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Kanda, W., Hjelm, O., Clausen, J. & Bienkowska, D. (2018). Roles of intermediaries in supporting eco-innovation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 205, 1006-1016
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Roles of intermediaries in supporting eco-innovation
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 205, p. 1006-1016Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Eco-innovation is an approach to environmental sustainability. However, the process of eco-innovation can be challenging especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, SMEs might seek external support to tackle some of their challenges in eco-innovation. In this article, we focus on one type of organization providing and also assisting SMEs to access support, intermediaries, i.e. an organization or body that acts as an agent or broker in the innovation process. Intermediaries support firms in the innovation process through various generic and customised activities. To identify such activities and describe the roles intermediaries take in eco-innovation, we conducted interviews and documentation analysis on selected intermediaries in two regions – Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. The identified roles among our cases include: (i) forecasting and road mapping, (ii) information gathering and dissemination, (iii) fostering networking and partnerships, (iv) prototyping and piloting, (v) technical consulting, (vi) resource mobilisation, (vii) commercialisation, and (viii) branding and legitimation. In relation to the specific characteristics of eco-innovations, the intermediary roles such as prototyping and piloting, information gathering and dissemination, and branding were directly targeted at validating the environmental benefits of eco-innovations to tackle their “double externality” challenge. However, we found little intermediation activities from our cases directed explicitly at policy change for eco-innovation. For policy makers, our results suggest a complementary use of different types of intermediaries to support eco-innovation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Environmental innovations; Intermediation; Public support; Business Development Organisations
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152014 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.09.132 (DOI)000449133300081 ()2-s2.0-85054696120 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

Funding agencies: Formas (The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning); European Unions Interreg programme

Available from: 2018-10-15 Created: 2018-10-15 Last updated: 2018-12-04Bibliographically approved
Klofsten, M. & Bienkowska, D. (2017). Entrepreneurship support and sustainable business models – a European study of business incubators. In: : . Paper presented at The 21th Annual Interdisciplinary Conference on Entrepreneurship and Innovation, October 5-6, 2017, University of Wuppertal, Germany..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurship support and sustainable business models – a European study of business incubators
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the role of business incubators in providing support for sustainable entrepreneurship and in promoting sustainable business models among entrepreneurs and their ventures. Through a survey of 96 European incubators we have focused on the present situation concerning incubators’ profiling and accommodation of firms with sustainable orientation, how incubators apply sustainability aspects when recruiting tenants as well as how this could benefit development of sustainable business models. It is shown that many incubators perceive themselves to be profiled as environmental or sustainable, but there are notable differences between countries. Regional development is the most important target for incubators. Traditional selection criteria such as entrepreneur’s capabilities and business idea’s commercial potential is seen as most important while incubators do generally not prioritise criteria relating to sustainability. It is suggested that incubators should strive to adapt their recruitment strategies to the local and regional conditions, that a structured and time-limited pre-incubation program could be offered to potential tenants, and that incubators integrate competence on sustainable business development into their daily operations.

Keywords
Sustainability; business incubators; business model development; incubator selection; incubator support services
National Category
Business Administration Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142013 (URN)
Conference
The 21th Annual Interdisciplinary Conference on Entrepreneurship and Innovation, October 5-6, 2017, University of Wuppertal, Germany.
Projects
SHIFT
Available from: 2017-10-17 Created: 2017-10-17 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved
Bienkowska, D. & Lovén, E. (2017). Peer Feedback in CDIO Courses in Organisation and Leadership. In: The 13th International CDIO Conference Proceedings - Full Papers (Ed.), The 13th International CDIO Conference Proceedings - Full Papers: . Paper presented at The 13th International CDIO Conference (pp. 559-569). University of Calgary
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peer Feedback in CDIO Courses in Organisation and Leadership
2017 (English)In: The 13th International CDIO Conference Proceedings - Full Papers / [ed] The 13th International CDIO Conference Proceedings - Full Papers, University of Calgary , 2017, p. 559-569Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Peer feedback is increasingly being used as an important part of higher education, as it has a potential to contribute to development of professional skills such as giving and receiving feedback while having the benefit of not overstretching the teacher resources. In this paper we share our experiences of working with peer feedback in a course on organisation and leadership with approximately 170 students given during the first year of a CDIO-based engineering program. We present and discuss the course design and how peer feedback was organized as well as the experiences of both teachers and students of this course. We observe that working with peer feedback has helped our students in achieving several important outcomes, for example increased learning within the subject, documented development of own writing and assessment skills, and increased awareness of different perspectives on the same topic. However, we also identify problematic aspects of working with peer feedback, such as a large variation in the quality of provided feedback, perceived difficulties when students are asked to provide non-anonymous feedback to their peers, and students’ doubts whether peers can provide as “correct” feedback as the teacher would have been able to give. We discuss the benefits and downsides of peer feedback within the framework of CDIO-based engineering education and conclude by recommending that feedback-related skills should be trained and developed throughout educational programs in a gradual and integrated way.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Calgary, 2017
Series
Proceedings of the International CDIO Conference, ISSN 2002-1593 ; 2017
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139038 (URN)9780889533998 (ISBN)
Conference
The 13th International CDIO Conference
Note

