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Zhang, Jingcheng
Publications (10 of 12) Show all publications
Zhang, J. (2014). A Remote Monitoring and Control System for Cultural Heritage Buildings Utilizing Wireless Sensor Networks. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Remote Monitoring and Control System for Cultural Heritage Buildings Utilizing Wireless Sensor Networks
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation presents the study of a wireless remote monitoring and control system utilized for cultural heritage preservation purpose. The system uses wireless sensor networks to remotely monitor and control the indoor climate, i.e., temperature and relative humidity of the cultural buildings.

The system mainly consists of three parts, i.e., the wireless sensor network part, the gateway part and the web service part. Wireless sensor networks are deployed in different cultural buildings. The ZigBee protocol is utilized for the wireless sensor network communication. Sensor nodes report the indoor climate periodically. By connecting with radiators and/or dehumidifiers, the wireless control nodes can control the indoor climate according to the remote configuration. A gateway maintains the communication between a wireless sensor network and the web service. In monitoring function, the gateway forwards sensor messages from the wireless sensor network to the web service. In control function, the gateway synchronizes the climate settings from the web service to the wireless sensor network. The gateway also sends control commands to the wireless control nodes in the wireless sensor network. The web service provides a web-based user interface for the system.

Different from ordinary cable-connected sensor networks, a wireless sensor network that works for cultural heritage preservation should be a system with a large number of sensor nodes covering a large area in a building, high reliability in message transmission, low power consumption and low cost. In this study, the performance of the ZigBee wireless network is improved to meet such requirements base on the investigation of the ZigBee protocol limitation. Firstly, a method for enhancing the wireless sensor network communication reliability is developed. The reactive routing protocol defined by the ZigBee standard is improved so that the wireless nodes automatically detect and repair network communication problems. This method minimizes the message lost within the wireless sensor network by always reserving a route from the source node to the destination node. Secondly, a generic low power working method is developed for sensor devices. This method defines the general sensor module behavior which includes sensor data collecting, sensor message forwardingand wireless network rejoining upon communication failure. It allows sensor devices to maintain high message reliability with low power consumption. Especially, these methods are developed as a complementary infrastructure of the ZigBee wireless sensor network in order to increase the transmission reliability with low power consumption. Finally, methods and algorithms are developed to make it possible to power the ZigBee message relays (i.e., routers) with small batteries. In this system, the whole ZigBee network is synchronized. Wireless communications within the ZigBee network are scheduled so that every wireless transmission is collision-free. During the period when no communication is scheduled, the router can go into low power mode. This design improvement removes the original requirement of using mains power for ZigBee message relays. A truly battery-driven and low power consumption wireless sensor network is developed for monitoring cultural heritage buildings without (or with limited) mains power.

The remote control function is developed to mainly prevent biological degradation by controlling indoor climate, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. After studying the requirements for heritage preservation, a high flexibility, high reliability and low cost wireless indoor climate control system is developed. Different control algorithms are implemented to achieve different control results.

Till today, the remote monitoring and control system presented in this dissertation has been installed in 31 cultural heritage buildings both in Sweden and Norway.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. p. 70
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1557
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102593 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-102593 (DOI)978-91-7519-448-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-01-29, TP1, Täppan, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-12-16 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2013-12-17Bibliographically approved
Zhang, J., Huynh, A., Huss, P., Ye, Q.-z. & Gong, S. (2013). A Web-based Remote Indoor Climate Control System Based on Wireless Sensor Network. International Journal of Sensors and Sensor Networks, 1(3), 32-40
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Web-based Remote Indoor Climate Control System Based on Wireless Sensor Network
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2013 (English)In: International Journal of Sensors and Sensor Networks, ISSN 2329-1796, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 32-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the design and implementation of a web-based wireless indoor climate control system. The user interface of the system is implemented as a web service. People can login to the website and remotely control the indoor climate of different locations. A wireless sensor network is deployed in each location to execute control commands. A gateway is implemented to synchronize the information between the wireless sensor network and the web service. The gateway software also includes scheduling function and different control algorithms to improve the control result. Additionally, the system security and availability are highly considered in this system. The gateway software implements a warning function which sends warning messages when emergency happens. Finally, the whole wireless control system architecture is modularly designed. It is easy to add different control applications or different control algorithms into the system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Science Publishing Group, 2013
Keywords
Remote Control, Indoor Climate, Wireless Sensor Network
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102588 (URN)
Note

