. Resilience theory has yielded informative lessons and brought new perspective when preparing for, and responding to vulnerabilities cities face today, such as natural hazards and social inequalities. However, critical questions on how to operationalize resilience through political decision making and community engagement are still unanswered, and supporting methods and concrete action plans are needed. In this paper, we offer an overview of the result from three studies conducted as part of an ongoing H2020 research project, Smart Mature Resilience. The three studies inlucde a literature review of definitions and approaches in city resilience, analysis of city resilience strategies and requirements for standardization. Key findings from the studies are presented and implications of their findings for the development of resiliience management guidelines are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Resilience Engineering Association, 2017
Keywords
Resilience, Cities, Strategies, Guidelines, Standardisation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141270 (URN)
Conference
Resilience Engineering Association Symposium Liége, Belgum, 26-29 June, 2017
Projects
Smart Mature Resilience (SMR) EU H2020
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020
Available from: 2017-09-28 Created: 2017-09-28 Last updated: 2018-09-01Bibliographically approved
Field, J., Rankin, A., Mohrmann, F., Boland, E. & Woltjer, R. (2017). Flexible Procedures to Deal with Complex Unexpected Events in the Cockpit. In: Proceedings of the 7th REA symposium: . Paper presented at Resilience Engineering Association Symposium Liége, Belgum, 26-29 june, 2017. Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Resilience Engineering Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible Procedures to Deal with Complex Unexpected Events in the Cockpit
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 7th REA symposium, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Resilience Engineering Association , 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Modern airliner operations consist of an environment with multiple detailed procedures to cover critical abnormal events and with systems that are automated and highly reliable. Complex and unexpected events are rare and may thus present a challenge to the crew to deal with, putting demands on the resilience of the crew. In the EU Man4Gen project a “flexible procedure” was developed as a strategy to assist flight crew in dealing with unexpected events where an existing procedure was not available. This procedure is intended to assist crews in adapting their response to the situation and be more flexible in their application of their procedures and training to increase the effectiveness of their response. This paper describes the procedure and its development within the project based on two sets of flight simulator experiments with operational flight crew. The resulting flexible procedure consists of steps to help crews manage time criticality, manage (un)certainty and finally to plan for contingencies and changes. This forms the basis of the discussion of how procedures can be a source of resilience in the cockpit, rather than forming a barrier to it.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Resilience Engineering Association, 2017
Keywords
Resilience Engieering, unexpected events, surprise, cockpit operations, procedure
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141272 (URN)
Conference
Resilience Engineering Association Symposium Liége, Belgum, 26-29 june, 2017
Projects
Manual Operations for 4th Generation Aircrafts
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Available from: 2017-09-28 Created: 2017-09-28 Last updated: 2017-11-09Bibliographically approved
Passenier, D., Pool, D., Rankin, A. & Sharpanskykh, A. (2017). Preparing to be Unprepared: Training for Resilience. In: Proceedings of the 7th REA symposium: . Paper presented at Resilience Engineering Association Symposium, Liége, Belgum, 26-29 June, 2017. Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Resilience Engineering Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preparing to be Unprepared: Training for Resilience
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 7th REA symposium, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Resilience Engineering Association , 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Training methods for operators working under high pressure and in dynamic, unpredictable settings could benefit from a focus on resilience. In such settings, formal training often focuses on procedural conformity to train for particular scenarios, but resilient performance taps into a wider experience base and often more tacit skills. In this paper, we formulate a research agenda to develop useful theoretical insights about training for resilience. Our discussion follows recent developments on organizational routines, which suggest that sources of inertia and conformity, such as strict procedural training, can also enable operators’ resourcefulness. Drawing from our diverse research experiences, we discuss the training needs for 1) developing or attenuating techniques for flexible procedural use, grounded in a rich qualitative understanding of practical experience; 2) the possibility to train skills that are more broadly applicable than specific training scenarios through simulation training methods; and 3) the development of training programs based on knowledge of “work-as-done” through Agent Based Modelling and Simulation methodologies and behavioral theories.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Resilience Engineering Association, 2017
Keywords
Resilience Engineering, Training, Unexpected Events, Surprise, Aviation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141275 (URN)
Conference
Resilience Engineering Association Symposium, Liége, Belgum, 26-29 June, 2017
Available from: 2017-09-28 Created: 2017-09-28 Last updated: 2017-11-09Bibliographically approved
Lundberg, J. & Rankin, A. (2014). Resilience and vulnerability of small flexible crisis response teams: implications for training and preparation. Cognition, Technology & Work, 16(2), 143-155
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience and vulnerability of small flexible crisis response teams: implications for training and preparation
2014 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 143-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Following the Asian Tsunami of 2004 and during the Israel-Lebanon Crisis of 2006, Sweden sent small crisis response teams to support civilians. The small size of the teams, combined with situations that did not always play out according to expectations and plans, presented a challenge to their resilience-their ability to adapt to circumstances outside of plans made in advance. In this paper, we analyze the experiences of 14 members of Swedish field teams involved in the crises response, based on focus group discussions. We describe a cycle of preparing for role improvisation, of taking improvised roles, of working in them, and of getting out of them when they are no longer a benefit. The discussions revealed that although role improvisation was seen as necessary to get the work done, they also saw a need to manage negative side effects and vulnerabilities of role improvisation in various ways. We discuss training goals based on their experiences, to address perceived strengths and vulnerabilities of role improvisation. We also discuss factors affecting role improvisation, such as a resilience climate of shared attitudes. Our results can be useful for organizations that have or that plan to adopt flexible crisis response teams. Our results can also be of interests to a more general audience with an interest in how practices necessary for resilience can bring negative side effects, for instance, resilience loss in the organization after an initial adaptive stage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer London, 2014
Keywords
Resilience engineering; Improvisation; Training; Crisis management; Resilience climate; Vulnerability
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106835 (URN)10.1007/s10111-013-0253-z (DOI)000334511900002 ()
Available from: 2014-05-28 Created: 2014-05-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Rankin, A., Lundberg, J., Woltjer, R., Rollenhagen, C. & Hollnagel, E. (2014). Resilience in Everyday Operations: A Framework for Analysing Adaptations in High Risk Work. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 8(1), 78-97
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience in Everyday Operations: A Framework for Analysing Adaptations in High Risk Work
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, E-ISSN 2169-5032, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 78-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Managing complexity and uncertainty in high risk, socio-technical, systems requires people to continuously adapt. Designing resilient systems that support adaptive behaviour requires a deepened understanding of the context in which the adaptations take place, enablers for successful adaptations and their affect the overall system. Also, it requires a focus on how people actually perform, not how they are presumed to perform according to textbook situations. We propose a framework to analyse adaptive behaviour in everyday situations where systems are working near the margins of safety. The examples that underlie the framework are derived from nine focus groups with representatives working with safety related issues in different work domains, including health care, nuclear, transportation and emergency services. Further, the variety space diagram is developed as a means to illustrate how system variability, disturbances and constraints affect work performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2014
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91989 (URN)10.1177/1555343413498753 (DOI)2-s2.0-84893856937 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-05-07 Created: 2013-05-07 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Rankin, A., Dahlbäck, N. & Lundberg, J. (2013). A case study of factor influencing role improvisation in crisis response teams. Cognition, Technology & Work, 15(1), 79-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A case study of factor influencing role improvisation in crisis response teams
2013 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 79-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Common characteristics of crisis situations are ambiguous and unplanned for events. The need for improvised roles can therefore be an imperative factor for the success of an operation. The aim of this study is to deepen the understanding of the processes taking place during improvised work ‘‘as it happens’’. A case study of a crisis management team at work is presented and provides an in-depth analysis of the information and communication flow of persons acting in improvised roles, including con- textual factors influencing the task at hand. The analysis suggests that three main factors lay behind decreased per- formance by the team when some of its members were forced to take on roles for which they lacked professional training; lack of language skills, lack of domain knowledge and insufficient organizational structure of the tasks. Based on the observations from this case study, we suggest three ways of improving a team’s performance and hence resil- ience when forced to improvise due to lack of personnel in one or more required competence areas. These are training to take on the responsibility for tasks or roles outside ones professional area of specialization, developing formal routines for changes in roles and tasks and developing and using tools and routines for information sharing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2013
Keywords
Role improvisation, Crisis management, Resilience engineering, Organizational improvisation, Episode analysis
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80311 (URN)10.1007/s10111-011-0186-3 (DOI)000313737400010 ()
Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Rankin, A. (2013). Resilience in High Risk Work: Analysing Adaptive Performance. (Licentiate dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience in High Risk Work: Analysing Adaptive Performance
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In today’s complexsocio-technical systems it is not possible to foresee and prepare for allfuture events. To cope with the intricacy and coupling between people,technical systems and the dynamic environment people are required tocontinuously adapt. To design resilient systems a deepened understanding ofwhat supports and enables adaptive performance is needed. In this thesis two studiesare presented that investigate how adaptive abilities can be identified andanalysed in complex work settings across domains. The studies focus onunderstanding adaptive performance, what enables successful adaptation and how contextual factors affect the performance. The first study examines how acrisis command team adapts as they lose important functions of their teamduring a response operation.  The secondstudy presents a framework to analyse adaptive behaviour in everyday work wheresystems are working near the margins of safety. The examples that underlie theframework are based on findings from focus group discussion withrepresentatives from different organisations, including health care, nuclear,transportation and emergency services. Main contributions of this thesis includethe examination of adaptive performance and of how it can be analysed as ameans to learn about and strengthen resilience. By using contextual analysis enablersof adaptive performance and its effects the overall system are identified. Theanalysis further demonstrates that resilience is not a system property but aresult of situational circumstances and organisational structures. Theframework supports practitioners and researchers in reporting findings,structuring cases and making sense of sharp-end adaptations. The analysismethod can be used to better understand system adaptive capacities, monitoradaptive patterns and enhance current methods for safety management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013. p. 51
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1589
Keywords
Resilience Engineering, Safety Management, Adaptive Capacity, Improvisation
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90726 (URN)LiU-Tek-Lic-2013:23 (Local ID)978-91-7519-634-3 (ISBN)LiU-Tek-Lic-2013:23 (Archive number)LiU-Tek-Lic-2013:23 (OAI)
Presentation
2013-05-24, Alan Turing, Hus E, Campus Valla, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Available from: 2013-05-07 Created: 2013-04-04 Last updated: 2019-12-08Bibliographically approved
Rankin, A., Woltjer, R., Field, J. & Woods, D. (2013). “Staying ahead of the aircraft ” and Managing Surprise in Modern Airliners. In: Proceedings of the 5th Resilience Engineering Symposium: . Paper presented at 5th Resilience Engineering Symposium: Mangaging trade-offs, 25-27 June 2013, Soesterberg, The Netherlands.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Staying ahead of the aircraft ” and Managing Surprise in Modern Airliners
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th Resilience Engineering Symposium, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The pilot’s task in commercial aircraft operations has changed from flying the aircraft by means of manual control, to increased monitoring of the cockpit. The increase of automation provides a high level of stability and reduces variations and disturbances, leaving crews with little exposure to surprise. Current training programs are similarly focused on dealing with anticipated problems and pre-determined responses, provide little opportunity to prepare for the unexpected and unforeseen. In this paper we frame the research agenda for investigating how pilots cope with surprise and confusion in modern aircraft. An interview study with pilots has been carried out, identifying areas for further investigation regarding manual control, procedure applicability, system knowledge and training for unexpected events. A crew-aircraft control model has been developed to frame the functions and processes to be further investigated.1

