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Baas, Leenard
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Publications (10 of 56) Show all publications
Mejia-Dugand, S., Hjelm, O. & Baas, L. (2017). Public utility companies in liberalized markets - The impact of management models on local and regional sustainability. Utilities Policy, 49, 137-144
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public utility companies in liberalized markets - The impact of management models on local and regional sustainability
2017 (English)In: Utilities Policy, ISSN 0957-1787, E-ISSN 1878-4356, Vol. 49, p. 137-144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article analyzes how publicly-owned utility companies can remain competitive in liberalized markets. We study EPM, a utility company from Medellin, Colombia. We discuss the companys management model, local laws and regulations affecting it, direct and indirect benefits for the city, and risks resulting from the power it has acquired. It is claimed that early decisions to maintain public ownership of key assets and provide the company with administrative autonomy helped it remain competitive, despite the liberalization of the market. This has allowed the city to increase its revenue and, as a result, its spending on social and environmental projects. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2017
Keywords
Multi-utility companies; Liberalized utility markets; Economic autarky; Sustainability transitions; Public ownership; Mixed management models
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144151 (URN)10.1016/j.jup.2017.05.002 (DOI)000418219200014 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA); Metabolism of Mega-cities project at the University of Toronto

Available from: 2018-01-09 Created: 2018-01-09 Last updated: 2018-02-13Bibliographically approved
Baas, L. & Mirata, M. (2015). Bio-resource production on the basis of Industrial Ecology in four European harbours, harbour cities and their region (1ed.). In: Yann Alix, Nicolas Mat, Juliette Cerceau (Ed.), Économie Circulaire et Écosystémes Portuaires (Circular Economy and Port Ecosystems): (pp. 223-242). Paris: Foundation Sefacil
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-resource production on the basis of Industrial Ecology in four European harbours, harbour cities and their region
2015 (English)In: Économie Circulaire et Écosystémes Portuaires (Circular Economy and Port Ecosystems) / [ed] Yann Alix, Nicolas Mat, Juliette Cerceau, Paris: Foundation Sefacil , 2015, 1, p. 223-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter re ects the design and starting performance of the Symbiotic bio- Energy Port Integration with Cities by 2020 project (EPIC 2020). The EPIC 2020 project is coordinated by the city of Malmö and is performed in four harbour cities: Malmö in Sweden, Mantova in Italy, Navipe-Akarport in Greece, and Wismar (including Rostock) in Germany. A number of expert organisations and energy companies also take part in the project.

The overall objectives of EPIC 2020 are to build operational and strategic capacity and know-how to promote ef cient use of available bioenergy resources, ef cient conversion technologies and interactions between different biomass supply chains. EPIC 2020 targets the untapped bioenergy resource potential of ports and port regions and the challenge of generating urban economic growth based on bioenergy resources. The project applies the industrial symbiosis approach to achieve its overall objectives.

Ports provide crossing points between transport modes of goods and resources, with connections to hinterland and on-site industrial activities and a nearby urban setting. This means that ports, despite their limited areal footprint, have access to signi cant quantities of bio wastes, surrounding bioenergy resources, biomass from crossing supply chains and energy from intensive activities. The aim is to create platforms for the transformation of port areas to ef cient and carbon-neutral urban-integrated energy systems, where residual bio and energy resources and linear biomass supply chains are utilized as local and network resources.

