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Lingegård, Sofia
Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Lingegård, S. & Lindahl, M. (2015). Integrated Product Service Offerings for rail infrastructure: benefits and challenges regarding knowledge transfer and cultural change in a Swedish case. Journal of Cleaner Production, 98, 166-174
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated Product Service Offerings for rail infrastructure: benefits and challenges regarding knowledge transfer and cultural change in a Swedish case
2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 166-174Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to investigate potential benefits and challenges regarding knowledge transfer and cultural change from the provider and buyer perspectives when using IPSOs for Swedish rail infrastructure. Considering material use and the importance of availability of the tracks makes rail infrastructure an interesting candidate for a business model based on a life-cycle approach, which can result in a reduction in cost and environmental impact.

The concept of the Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO) has in several business areas proven to be a means with potential to reduce the environmental impact of products and services, increase cost efficiency and quality, and act as a driver for change. The business model, which is based on a life-cycle approach, focuses on the function instead of the initial price of the product.

Among the main findings are the lack of information and knowledge transfer that act as a barrier for innovation, and that the buyer's conservative business culture makes it difficult to implement new types of contracts. Since IPSO contracts require improved information transfer, they could potentially stimulate innovation as well as processes for evaluation of the contracts. By involving the contractors in the design phase their knowledge could be used in a better way, creating a feedback loop from practice to design.

The empirical part, focusing on the rail infrastructure industry in Sweden, has been collected using individual interviews and a group interview approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Rail infrastructure, Long-term contracts, Supplier–buyer relationships, Knowledge transfer
National Category
Environmental Sciences Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109976 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.06.039 (DOI)000356194300017 ()
Available from: 2014-08-29 Created: 2014-08-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Lingegård, S., Lindahl, M. & Syberg, A. (2015). Life-cycle Cost Strategies for Harbors – A Case Study. Paper presented at 7th Industrial Product-Service Systems Conference - PSS, industry transformation for sustainability and business, Saint Étienne, France, 21-22 May 2015. Edited By Xavier Boucher and Daniel Brissaud. Procedia CIRP, 30, 317-322
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life-cycle Cost Strategies for Harbors – A Case Study
2015 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 30, p. 317-322Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper discusses maintenance strategies for large technical systems with long life-cycles and critical availability needs. The use of sea freight is rapidly increasing, and thereby the use of container harbors as well. The case of Gothenburg harbor in Sweden is used to discuss appropriate construction and maintenance strategies focusing on availability. Investment costs, operational costs and societal costs are discussed along with environmental impact considerations. Different aspects and considerations affecting costs are also discussed, such as pay-back time and external uncertainties. The paper is based on an extensive literature review as well as interviews with harbor personnel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
life-cycle cost; maintenance strategies; long-term contracts; availability
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120814 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2015.02.136 (DOI)000361471300054 ()
Conference
7th Industrial Product-Service Systems Conference - PSS, industry transformation for sustainability and business, Saint Étienne, France, 21-22 May 2015. Edited By Xavier Boucher and Daniel Brissaud
Available from: 2015-08-26 Created: 2015-08-26 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Lingegård, S. & Lindahl, M. (2015). Partnering as a Stepping Stone in the Transition to PSS for the Construction Industry. Paper presented at 7th Industrial Product-Service Systems Conference - PSS, industry transformation for sustainability and business, Saint Étienne, France, 21-22 May 2015. Edited By Xavier Boucher and Daniel Brissaud. Procedia CIRP, 30, 347-352
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Partnering as a Stepping Stone in the Transition to PSS for the Construction Industry
2015 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 30, p. 347-352Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper aims to explain and analyze how the construction industry can benefit from PSS, and how collaborative approaches such as partnering can be a stepping stone in this transition. The potential sub-optimization between construction and maintenance, as well as the necessity of availability in roads for example, make Product Service Systems a suitable approach for improvement. Adapted solutions though the iterative design approach, co-located actors, an active buyer and functioning information flows resulted in a successful project. Interviews conducted with the buyer, the contractor and the design consultant, as well as project documentation, were used to collect data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
buyer-supplier collaboration; partnering; resource efficiency; road infrastructure; knowledge transfer; information transfer
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120810 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2015.02.137 (DOI)000361471300059 ()
Conference
7th Industrial Product-Service Systems Conference - PSS, industry transformation for sustainability and business, Saint Étienne, France, 21-22 May 2015. Edited By Xavier Boucher and Daniel Brissaud
Available from: 2015-08-26 Created: 2015-08-26 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Lingegård, S. & Lindahl, M. (2014). Identification of Risks Related to Integrated Product Service Offerings of Rail Infrastructure. In: Louis, Rajkumar Roy (Ed.), Through-life Engineering Services: . Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of Risks Related to Integrated Product Service Offerings of Rail Infrastructure
2014 (English)In: Through-life Engineering Services / [ed] Louis, Rajkumar Roy, Springer, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Among construction companies in Sweden, incentives for development, increased efficiency and raised competence are low. In Sweden, construction contracts are currently used to a large extent, and have shortcomings concerning weak incentives for development of procedures. The over-detailed specifications cause major obstacles for the rail infrastructure industry in terms of technical development. There is clearly a need for change, and it is now in the strategy of the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) to get as much railway as possible for the money it spends. This includes increased productivity, level of innovation and competition, as well as a will to think more from a life-cycle perspective and increase cost efficiency. Changes in the business model is one of the strategies mentioned to reach these goals.