National Category
Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96945 (URN)
Conference
5th Resilience Engineering Symposium: Mangaging trade-offs, 25-27 June 2013, Soesterberg, The Netherlands
Projects
Man4Gen
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Available from: 2013-08-30 Created: 2013-08-30 Last updated: 2013-09-17Bibliographically approved
Field, J., Rankin, A., Lemmers, A. & Morin, M. (2012). Instructor tools for virtual training Systems. In: Leon Rothkrantz, Jozef Ristvej, Zeno Franco (Ed.), ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings: . Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2012), 22-25 April, Vancouver, Canada.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Instructor tools for virtual training Systems
2012 (English)In: ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings / [ed] Leon Rothkrantz, Jozef Ristvej, Zeno Franco, 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Crisis management exercises require a lot of preparation and planning to ensure that the training objectives are met. This is often a time consuming and expensive process and can be a major barrier to setting up frequent crisis management training sessions. The introduction of virtual training environments to supplement the live exercises enables the development of tools to support the instructors in their planning, management, observation and analysis of training exercises. This can simplify the planning process, and give instructors control over the configuration of the exercises to tailor them to the needs of individual trainees. In this paper we present a tool that supports instructors in the planning of virtual exercises, and can be used to provide templates for live exercises. This tool has been developed with ongoing feedback from instructors and crisis management personnel and forms part of a crisis management virtual training system.