Series: Research Reports FromUniversity of CalgaryCalgary, ISSN (electronic) 1796-9964, 2017

Available from: 2017-06-28 Created: 2017-06-28 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved
Norrman, C., Bienkowska, D., Sundberg, A. & André, A. (2017). Simple Mockups: Tool to Enhance Visualisation and Creativity inEntrepreneurship Courses. In: Robert Brennan, Kristina Edström, Ron Hugo, Janne Roslöf, Robert Songer and Daniel Spooner (Ed.), Proceedings of the 13th International CDIO Conference, University of Calgary,Calgary, Canada, June 18-22, 2017: . Paper presented at 13th International CDIO Conference, University of Calgary,Calgary, Canada, June 18-22, 2017 (pp. 481-489). Calgary: University of Calgary
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simple Mockups: Tool to Enhance Visualisation and Creativity inEntrepreneurship Courses
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 13th International CDIO Conference, University of Calgary,Calgary, Canada, June 18-22, 2017 / [ed] Robert Brennan, Kristina Edström, Ron Hugo, Janne Roslöf, Robert Songer and Daniel Spooner, Calgary: University of Calgary , 2017, p. 481-489Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The CDIO framework encourages us to work with prototyping during the conceive and design phases integrated into engineering education. At Linköping university, we apply prototyping and working with simple mockups in several entrepreneurship and innovation courses in order to stimulate creative thinking and experimentation. We have seen that through working with a joint prototype, the students increase their level of engagement and self-confidence while learning to know each other, both as individuals, and according to their skills and competence. Prototyping events are appreciated as learning activities, not least as they signal a culture of playfulness and unpretentiousness within a course. We have also seen that it is important to inspire the participating students to reflect on the event in order to complete the learning process. In the paper we analyse and discuss our experience regarding how and at what time in a course simple prototypes can be used, how workshops can be developed, and what we have learned.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Calgary: University of Calgary, 2017
Series
Proceedings of the International CDIO Conference, ISSN 2002-1593, E-ISSN 1796-9964
Keywords
Entrepreneurship, project course, prototype, mockup, shitty prototyping
National Category
Learning Didactics Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145381 (URN)9780889533998 (ISBN)
Conference
13th International CDIO Conference, University of Calgary,Calgary, Canada, June 18-22, 2017
Available from: 2018-02-27 Created: 2018-02-27 Last updated: 2018-02-27Bibliographically approved
Bienkowska, D., Klofsten, M. & Rasmussen, E. (2016). PhD Students in the Entrepreneurial University - Perceived Support for Academic Entrepreneurship. European Journal of Education, 51(1), 56-72
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PhD Students in the Entrepreneurial University - Perceived Support for Academic Entrepreneurship
2016 (English)In: European Journal of Education, ISSN 0141-8211, E-ISSN 1465-3435, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 56-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Universities are currently in the process of change and adaptation to shifting expectations that for example include closer engagement with businesses and increased facilitation of entrepreneurship among faculty and graduates. By supporting academic entrepreneurship, universities can address these expectations whilst also becoming more entrepreneurial institutions. However, more knowledge is needed on how this support provided by different levels in the university organisation is perceived by academics. This is particularly relevant in the case of PhD students because many of them will go on to become the next generation of senior faculty and because PhD education constitutes a considerable part of most universities’ activities with PhD students performing a large share of university research. Our study is based on survey responses of 464 PhD students from all faculties at one of the biggest universities in Sweden. The results show that the perceived support of commercialisation of research results varies at different hierarchical levels within the university. The score for perceived support from the highest level (central administration) did not differ much between the faculties, while significant differences were found at lower levels. We argue that variations between faculties and departments with regard to norms and cultures should be considered when stimulating entrepreneurial engagement, for example by using multiple channels of communication, as well as tailor-made strategies and activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2016
Keywords
Collaboration, Commercialisation of research, PhD education, University–industry networks, Academic entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial university
National Category
Pedagogy Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125382 (URN)10.1111/ejed.12160 (DOI)000371154100006 ()
Note

