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Kirkegaard, C., Tärning, B., Haake, M., Gulz, A. & Silvervarg, A. (2014). Ascribed gender and charactersitics of a visually androgynous Teachable Agent. In: Bickmore, Timothy, Marsella, Stacy, Sidner, Candace (Ed.), Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, IVA 2014, Boston, USA, August, 27-29, 2014.: . Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, IVA 2014, Boston, USA, August, 27-29, 2014. (pp. 232-235). Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ascribed gender and charactersitics of a visually androgynous Teachable Agent
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2014 (English)In: Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, IVA 2014, Boston, USA, August, 27-29, 2014. / [ed] Bickmore, Timothy, Marsella, Stacy, Sidner, Candace, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, p. 232-235Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper explores how users ascribe gender to a visually androgynous teachable agent, and if and how the ascribed gender can influence the perceived personality characteristics of the agent. Previous studies have shown positive effects of using agents with more neutral or androgynous appearances, for instance, a more gender neutral agent evoked more positive attitudes on females than did a more stereotypical female agent [1] and androgynous agents were less abused than female agents [2]. Another study showed that even though an agent was visually androgynous, the user typically ascribed a gender to it [3].

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 8637
Keyword
Teachable agent, visual gender, characterstics, androgyny
National Category
Computer Sciences Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108538 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-09767-1_29 (DOI)2-s2.0-84906519677 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-09766-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-09767-1 (ISBN)
Conference
14th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, IVA 2014, Boston, USA, August, 27-29, 2014.
Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2018-02-19Bibliographically approved
Kirkegaard, C., Gulz, A. & Silvervarg, A. (2014). Introducing a challenging teachable agent. In: Zaphiris, P; Ioannou, A (Ed.), Learning and Collaboration Technologies: Designing and Developing Novel Learning Experiences. Paper presented at 16th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, June 22-27, Heraklion, Crete, Greece (pp. 53-62). Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing a challenging teachable agent
2014 (English)In: Learning and Collaboration Technologies: Designing and Developing Novel Learning Experiences / [ed] Zaphiris, P; Ioannou, A, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, p. 53-62Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the potentials of a new type of pedagogical agent – a Challenger Teachable Agent. The aim of such a pedagogical agent is to increase engagement and motivation, and challenge students into deeper learning and metacognitive reasoning. It is based on the successful implementation of the Learning by Teaching approach in Teachable Agents, and in addition it draws on previous work that has shown the potential of resistance or challenge as means to improve learning. In this paper we discuss how these two bases can be combined and realized through new types of behaviours in a Teachable Agent

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 8523
National Category
Computer Sciences Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108540 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-07482-5_6 (DOI)000342766800006 ()978-3-319-07481-8 (ISBN)
Conference
16th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, June 22-27, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2018-02-05Bibliographically approved
Silvervarg, A., Kirkegaard, C., Nirme, J., Haake, M. & Gulz, A. (2014). Steps Towards a Challenging Teachable Agent. In: Intelligent Virtual Agents: 14th International Conference, IVA 2014, Boston, MA, USA, August 27-29, 2014, Proceedings (pp. 410-419). Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Steps Towards a Challenging Teachable Agent
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2014 (English)In: Intelligent Virtual Agents: 14th International Conference, IVA 2014, Boston, MA, USA, August 27-29, 2014, Proceedings, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, p. 410-419Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter presents the first steps towards a new type of pedagogical agent – a Challenger Teachable Agent, CTA. The overall aim of introducing a CTA is to increase engagement and motivation and challenge students into deeper learning and metacognitive reasoning. The paper discusses desired design features of such an agent on the basis of related work and results from a study where 11-year old students interacted with a first version of a CTA in the framework of an educational software for history. The focus is on how students respond when the CTA disagrees and questions their suggestions, and how groups of students, differing in response behavior and in self-efficacy, experience the CTA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014
Series
Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence
Keyword
Teachable agent, challenge, interaction, learning, experience
National Category
Computer Sciences Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108542 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-09767-1_52 (DOI)978-3-319-09766-4 (ISBN)978-3-319-09767-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Silvervarg, A., Haake, M. & Gulz, A. (2013). Educational Potentials in Visually Androgynous Pedagogical Agents. In: H.C. Lane, K., J. Yacef, Mostow and P. Pavlik (Ed.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference, AIED 2013, Memphis, TN, USA, July 9-13, 2013: (pp. 599-602). Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Educational Potentials in Visually Androgynous Pedagogical Agents
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference, AIED 2013, Memphis, TN, USA, July 9-13, 2013 / [ed] H.C. Lane, K., J. Yacef, Mostow and P. Pavlik, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 599-602Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We report a study on student’s attitudes to a visually androgynous in comparison to a male and a female Teachable Agent (TA). Results were that overall the androgynous agent was preferred over the female and male agents. A visually androgynous agent does not embody categorical gender attributes. At the same time it does not have to be genderless but instead represent both maleness and femaleness so that students can chose for themselves. Androgyny, in this sense, is potentially a way to have femaleness and maleness represented, with corresponding educational benefits such as role modelling and identification, without risking negative reinforcement of gender stereotypes