Performance contracting could increase the drivers for change within the industry and thereby increase cost efficiency and quality from a life cycle perspective. This type of contracting is also known as an Integrated Product Service Offering, or IPSO, and implies that one actor has the responsibility to deliver a result and therefore has incentives to optimize the use of energy and material. An IPSO has a lifecycle perspective, and the combination of products and services can be combined into an optimized solution for the customer, as well as give the manufacturing company the possibility to have control over the product throughout its whole life-cycle. PSS provides the supplier with the opportunity to increase the value of the solution for the customer by integrating components in new ways, as well as incentives for the supplier to realize a more economical and environmental development when considering the whole lifecycle. More money spent on the construction, and thereby improved quality, could result in reduced cost for maintenance work. On the other hand, too high a cost for construction can never be motivated by future savings for the maintenance cost.

New business models such as IPSO contracts create challenges such as uncertainty concerning forecasting costs at the bidding phase of the contract. With a business model focusing on delivering a result, a lot of the risk previously carried by the user is now assumed by the provider, and it can be difficult rededicating and controlling the risks and uncertainties. In this case the term “risk” is defined as the threat of loss from an unwanted event, to include financial, performance or timescale loss. Risk assessments, including forecasting and economic development, are very important for these long-term contracts and both the supplier side and the buyer side have to be considered. For longterm performance contracts risks caused by uncertainties arise in the bidding stage. Key uncertainties for a IPSO contract are performance, operation, training, engineering, affordability and commercial uncertainties.

In cooperation with the STA, the DORIS (Development of integrated product service Offerings for Rail Infrastructure Systems) project investigates the potential use of IPSO contracts for rail infrastructure. So far, only one such contract has been realized; this was partly funded by private capital, and no such initiatives are currently planned. This limited experience in the industry calls for more thorough research. In line with this, the aim of this paper is to identify potential risk components when using IPSO for rail infrastructure for both the provider and buyer perspectives. Furthermore, the paper seeks to investigate how these risks can be potentially reduced or avoided.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2014
Series
Decision Engineering, ISSN 1619-5736 ; 2014
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73900 (URN)978-3-319-12110-9 (ISBN)
Note

On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

Available from: 2012-01-16 Created: 2012-01-16 Last updated: 2015-01-07Bibliographically approved
Lingegård, S. (2014). Integrated Product Service Offerings for Rail and Road Infrastructure: Reviewing Applicability in Sweden. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated Product Service Offerings for Rail and Road Infrastructure: Reviewing Applicability in Sweden
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This research aims to explore and propose a more effective management of rail and road infrastructure and the possibility of a more resource-efficient road and rail infrastructure by applying business models based on performance and a life-cycle perspective.

There is a lack of efficiency in the Swedish rail and road infrastructure industries - at the same time as the availability of the rail tracks and roads is essential. Rail and road infrastructure have long lifetimes, around 40-60 years, and during these decades regular maintenance and reconstruction are needed to ensure proper function. Large amounts of resources are required to construct the infrastructure, and the overall environmental pressure depends substantially on this.

This research is largely based on interviews conducted with the buyer, contractors and design consultants for rail and road infrastructure in Sweden. Literature reviews have been conducted to develop the framework needed to analyze the empirical findings. This research contributes by building on theory in areas such as Integrated Product Service Offerings (IPSOs) and eco-design, and this abstract presents a brief summary of the overall conclusions.