DOI dos not work: 

Available from: 2013-12-16 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2018-07-19Bibliographically approved
Zhang, J., Ye, Q.-z., Huynh, A. & Gong, S. (2013). Design and Implementation of a Truly Battery-Driven ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and Implementation of a Truly Battery-Driven ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network
2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

As defined by the ZigBee standard, a router should be mains-powered in order to maintain the mesh feature of the ZigBee network. This study presents a method which allows the ZigBee router goes into sleep mode periodically and keeps the same mesh feature during the ZigBee communications. In this study, the standard ZigBee communication is separated into two synchronized clusters. The first cluster includes the communication between end devices and the associated router. The sensor message report time of different end devices are scheduled by the router in different collision-free time slots within a predefined time interval. The second cluster includes the mesh communication between routers and the concentrator. All routers are synchronized so that they wake up at the same time to maintain the mesh feature. In order to maximize the router battery lifetime, algorithms are developed so that the concentrator communicates with routers according to the network routing records. Additionally, in order to recover the broken communication, special logics are implemented in routers and end device so that they can rejoin the wireless sensor network with low power consumption. Finally, a battery lifetime model is presented which can be utilized to calculate battery lifetime of the ZigBee router under different network configurations.

Keywords
Low Power, ZigBee Router, Wireless Sensor Network, High Availability
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102590 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-16 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2013-12-16Bibliographically approved
Zhang, J., Huynh, A., Ye, Q.-z. & Gong, S. (2011). A Communication Reliability Enhancement Framework for Wireless Sensor Network Using the ZigBee Protocol. Sensors & Transducers Journal, 135(12), 42-56
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Communication Reliability Enhancement Framework for Wireless Sensor Network Using the ZigBee Protocol
2011 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 2306-8515, E-ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 135, no 12, p. 42-56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the methods for the ZigBee network reliability enhancement and the battery life time optimization. The paper begins with the introduction of the common communication problems due to the broken links between sensor module and message relay, or between different relays. Extra message hand shake mechanisms are added to solve different problem mentioned at the beginning. Finally, a general purpose reliability enhancement component is developed as a state machine which can be work together with ZigBee protocol to enhance ZigBee network communication reliability. Moreover, the battery life time of the sensor module during link broken is considerably increased after the enhancement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Frequency Sensors Association (IFSA), 2011
Keywords
Communication reliability enhancement, ZigBee, Reusable, Reconfigurable
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79896 (URN)
Note

On the day of the defence date the status of this article was "Manuscript" and the title was "A Communication Reliability Enhancement Framework for the ZigBee WirelessSensor Network".

Available from: 2012-08-15 Created: 2012-08-15 Last updated: 2018-07-19Bibliographically approved
Zhang, J., Huynh, A., Ye, Q.-Z. & Gong, S. (2011). A Fully Wireless Monitoring and Control System for Protecting Cultural Heritage. In: Proceedings of 2011 20th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises WETICE 2011. Paper presented at 20th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE), 27-29 June, Paris, France (pp. 250-255). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Fully Wireless Monitoring and Control System for Protecting Cultural Heritage
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of 2011 20th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises WETICE 2011, IEEE , 2011, p. 250-255Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a component based wireless monitoring and control system. The system is introduced from both the system architecture and function point of view. The paper begins with the introduction of the component design and the communication interaction between them. The system is composed by three components, the wireless sensor network, the local server and the main server. Wireless sensor networks are deployed in different locations for remote monitoring and control purpose. The monitoring results and control commands are synchronized between the main server and wireless sensor networks via local servers. The test results of the battery life time calculation and remote monitoring field test results are presented in the end of the paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2011
Series
IEEE International Workshop on Enabling Technologies, ISSN 1524-4547
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71523 (URN)10.1109/WETICE.2011.43 (DOI)978-1-4577-0134-4 (ISBN)
Conference
20th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE), 27-29 June, Paris, France
Available from: 2011-10-20 Created: 2011-10-20 Last updated: 2013-12-16Bibliographically approved
Zhang, J. (2011). Design and Optimization of Wireless Remote Monitoring and Control System Using the ZigBee Protocol. (Licentiate dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and Optimization of Wireless Remote Monitoring and Control System Using the ZigBee Protocol
2011 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents the design and the optimization of a wireless remote monitoring and control system utilizing the ZigBee protocol.