The EPIC 2020 project is halfway the 3-year performance framework. Re ection to primary results is provided. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Paris: Foundation Sefacil, 2015 Edition: 1
Keywords
Industrial symbiosis, bioenergy, port regions, urban development
National Category
Renewable Bioenergy Research Energy Systems Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144813 (URN)978-2-84769-842-8 (ISBN)
Projects
Symbiotic bioenergy Port Integration with Cities by 2020
Available from: 2018-01-31 Created: 2018-01-31 Last updated: 2018-02-06Bibliographically approved
Boons, F., Spekkink, W., Isenmann, R., Baas, L., Eklund, M., Brullot, S., . . . Baumann, H. (2015). Comparing industrial symbiosis in Europe: towards a conceptual framework and research methodology. In: Pauline Deutz, Donald I Lyons, Jun Bi (Ed.), International perspectives on industrial ecology: (pp. 69-88). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing industrial symbiosis in Europe: towards a conceptual framework and research methodology
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2015 (English)In: International perspectives on industrial ecology / [ed] Pauline Deutz, Donald I Lyons, Jun Bi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 69-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Industrial symbiosis (IS) continues to raise the interest of researchers and practitioners alike. Individual and haphazard attempts to increase linkages among co-located firms have been complemented by concerted efforts to stimulate the development of industrial regions with intensified resource exchanges that reduce environmental impact. Additionally, there are examples of both spontaneous and facilitated linkages between two or more firms involving flows of materials/energy waste. A striking feature of IS activities is that they are found across diverse social contexts and vary considerably in form (Lombardi et al., 2012); there are substantial differences in the ways in which IS manifests itself. Equally diverse are the activities of policy makers to stimulate such linkages. Such diversity can already be found within Europe, as became apparent in a first meeting among some of the present authors in 2009 (Isenmann and Chernykh, 2009). Researchers present there decided to create a network of European researchers on IS, with the explicit aim to develop a comparative analysis. We can thus provide insight to the relationship between the style of IS and its context and thereby the potential for policy makers in different contexts to learn from each other. Policy learning can be a tempting route to IS, but is fraught with difficulties if the influence of context is not appreciated (e.g., Wang et al., Chapter 6, this volume).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015
Keywords
Business and management, corporate social responsibility, management and sustainability, environment, corporate social responsibility, environmental management, environmental sociology
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122801 (URN)10.4337/9781781003572.00013 (DOI)978-17-8100-356-5 (ISBN)978-17-8100-357-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2015-12-01Bibliographically approved
Feiz, R., Ammenberg, J., Baas, L., Eklund, M., Helgstrand, A. & Marshall, R. (2015). Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 98, 272-281
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 272-281Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Cement production, Life Cycle Assessment, CO2 emissions, Modeling Performance indicators
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105939 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.083 (DOI)000356194300028 ()
Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Feiz, R., Ammenberg, J., Baas, L., Eklund, M., Helgstrand, A. & Marshall, R. (2015). Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 98, 282-291
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 282-291Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within the fields of environmental systems analysis and industrial symbiosis. The aim is to apply a broad systems perspective and through the use of multiple criteria related to technologies and organization strategies facilitate informed decision-making regarding different CO2 performance measures in the cement industry.

The integrated assessment framework consists of two parts: a generic and a case-specific part. It is applied to a cement production cluster in Germany called Cluster West, consisting of three cement plants owned by CEMEX. The framework can be used in different ways. It can be used as a tool to perform literature reviews and categorize the state-of-the-art knowledge about options to improve the CO2 performance. It can also be used to assess options for the cement industry in general as well as for individual plants.

This paper describes the assessment framework, the ideas behind it, its components and the process of carrying out the assessment. The first part provides a structured overview of the options for improvement for the cement industry in general, while the second part is a case-specific application for Cluster West, providing information about the feasibility for different categories of measures that can reduce the CO2 emissions. The overall impression from the project is that the framework was successfully established and, when applied, facilitated strategic discussions and decision-making. Such frameworks can be utilized to systematically assess hundreds of different measures and identify the ones most feasible and applicable for implementation, within the cement industry but also possibly in other sectors. The results demonstrated that even in a relatively synergistic and efficient production system, like Cluster West, there are opportunities for improvement, especially if options beyond “production efficiency” are considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
industrial ecology, cement, CO2 emissions, industrial symbiosis, environmental assessment framework, integrated assessment
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105940 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.103 (DOI)000356194300029 ()
Note