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 7926
National Category
Computer Sciences Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108544 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-39112-5_68 (DOI)978-3-642-39111-8 (ISBN)978-3-642-39112-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2018-02-19Bibliographically approved
Kim, Y., Silvervarg, A., Haake, M. & Gulz, A. (2013). The effect of the visual gender of an embodied agent: A cross-cultural comparison. In: Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA 2013): . Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA 2013), April 27 - May 1, 2013, San Francisco, CA, USA (pp. 1-9). Washington: AERA, American Educational Research Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of the visual gender of an embodied agent: A cross-cultural comparison
2013 (English)In: Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA 2013), Washington: AERA, American Educational Research Association , 2013, p. 1-9Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study explored if the visual gender representations (androgynous, male, or female) of an embodied agent would influence students’ perceptions of their agent and their attitudes toward the agent as their conversational partner. The study also explored if students’ gender and cultural background would interact with the agent’s visual gender to influence their perceptions and attitudes. Participants were 208 early-teen students sampled from US and South Korea. The results revealed that student gender was a significant factor for influencing students' perceptions and attitudes and that the students showed positive attitudes toward an androgynous agent more than toward a gendered agent (either male or female).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: AERA, American Educational Research Association, 2013
Keyword
Visual gender, cross cultural
National Category
Computer Sciences Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108545 (URN)
Conference
Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA 2013), April 27 - May 1, 2013, San Francisco, CA, USA
Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Pareto, L., Haake, M., Lindström, P., Sjödén, B. & Gulz, A. (2012). A Teachable Agent Based Game Affording Collaboration and Competition  – Evaluating Math Comprehension and Motivation. Educational technology research and development, 60(5), 723-751
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Teachable Agent Based Game Affording Collaboration and Competition  – Evaluating Math Comprehension and Motivation
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2012 (English)In: Educational technology research and development, ISSN 1042-1629, E-ISSN 1556-6501, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 723-751Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an educational game in mathematics based on an apprenticeship model using a teachable agent, as well as an evaluative study of how the game affects (i) conceptual understanding and (ii) attitudes towards mathematics. In addition we discuss how collaborative and competitive affordances of the game may affect understanding and motivation. 19 students played the game in pairs once a week during a math lesson for seven weeks (the game-playing group) while another 19 students followed the regular curriculum (the control group). Math comprehension scores increased significantly for the game-playing group but not the control group (p < .05). However, there was no significant difference in attitude change between the two groups.