Funding agencies. Helix Centre of Excellence; Research Council of Norway

Available from: 2016-02-22 Created: 2016-02-22 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Kanda, W., Gonzaléz, P. d., Hjelm, O. & Bienkowska, D. (2015). A function of innovation systems approach for analysing the roles of intermediaries in eco-innovation. In: : . Paper presented at Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption Conference,1-4 November,Sitges-Barcelona,Spain.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A function of innovation systems approach for analysing the roles of intermediaries in eco-innovation
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This article draws from two bodies of literature, innovation intermediaries and technological innovation systems, to develop an approach for analysing the functions of intermediaries in eco-innovation. The link between the functions of innovation intermediaries and the functions of technological innovation systems has seldom been explicitly established in the scientific discourse and thus this article contributes to theoretical development in both literatures. To the technological innovation systems literature, this article addresses the lack of attention to the functions of innovation intermediaries who are a critical part in the formation of networks and also contribute to a number of innovation system functions. To the innovation intermediary literature, the functional approach advocates for a synthesis and consensus building in the literature regarding intermediary functions in view of the several redundancies and ambiguities on the subject matter. Empirical operationalization of the analytical approach including methodological choices from case studies in Region Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany are also discussed. The results of our analysis show that the functions of the innovation intermediaries are particularly relevant for the overall goals of an innovation system as compared to the configuration of intermediary actors. Particular challenges with a functional approach in this context include the difficulties of establishing a causal relation between the support functions of intermediaries and eco-innovation outcomes in firms.

Keywords
Analytical approach; Technological Innovation Systems; Innovation; Systems approach
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123205 (URN)
Conference
Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption Conference,1-4 November,Sitges-Barcelona,Spain
Projects
SHIFT
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2015-12-07 Created: 2015-12-07 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
Laur, I., Klofsten, M., Bienkowska, D., Wincent, J. & Ylinenpää, H. (2015). Cluster Initiatives within the European Context: Intermediary Actors and Development process.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cluster Initiatives within the European Context: Intermediary Actors and Development process
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2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cluster initiatives can be seen as intermediaries that drive networks among triple helix actors. This paper investigates how cluster initiatives intermediate within a triple helix context in terms of actors’ involvement and dependency patterns between their maturity and member enrolment. A sample of 253 European initiatives was contacted of which 136 (53%) responded. The results show that two factors influence attraction of new target members in cluster initiatives: namely age of the initiative and the presence of key players and support groups. Our findings lead to a number of implications for policymakers, such as the importance of long-term financing of well-functioning cluster initiatives despite their age.

Keywords
Cluster initiatives, intermediaries, triple helix actors, development process
National Category
Economics and Business Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121713 (URN)
Available from: 2015-10-02 Created: 2015-10-02 Last updated: 2019-02-25Bibliographically approved
Bienkowska, D. & Klofsten, M. (2015). Entrepreneurship support and sustainability focus within business incubators: a European study. In: : . Paper presented at Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption Conference 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurship support and sustainability focus within business incubators: a European study
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As societies strive to address current environmental challenges new markets and opportunities are opening up for both businesses and entrepreneurs implement sustainability within their operations. In a recent report by OECD (2013) it is noted that green entrepreneurs in general have to overcome higher barriers than other entrepreneurs, e.g. concerning regulations, immature markets and shortages of skills. Thus, one key question is how identification, evaluation and exploitation of business opportunities related to sustainable innovation and green business can be effectively supported by organizations such as business incubators. The aim of this study is to investigate business incubators in three European countries with the highest positions on European Union’s Eco-Innovation Scoreboard from 2014 (Finland, Germany, Sweden) with respect to how they manage sustainability aspects. More specifically, we are studying how sustainability in social and environmental terms is integrated into incubators’ processes for selection and support of their tenants. The data was collected through a survey where we reached the management of 360 business incubators in the three countries and received 96 responses. We show that there is substantial interest among incubators to gain an image of being sustainability-profiled. However, this image does not seem to be supported with practical organizational routines when selecting and supporting tenants. While the majority of incubators in Finland, Germany and Sweden consider sustainability an important issue for incubation, few incubators actually offer sustainability specific services or advice (e.g. related to ecodesign or marketing of green products). This is a clear gap in the existing entrepreneurship support system that should be addressed by policymakers, stakeholders and managers of incubators.