Keywords
Crisis Management, Virtual Training Systems, Instructor Tools, Planning
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96943 (URN)978-0-86491-332-6 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2012), 22-25 April, Vancouver, Canada
Projects
CRISIS
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Note

ID: 262

Available from: 2013-08-30 Created: 2013-08-30 Last updated: 2013-09-17Bibliographically approved
Rankin, A., Field, J., Kovordanyi, R. & Eriksson, H. (2012). Instructor’s Tasks in Crisis Management Training. In: Proceedings of the 9th International ISCRAM Conference, 2012. Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response Management (ISCRAM 2012), April 22-25, Vancover, Canada.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Instructor’s Tasks in Crisis Management Training
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th International ISCRAM Conference, 2012, 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In crisis management exercises the instructor’s performance is critical to the success of the training. It is their responsibility to monitor and evaluate the exercise, as well as appropriately adjust and adapt the scenario to the unfolding events. Despite the importance of the instructor’s skills in crisis management training little has been documented regarding successful methods or common pitfalls. The study presented in this paper is exploratory and aimed at investigating how instructors monitor and control large scale crisis management exercises. The results are intended to be used as a basis for further investigation on how instructors can be supported in virtual reality training systems. A summary of results from interviews is presented and followed by observations reports from two live exercises. Finally, key areas for instructor support in virtual-reality training systems are identified.

Keywords
crisis management, exercise management, instructor support, training, training systems
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80330 (URN)
Conference
9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response Management (ISCRAM 2012), April 22-25, Vancover, Canada
Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2018-01-12
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