Post hoc analyses indicated that game-playing primarily affected students’ confidence in explaining math to a peer, but not their enjoyment of doing so. Collaborative and competitive activities seem to carry a strong motivational influence for students to play the game.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2012
Keyword
Conceptual understanding, Educational games, Motivation, Teachable agents, Collaboration, Competition
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80292 (URN)10.1007/s11423-012-9246-5 (DOI)
Projects
Kunskap och Kompetens, Digitala DialogerSeeing and Talking Math in Games
Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Silvervarg, A., Raukola, K., Haake, M. & Gulz, A. (2012). The Effect of Visual Gender on Abuse in Conversation with ECAs. In: Yukiko Nakano, Michael Neff, Ana Paiva, Marilyn Walker (Ed.), Neff, M., Walker, M., Paiva, A. & Nakano, Y. (Ed.), Intelligent Virtual Agents: 12th International Conference, IVA 2012, Santa Cruz, CA, USA, September, 12-14, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 153-160). Springer Berlin/Heidelberg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Visual Gender on Abuse in Conversation with ECAs
2012 (English)In: Intelligent Virtual Agents: 12th International Conference, IVA 2012, Santa Cruz, CA, USA, September, 12-14, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Yukiko Nakano, Michael Neff, Ana Paiva, Marilyn Walker, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 153-160Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Previous studies have shown that female ECAs are more likely to be abused than male agents, which may cement gender stereotypes. In the study reported in this paper a visually androgynous ECA in the form of a teachable agent in an educational math game was compared with a female and male agent. The results confirm that female agents are more prone to be verbally abused than male agents, but also show that the visually androgynous agent was less abused than the female although more than the male agent. A surprising finding was that very few students asked the visually androgynous agent whether it was a boy or a girl. These results suggest that androgyny may be a way to keep both genders represented, which is especially important in pedagogical settings, simultaneously lowering the abusive behavior and perhaps most important, loosen the connection between gender and abuse.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 7502
Keyword
Computer science, Computer Communication Networks, Artificial intelligence, Computer simulation, Computer vision, Information Systems Applications, Image Processing and Computer Vision, User Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction, Simulation and Modeling
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80310 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-33197-8_16 (DOI)978-3-642-33196-1 (ISBN)978-3-642-33197-8 (ISBN)
Projects
K2D2-projektet; Kunskap och Kompetens: Digitala Dialoger
Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2018-02-21Bibliographically approved
Pareto, L., Arvemo, T., Dahl, Y., Haake, M. & Gulz, A. (2011). A Teachable-Agent Arithmetic Game’s Effects on Mathematics Understanding, Attitude and Self-efficacy. In: Gautam Biswas, Susan Bull, Judy Kay, Antonija Mitrovic (Ed.), G. Biswas et al. (Ed.), Artificial Intelligence in Education: 15th International Conference, AIED 2011, Auckland, New Zealand, June 28 – July 2011 (pp. 247-255). Springer Berlin/Heidelberg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Teachable-Agent Arithmetic Game’s Effects on Mathematics Understanding, Attitude and Self-efficacy
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2011 (English)In: Artificial Intelligence in Education: 15th International Conference, AIED 2011, Auckland, New Zealand, June 28 – July 2011 / [ed] Gautam Biswas, Susan Bull, Judy Kay, Antonija Mitrovic, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 247-255Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A teachable-agent arithmetic game is presented and evaluated in terms of student performance, attitude and self-efficacy. An experimental pre-post study design was used, enrolling 153 3rd and 5th grade students in Sweden. The playing group showed significantly larger gains in math performance and self-efficacy beliefs, but not in general attitude towards math, than the control groups. The contributions in relation to previous work include a new educational game being evaluated, and an emphasis on self-efficacy in the study as a strong predictor of math achievements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 6738
Keyword
teachable agents, mathematics achievement, attitude, self-efficacy
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80336 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-21869-9_33 (DOI)978-3-642-21868-2 (ISBN)978-3-642-21869-9 (ISBN)
Projects
K2D2, Kunskap och Kompetens - Digitala DialogerSeeing and Talking Math in Games
Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2018-02-15
Silvervarg, A., Haake, M., Pareto, L., Strandberg, T. & Gulz, A. (2011). AIED interactive event: ”The Brick Game” demonstration. In: G. Biswas et al. (Ed.), Proceedings of The 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education.  AIED 2011, LNAI 6738. Paper presented at The 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. Auckland, New Zealand, 27 June 2 July, 2011. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>AIED interactive event: ”The Brick Game” demonstration
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2011 (English)In: Proceedings of The 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education.  AIED 2011, LNAI 6738 / [ed] G. Biswas et al., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 2011Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2011
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80339 (URN)
Conference
The 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. Auckland, New Zealand, 27 June 2 July, 2011
Projects
K2D2, Kunskap och Kompetens - Digitala DialogerSeeing and Talking Math in Games
Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2016-12-19
Gulz, A., Haake, M. & Silvervarg, A. (2011). Extending a Teachable Agent with a Social Conversation Module – Effects on Student Experiences and Learning. In: Gautam Biswas, Susan Bull, Judy Kay, Antonija Mitrovic (Ed.), Artificial Intelligence in Education: 15th International Conference, AIED 2011, Auckland, New Zealand, June 28 – July 2011 (pp. 106-114). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending a Teachable Agent with a Social Conversation Module – Effects on Student Experiences and Learning
2011 (English)In: Artificial Intelligence in Education: 15th International Conference, AIED 2011, Auckland, New Zealand, June 28 – July 2011 / [ed] Gautam Biswas, Susan Bull, Judy Kay, Antonija Mitrovic, Springer, 2011, p. 106-114Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The paper discusses the addition of off-task socially oriented conver-sational abilities to an existing “teachable agent” (TA) in an educational game in mathematics. The purpose of this extension is to affect constructs known to promote learning, such as self-efficacy and engagement as well as enhance students’ experiences of interacting with the game. A comparison of students that played the game with the off-task interaction to those who played without it, shows trends that indicate that students who played the game with off-task interaction had a more positive experience of the game, and that they also learnt more, as reflected in the learning outcomes of their TAs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2011
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 6738
Keyword
Educational game in mathematics, conversational pedagogical agent, teachable agent, off-task interaction, socially oriented conversation.
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80332 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-21869-9_16 (DOI)978-3-642-21868-2 (ISBN)978-3-642-21869-9 (ISBN)
Projects
K2D2: Kunskap och Kompetens : Digitala Dialoger
Available from: 2012-08-28 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3691-8756

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