On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Ammenberg, J., Baas, L., Eklund, M., Feiz, R., Helgstrand, A. & Marshall, R. (2015). Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact. Journal of Cleaner Production, 98, 145-155
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Cement, CO2 emissions, Life cycle assessment (LCA), Industrial symbiosis Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS)
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105941 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.086 (DOI)000356194300015 ()
Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Baas, L. & Hjelm, O. (2015). Support your future today: enhancing sustainable transitions by experimenting at academic conferences. Journal of Cleaner Production, 98, 1-7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Support your future today: enhancing sustainable transitions by experimenting at academic conferences
2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Major societal changes which challenge societal functions and actors activities are needed to enhance sustainable development. Thus sustainable transitions research emphasizes co-evolutionary approaches involving a multitude of actors including the business sector, the government, and academia. Academic research can catalyse sustainable transitions by critically analyse current societal trends to develop and disseminate new knowledge. At research conferences, researchers and practitioners meet to network and discuss recent research findings providing arenas for testing and evaluating ideas to enhance sustainable transitions. This however requires some modifications of the standard design of a research conference. Here we report learning outcomes from experimenting at the 18th international Greening of Industry Network conference during 21-24 October 2012 in Linkoping, Sweden. The conference was a combination of a traditional conference structure with different interactive elements such as sustainability jam-sessions to discuss future challenges of six companies and clusters of companies at their site. The intention of doing so was to enhance learning outcomes both for visiting conference delegates and among actors in the host region. This was perceived by the participants as an innovative approach fostering both problem solving and creation of new ideas. Four out of the six companies continued dialogues about sustainable production fields or bio-refineries with Linkoping University. In addition we introduce and summarize research findings presented at the conference which were further developed into research articles. The essence of these articles covers sustainable industry management; cleaner production; industrial ecology; cooperation between industry, governments and academics; dissemination of concepts and technologies; methods and tools for modelling and measuring of industrial symbiosis, CO2 performance and eco-efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Triple helix; Cleaner production; Industrial ecology; Sustainability jam-session
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120142 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.02.059 (DOI)000356194300001 ()
Available from: 2015-07-13 Created: 2015-07-13 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Carlsson, A., Hjelm, O., Baas, L., Eklund, M., Krook, J., Lindahl, M. & Sakao, T. (2015). Sustainability Jam Sessions for vision creation and problem solving. Journal of Cleaner Production, 98, 29-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainability Jam Sessions for vision creation and problem solving
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 29-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents a concept for creating arenas where expertise from certain branches of industry can interact with sustainability professionals and researchers to address and solve sustainability challenges. The concept Sustainability Jam Session (SJS) builds upon the idea of conducting creative meetings between professionals in “jam sessions,” similar to those associated primarily with music and improvisation. Approaches such as these have been used in the IT sector over the past decades, but this is the first attempt to apply it in the area of sustainability. SJS's were tested at the 2012 Greening of Industry Network Conference (GIN2012) and here we report our experiences from arranging six SJS's at the conference.

A typical process of an SJS includes a preparatory phase, the actual jam, and documentation and follow up. The preparatory phase mainly involves identifying hosts and topics to be addressed at the SJS, followed by attracting participants. The jam is started by an introduction of the topics, a technical visit (if appropriate), and a problem-solving workshop, ending with a wrap-up reporting. Thorough documentation is necessary for following up the results of the SJS and preparing for implementation of the identified solutions.

We conclude that skill, structure, setting, and surrender of control, as well as finding “red and hot” topics for the jams are the key factors for successful SJS's.

Based on our experiences from GIN2012, we recommend other research conferences in the sustainability field use SJS's if the intention is to boost the interaction between the conference and the host region or non-academic organizations in general. We also suggest that a similar approach can be used in regional development for creating an infrastructure for learning and transformation towards sustainability and initiatives for open innovation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Sustainability Jam Sessions; Triple Helix, Scenario planning;¨, Creativity, Action research, Sustainable regional development
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112725 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.10.041 (DOI)000356194300004 ()
Available from: 2014-12-11 Created: 2014-12-10 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Baas, L., Magnusson, D. & Mejía-Dugand, S. (2014). Emerging selective enlightened self-interest trends in society: Consequences for demand and supply of renewable energy. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emerging selective enlightened self-interest trends in society: Consequences for demand and supply of renewable energy
2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy supply has for a long time primarily been a question of central management with littlecommunication between producer and consumer. Heating, electricity and other services havebeen produced by public corporations with little room for alternative solutions. However, thishas started to change, through grassroots movements aimed at greater degrees of self-sufficiencyin energy production. The trend is clear in both Sweden and internationally.

This study focuses on grassroots movements, to understand the determinants for up-scalingtowards greater self-sufficiency. We are interested in understanding the driving forces behinddifferent types of communities with high ambitions on sustainability and self-sufficiency. Thestudy was conducted in two phases. In phase one, we have studied a total of five communities inDenmark, Germany and the UK that have taken extensive measures to increase energy selfsufficiency,in order to understand how and why they were created and how they work today. Inphase two, we have conducted a web-based questionnaire to residents in the Swedish ecovillages,to understand the reasons for moving there and the experience of living in the villages.The overall aim of the study is to understand citizens' involvement in sustainable communitiesand analyse what this could mean regarding current supply and demand for sustainable energy.