Several challenges for rail and road infrastructure in Sweden have been identified, such as the lack of information and knowledge transfer between different projects and actors. This is due to e.g. the use of traditional short-term contracts and conservative cooperate cultures, creating sub-optimizations in management. Increased collaboration, through e.g. partnering, seems to be a promising way to increase the information and knowledge transfer between actors by increasing trust and interaction. In this way, management would be more effective, and by involving contractors in the design phase, more efficient technical solutions could be developed and used. Additionally, increased involvement by the design consultants and an iterative information loop between design, construction and maintenance could also be beneficial. The research indicates that increased cooperation increases trust. In this way, there is a possibility to remove the detailed requirements that prevent new ways of working.

Rail and road infrastructure have characteristics, such as the resources used and the importance of availability, that are well-suited for IPSOs. This performance-based business model with a life-cycle perspective provides incentives to optimize the use of resources and provide a holistic view for management that is lacking today for rail and road infrastructure. However, a long-term contract such as an IPSO creates uncertainties. The actors are risk-averse, which is an obstacle in the development of new business models and contract forms. Most of the risks and uncertainties identified are due to lack of experience. This implies that an implementation of IPSOs will have a steep learning curve. Additionally, risk allocation between the actors is important for effective management: too much risk for the suppliers will make them reluctant in developing new solutions, and they will use a risk premium to cover up for the risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. p. 106 + Appendix 1 and 2
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1613
Keywords
Integrated Product Service Offerings, Product Service Systems, long-term contracts, risk, life-cycle perspective, resource-efficiency
National Category
Environmental Sciences Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110015 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-110015 (DOI)978-91-7519-260-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-09-19, ACAS, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-09-01 Created: 2014-09-01 Last updated: 2014-09-04Bibliographically approved
Lingegård, S. & Svensson, N. (2014). Scenarios for Resource Efficient Rail Infrastructure: Applying Integrated Product Service Offerings. In: PRODUCT SERVICES SYSTEMS AND VALUE CREATION: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS: . Paper presented at 6th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPSS) (pp. 13-139). Elsevier, 16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scenarios for Resource Efficient Rail Infrastructure: Applying Integrated Product Service Offerings
2014 (English)In: PRODUCT SERVICES SYSTEMS AND VALUE CREATION: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 16, p. 13-139Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The rail infrastructure in Sweden, with its long lifetime, large amounts of materials used and traditional procurement, has escalating maintenance costs. What would occur if the infrastructure is instead procured as an Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO)? This paper discusses scenarios for increased resource efficiency and more value for the money spent by applying an IPSO perspective to rail infrastructure. The best option depends on the conditions at the construction site as well as how much the availability of the tracks is valued.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Series
Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271 ; 16
Keywords
Rail infrastructure, maintenance, availability, product service systems
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109977 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2014.06.001 (DOI)000345448900023 ()
Conference
6th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPSS)
Available from: 2014-08-29 Created: 2014-08-29 Last updated: 2015-01-08Bibliographically approved
Lingegård, S., Lindahl, M. & Svensson, N. (2012). Funktionsupphandling av järnvägsinfrastruktur. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Funktionsupphandling av järnvägsinfrastruktur
2012 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Vid byggnation och underhåll av infrastruktur för järnväg används stora mängder av olika material, vilket medför stor miljöpåverkan från de tidiga produktionsstegen, till exempel råvaruutvinning. Hittills har Trafikverket inte haft något uttalad livscykeltänkande i sitt arbete med upphandlingar. Trafikverket behöver arbeta med miljöledning av nya produkter och välja de mest resurssnåla produkterna i ett livscykelperspektiv. En bättre planerad och förebyggande verksamhet för drift och underhåll skulle möjliggöra förlängd livslängd för järnvägsprodukter.

Integrerade produkt‐ och tjänsteerbjudanden (till exempel funktions‐ eller resultatorienterade kontrakt) är en affärsmodell som används av allt fler företag. Affärsmodelltypen benämns ofta även som funktionsförsäljning och kan beskrivas som ett livscykelkontrakt med funktionsåtagande. Tidigare forskning har visat att denna typ av affärsmodell, ofta ökar drivkrafterna för förändring och därmed ökad kosteffektivitet och kvalitet ur ett livscykelperspektiv.