Keywords
business incubators; entrepreneurship support; sustainable business models
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122689 (URN)
Conference
Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption Conference 2015
Available from: 2015-11-16 Created: 2015-11-16 Last updated: 2016-05-04
Kanda, W., Clausen, J., Hjelm, O. & Bienkowska, D. (2015). Functions of intermediaries in eco-innovation: a study of business development organizations and cluster initiatives in a Swedish and a German region. In: : . Paper presented at Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption Conference,1-4 November, Sitges-Barcelona,Spain.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functions of intermediaries in eco-innovation: a study of business development organizations and cluster initiatives in a Swedish and a German region
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Eco-innovation continues to gain support as a driving force for sustainable development. In this regard, pressing questions include how to stimulate the development, diffusion and use of eco-innovations. Often, firms engaged with eco-innovation need to connect to intermediary organizations (e.g. business development organizations, regional clusters, universities, financers, incubators) to get hold of necessary resources to tackle the challenges in the innovation process. This article analyses the functions of such intermediary organizations for eco-innovation by focusing on public–owned business development organizations and cluster initiatives in the Region Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany.  We synthesise at least eight functions of intermediaries for eco-innovation as: (i) forecasting and road mapping (ii) resource mobilization (iii) networking and partnerships (iv) commercialization (v) technical consulting (vi) information scanning and distribution (vii) sector branding and legitimation (viii) prototyping and piloting.  The support functions often take a “one-size-fits-all” approach with few initiatives particularly tailored for eco-innovations. This can be explained by the market complementarity roles of public intermediaries, their resource constraints and the cross-sectoral nature of eco-innovation. Even though, intermediary functions are often appreciated by clients and financers, it is often difficult to establish a causal relation between the support and eco-innovation outcomes, a challenge which undermines the existence of intermediaries themselves. Despite these challenges, potential good practices point to a mix between general “one-size-fits-all” and tailored support activities for different types of eco-innovations and firms. Furthermore, interaction between various types of intermediaries is important since there are often numerous actors and initiatives working with eco-innovation which can confuse firms. When it comes to stimulating radical eco-innovations, a proactive approach to intermediation is particularly important. 

Keywords
Innovation systems, Sustainable entrepreneurship, Public support, Regional development
National Category
Business Administration Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123206 (URN)
Conference
Global Cleaner Production and Sustainable Consumption Conference,1-4 November, Sitges-Barcelona,Spain
Projects
SHIFT
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2015-12-07 Created: 2015-12-07 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
Klofsten, M., Bienkowska, D., Laur, I. & Sölvell, I. (2015). Success factors in cluster initiative management: Mapping out the ‘big five’. Industry & higher education, 29(1), 65-77
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Success factors in cluster initiative management: Mapping out the ‘big five’
2015 (English)In: Industry & higher education, ISSN 0950-4222, E-ISSN 2043-6858, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 65-77Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cluster development is prioritized in policy programmes as a means to facilitate regional growth and job creation. Triple Helix actors are often involved in so-called cluster initiatives – intermediary organizations having the objective of the development of a local or regional cluster. This paper maps out the ‘big five’ qualitative success factors in cluster initiative management: the idea; driving forces and commitment; activities; critical mass; and organization. The proposed framework enables the assessment of performance and sustainability over time, useful for both everyday management operations and policy programmes designed to support cluster initiatives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2015
Keywords
Cluster initiatives; qualitative success factors; regional development
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114408 (URN)10.5367/ihe.2015.0237 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-02-20 Created: 2015-02-20 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9938-8839

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