From the system architecture point of view, the remote wireless monitoring and control system is mainly combined by 3 parts, the wireless sensor network, the message gateway and the web service. In order to increase the system flexibility and the reconfigurability, each part communicates with each other by using the standard communication protocols.

The wireless sensor network of the system can be deployed in many different locations. The network includes the sensor module, the message relay, the control module and the network coordinator. The sensor module calculates the sensor information (e.g., temperature) periodically and sends the message to the network coordinator. If the radio link of the sensor module is not long enough to reach the coordinator, a message relay could be utilized in between to forward the message to the destination. Meanwhile, the message relay can be utilized as a control module as well. For example, when connected with the air conditioning system (radiator or ventilation), the control device can generate control signal to adjust the temperature and the relative humidity. The network coordinator is the root of the network. When the network coordinator receives the sensor information from the sensor module, it forwards the message to the connected gateway. On the other hand, the coordinator also receives the control command from the gateway. When the control command is received, the network coordinator forwards the control command to the corresponding control device of the wireless sensor network to execute the command. Generally speaking, it is the wireless sensor network part provides the sensor information and executes the control commands in the system.

The gateway works as a translator and synchronizer between the wireless sensor network and the web service. It communicates with the wireless sensor network via the connection of the network coordinator. When receiving the sensor information from the wireless sensor network, the gateway forwards the message to the web service through the Internet. On the other hand, the gateway also receives control commands from the web service. When the gateway receives the control command from the web service, it forwards the command to the network coordinator of the wireless sensor network. Moreover, the gateway also works as a local monitoring and control agent. The gateway can be utilized to monitor and control the local sensor network without login to the web service. During the network deployment, the gateway needs to be equipped for each wireless sensor network. Different gateways can communicate with the web service via the Internet at the same time.

The web service contains the sensor information uploaded from different locations. When the control command is received from the user configuration, the web service forwards the control command to the correct local server. From the user point of view, the web service is a website which can be accessed by a normal web browser. Users can register the website to apply for monitoring and control privilege. The monitoring function provides the graphical presentation of the sensor information from different locations. The control function of the system includes the ON/OFF control, temperature control and humidity control.

In order to increase the system reliability, extra optimizations are developed in different parts of the system. In the wireless sensor network, the power consumption of the battery powered sensor module is optimized. A method is discovered to manage the network topology and the message forwarding pattern. Moreover, an alternative routing algorithm is designed which could be utilized by the coordinator to communicated with the sensor network. This method is verified to be much more efficient than the original algorithm utilized by the sensor network. Finally, a general purpose communication reliability enhancement framework is developed for the wireless sensor network. It helps the wireless sensor network to handle the exceptions without interference to the sensor network applications. In the gateway part, the Internet connection status is checked all the time. When the Internet connection is broken, sensor messages sent from the coordinators are buffered in the gateway to avoid the message lost.

Finally, the remote monitoring and control system has received a nomination for the Swedish Embedded Award 2010 and been demonstrated at the Scandinavia Embedded Conference 2010 in Stockholm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011. p. 54
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1508
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71526 (URN)978-91-7393-045-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2011-11-21, Täppan, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings Universitet, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-10-20 Created: 2011-10-20 Last updated: 2013-12-16Bibliographically approved
Zhang, J., Huynh, A., Ye, Q.-Z. & Gong, S. (2010). Design of the Remote Climate Control System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology. Sensors & Transducers Journal, 118(7), 13-27
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of the Remote Climate Control System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology
2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 2306-8515, E-ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 13-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A wireless solution of remote climate control for cultural buildings is presented in this paper. The system allows users to use web service to control climate in different cultural buildings, like churches. The wireless sensor networks deployed in churches receive the control commands and manage the indoor climate. The whole system is modularly designed, which makes possible an easy service extension, system reconfiguration and modification. This paper includes the system overview and the software design of each part within the system.