Det övergripande syftet med det här projektet är att;

ta fram metoder, som stödjer Trafikverket, att utveckla sina sätt att utformaupphandlingsspecifikationer.

Mer specifikt så har det undersöks om integrerade produkt‐ och tjänsteerbjudande kan förbättra förvaltningen av järnvägsinfrastruktur, och vad skulle i sådant fall en implementering innebära för riskfaktorer samt hur kan kontrakten utvärderas ekonomiskt‐ och miljömässigt?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. p. 35
Series
LiTH-ISY-R, ISSN 1400-3902 ; 2012:7
Keywords
järnväg, entreprenad, resurseffektivitet, underhåll, feedback, kunskapsöverföring, livscykelperspektiv
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102934 (URN)LIU-IEI-R--12/0007--SE (ISRN)
Available from: 2014-01-08 Created: 2014-01-08 Last updated: 2014-08-28Bibliographically approved
Lingegård, S., Sakao, T. & Lindahl, M. (2012). Integrated Product Service Engineering - Factors Influencing Environmental Performance. In: Boris Cogan (Ed.), Systems Engineering: Practice and Theory (pp. 147-164). InTech
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated Product Service Engineering - Factors Influencing Environmental Performance
2012 (English)In: Systems Engineering: Practice and Theory / [ed] Boris Cogan, InTech , 2012, p. 147-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This chapter endeavours to lead the scientific discussion regarding which IPSE factors are expected to, in theory, lower the environmental impact of a life cycle compared to a traditional product sales business. To do so, the IPSE concept is introduced, first with an emphasis on engineering processes rather than an object such as PSS. In the following sections, four aspects from theory will be discussed: product development, information asymmetry, economies of scale, and risk. These sections discuss how environmental impacts are influenced from a product life cycle perspective, and highlight crucial factors theoretically. They are followed by an overall discussion and an examination of some promising future work. The chapter provides the research community with a first theoretical cornerstone regarding environmental performance by IPSE. To practitioners, it will be an eye opener for how they engineer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InTech, 2012
Keywords
Ingénierie des systèmes.
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72842 (URN)10.5772/33944 (DOI)979-953-307-410-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-08-27 Created: 2011-12-08 Last updated: 2015-06-02Bibliographically approved
Lingegård, S. & Lindahl, M. (2012). Integrated Product Service Offerings for Rail Infrastructure - Benefits and challenges regarding resource efficiency and knowledge transfer. In: : . Paper presented at The 18th Greening of Industry Network Conference (GIN 2012), 21-24 October 2012, Linköping, Sweden (pp. Paper 3627).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated Product Service Offerings for Rail Infrastructure - Benefits and challenges regarding resource efficiency and knowledge transfer
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Large amounts of material are used for rail infrastructure causing significant environmental impact. At the same time the industry’s motivation to innovate is low and the lowest price is the main driver for selecting a tender. The concept of Integrated Product Service Offerings (IPSO), have in several business areas proven to be a mean with potential to reduce the environmental impact of products and services, increase cost efficiency and quality, and act as a driver for change. The business model is based on a life cycle approach and focuses on the function and not the product of an offering.  

The objective of this paper is therefore to investigate the potential benefits and challenges regarding resource efficiency and knowledge transfer from the provider and buyer perspectives when using IPSO for rail infrastructure. In order to this, theories such as resource efficiency, product development, knowledge transfer, networks and literatures focusing on IPSO are used to discuss the empirical findings. The empirical part has been collected using individual interviews and a focus group approach.

Among the main findings is that fact that the lack of information transfer and knowledge integration is a barrier for innovation and the buyer’s conservative business culture makes it difficult to implement new types of contracts. Since IPSO contracts require improved information transfer they could potentially stimulate innovation as well as processes for evaluation of the contracts. IPSO contracts provides a holistic life-cycle perspective and incentives for dematerialization, resulting in a more resource-efficient and durable infrastructure. By involving the contractors already in the design phase their knowledge could be used in a better way, creating a feedback loop from practice to design. The contractors hope that by introducing IPSO contracts the buyer would focus less on the initial purchasing price and more on the total life-cycle cost in relation to quality in order to get the best solution.

Several challenges with IPSO are discussed, and most of them are derived from the risk and uncertainty aspects that come with long-term contracts and inexperience with a new business model. New competences in risk management and other types of calculation methods are needed but most of all a change in mindset. Some of these uncertainties also are connected to the inadequate documentation hindering IPSO contract working for anything but new investments.