Keywords
ZigBee, Wireless sensor network, Remote control, Modular system design
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61293 (URN)
Projects
CultureBee
Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Zhang, J., Huynh, A., Ye, Q.-Z. & Gong, S. (2010). Reliability and Latency Enhancements in a ZigBee Remote Sensing System. In: : . Paper presented at The Fourth International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications (SENSORCOMM 2010), July 18 - 25, Venice/Mestre, Italy (pp. 196-202).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliability and Latency Enhancements in a ZigBee Remote Sensing System
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Methods to improve the reliability and optimize the system latency of our own-developed ZigBee remote sensing system are introduced in this paper. The concept of this system utilizes the ZigBee network to transmit sensor information and process them at both local and remote databases. The enhancement has been done in different parts in this system. In the ZigBee network part, the network topology is configured and controlled. The latency for message transmitting is also optimized. In the data processing part, the network status check function and data buffer function are introduced to improve the system reliability. Additionally, the system latency is measured to compare with the Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector algorithm used in the ZigBee standard.

Keywords
System reliability, system latency, ZigBee network topology configuration, data buffering
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61294 (URN)10.1109/SENSORCOMM.2010.38 (DOI)978-1-4244-7538-4 (ISBN)
Conference
The Fourth International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications (SENSORCOMM 2010), July 18 - 25, Venice/Mestre, Italy
Projects
CultureBee
Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2014-09-25Bibliographically approved
Zhang, J., Huynh, A., Ye, Q.-Z. & Gong, S. (2010). Remote Sensing System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology. Paper presented at 8th. International Conference on Computing, Communications and Control Technologies (CCCT 2010), April 6 - 9, Orlando, FL, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote Sensing System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A wireless remote sensing system using the ZigBee standard ispresented in this paper. This system is a wireless solution formonitoring purpose in cultural buildings in order to protectcultural heritage. The concept of this system utilizes ZigBeenetworks to carry and transmit data collected by sensors andstore them into both local and remote databases. Thus, users canmonitor the measured data locally or remotely. Especially, thepower consumption is optimized to extend the lifetime of thebattery-driven devices. Moreover, since the system has amodular architecture, it is easy to add extra services into thissystem.

Keywords
Modular system, power consumption, wireless sensor network, ZigBee
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61295 (URN)
Conference
8th. International Conference on Computing, Communications and Control Technologies (CCCT 2010), April 6 - 9, Orlando, FL, USA
Projects
CultureBee
Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2013-12-16Bibliographically approved
Huynh, A., Zhang, J., Ye, Q.-Z. & Gong, S. (2010). Wireless Remote Monitoring System for Cultural Heritage. Sensors & Transducers Journal, 118(7), 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wireless Remote Monitoring System for Cultural Heritage
2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Existing systems to collect temperature and relative humidity data at cultural heritage buildings require technical knowledge by people who are working with it, which is very seldom that they do have. The systems available today also require manual downloading of the collected data from the sensor to a computer for central storage and for further analysis. In this paper a wireless remote sensor network based on the ZigBee technology together with a simplified data collection system is presented. The system does not require any knowledge by the building administrator after the network is deployed. The wireless sensor device will automatically join available network when the user wants to expand the network. The collected data will be automatically and periodically synchronized to a remote main server via an Internet connection. The data can be used for centralized monitoring and other purpose. The power consumption of the sensor module is also minimized and the battery lifetime is estimated up to 10 years.

Keywords
ZigBee, Remote monitoring, Low cost, Low power, Long battery lifetime
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61216 (URN)
Projects
CultureBee
Available from: 2010-11-05 Created: 2010-11-05 Last updated: 2010-11-16
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