Keywords
Rail infrastructure, Long-term contracts, Supplier-buyer relationships, Knowledge transfer
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100204 (URN)
Conference
The 18th Greening of Industry Network Conference (GIN 2012), 21-24 October 2012, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2013-10-30 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2014-02-17Bibliographically approved
Lingegård, S. (2012). Integrated Product Service Offerings for Rail Infrastructure: Potential Benefits and Challenges. (Licentiate dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated Product Service Offerings for Rail Infrastructure: Potential Benefits and Challenges
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Large amounts of different materials are used when building and maintaining railway infrastructure, and the environmental impacts from the upstream production stages are significant. Industry’s motivation to innovate is low, new products or methods are rarely used, and the lowest price is the main driver for selecting a tender.

Integrated Product Service Offerings, or IPSO, has been put forward in the research literature as a potential concept to, from a life-cycle perspective, reduce the environmental impact of products and services, increase cost efficiency and quality, and act as a driver for change. Therefore, this thesis attempts to answer to the aim: “Can the concept of Integrated Product Service Offerings improve the management of rail infrastructure and if so, what would such an implementation induce in terms of risk factors?” The Swedish rail infrastructure is used as a case to discuss the considerations and feasibility of such an implementation. Theories such as product development, information asymmetry and innovation are used to complement the literature focusing on IPSO. The empirical part of the thesis has been collected using individual interviews, group interviews and a survey approach.

The contracts currently used in the railway industry have several advantages, such as being a familiar business model that is straightforward to calculate for the contractors. However, they are not optimal for innovation due to e.g. detailed specifications, standards and technological and market lock-in effects. Technological and market lock-in, in combination with a lack of information transfer between different contracts and actors, are major disadvantages with the current practice. Furthermore, the buyer’s conservative business culture makes it difficult to implement new types of contracts since it is difficult to break old habits. Even though the providers are part of the same mature market, the organizational changes needed for them to fulfill IPSO contracts are not seen as a barrier.

A benefit with IPSO is the holistic life-cycle perspective that provides incentives for dematerialization, resulting in a more resource-efficient and durable infrastructure. IPSO requires improved information transfer, something which stimulates innovation as well as processes for evaluation of the contracts. Further benefits are potential incentives to get contractors involved in the design phase, where the major decisions about the life-cycle are made, in order to reduce the infrastructure's environmental impact and total life-cycle cost. The contractors hope that IPSO contracts will make the buyer focus less on e.g. the initial purchasing price and more on the total life-cycle cost in relation to quality in order to get the best solution.

The actors see themselves as parties with opposing interests. At the same time, IPSO will most likely imply more long-term cooperation, something that calls for common interests, shared risks and flexibility. The innovation possibilities with IPSO could benefit from loosening up the material handling monopoly that the buyer currently holds. Since the buyer is a dominant actor within the industry, this organization has major possibilities to introduce changes that the other actors would have to conform to.

Several challenges with IPSO are discussed, and most of them are derived from the risk and uncertainty aspects that come with long-term contracts and inexperience with a new business model. On one hand, the contractors request more flexibility; on the other hand, they are reluctant to take on more responsibility that could lead to increased risk. However, risk does not have to be seen as something completely negative, as it depends on how the contractors choose to deal with it. They can either develop the necessary skills and competence needed to identify and handle the risk in a strategic manner, foster a competitive advantage, or take the problems as they come in a more ad hoc way. A way to reduce risk and uncertainty seems to be to focus on transparency and information sharing between the actors and the contracts. This would also open up IPSO contracts for reinvestments, where the current lack of information concerning the condition of the facilities results in reluctance for IPSO contracts.

This research has focused on IPSO for rail infrastructure management, using the Swedish rail infrastructure as a case to discuss the considerations and feasibility of such an implementation. The conclusions, therefore, are valid for rail infrastructure in other geographical locations as well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. p. 70
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1515
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73901 (URN)LIU-TEK-LIC-2011:54 (Local ID)978-91-7519-997-9 (ISBN)LIU-TEK-LIC-2011:54 (Archive number)LIU-TEK-LIC-2011:54 (OAI)
Presentation
2012-01-18, ACAS, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-01-16 Created: 2012-01-16 Last updated: 2012-01-16Bibliographically approved
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