The results from phase one, where interviews were conducted with key stakeholders inrenewable communities, shows that these communities took their steps towards moresustainability due to either momentous events, such as the oil crises of the 1970s, or throughnational "energy competitions"; they started because of particular events. Of paramountimportance for successful projects was a close cooperation between municipalities and citizens,particularly through civic ownership. It created interest, transparency and security in the projects.The development also created new jobs, attracting new jobs to the communities because of theexpertise that were there. Although there are great advantages of the high degree civil activity ithas been proved to be more time consuming. In all cases they have managed to becomeessentially self-sufficient in renewable energy, in one case, they produce up to 500 percent oftheir electricity needs, but a further challenge has been to adapt the independent systems toexisting centralized systems, adapted to different conditions.

The questionnaire in phase two was sent out to 17 ecovillages. We received a response rate ofapproximately 30 percent and the questions concerned for example motives moving to the ecovillage,environmental interest and perceived satisfaction with the accommodation. The resultsshowed that residents are well educated with a great interest in the environment and that,although in many cases it expressed that sacrifices must be made on the basis of theaccommodation, it is worth it. The replies expressed few social conflicts but that the technicalsystems resulted in work and discussions. In some cases it seems as the technical systems wereoff-gauge from the start and something that had to be handled a long time to come. The technicalsystem performance is something that is very important for whether residents feel comfortable invillage or not. The villages started as movements willing to do something different.

The results from the two studies show, among other things, the importance of communicationand inclusion of residents. People are also willing to adapt to new situations as long as it does notaffect the comfort too much or if it is for a good cause. However, there is considerableknowledge among all these communities that should be utilised in other contexts.

Abstract [sv]

Energiförsörjning har under lång tid främst varit en fråga om central styrning med litekommunikation mellan producent och konsument. Värme, el och andra tjänster har produceratsav offentligt ägda bolag med litet utrymme för alternativa lösningar. Detta har dock börjatförändras, genom allt mer gräsrotsrörelser som siktar på större grader av självförsörjning avenergiproduktion. Trenden är tydlig i både Sverige och internationellt.

Denna studie fokuserar därför på denna typ av rörelser, för att förstå avgörande faktorer för enuppskalning av högre grad av självförsörjning. Vi är intresserade att förstå drivkrafter bakomolika typer av gemenskaper med höga ambitioner gällande hållbarhet och självförsörjning.Studien genomfördes i två faser. I fas ett har vi studerat sammanlagt fem samhällen i Danmark,Tyskland och Storbritannien som vidtagit omfattande åtgärder för ökad självförsörjning avenergi för att förstå hur de skapades, varför och hur de fungerar idag. I fas två har vi genomförten web-baserad enkätundersökning till boende i svenska ekobyar, för att förstå motiven för attflytta dit och erfarenheter av boendet. Det övergripande syftet med studien är att förståmedborgares engagemang i gemenskaper för hållbarhet och analysera vad detta kan betydagällande tillgång och efterfrågan på hållbar energi.

Resultatet från fas ett, där intervjuer genomfördes med nyckelaktörer i förnybara samhällen,visar att dessa samhällen tog sina steg mot ytterligare hållbarhet på grund av antingenomvälvande händelser, såsom oljekriserna på 1970-talet, eller genom nationella”energitävlingar”; de startade på grund av särskilda händelser. Av största vikt för lyckade projektvar ett tätt samarbete mellan kommuner och medborgare, särskilt genom medborgarägande. Detskapade intresse, insyn och säkerhet i projekten. Utvecklingen skapade även nya arbeten ochattraherade nya arbetstillfällen till orterna på grund av den kompetens som fanns där. Även omdet är stora fördelar med stort medborgarinflytande har det visat sig vara mer tidskrävande. I allafallen har de lyckats bli i princip självförsörjande på förnybar energi, i ett fall producerar det.o.m. 500 procent av deras elbehov, men en ytterligare utmaning har varit att anpassa desjälvständiga systemen till existerande centraliserade system vilka är anpassade efter andraförutsättningar.

Enkäten i fas två skickades ut till 17 ekobyar. Vi fick en svarsfrekvens på cirka 30 procent ochfrågorna berörde exempelvis motiv att flytta till ekobyn, miljöintresse och upplevd belåtenhetmed boendet. Resultatet visade att de boende är välutbildade med ett stort miljöintresse och attäven om det i många fall uttrycktes att uppoffringar får göras på grund av boendet så är det värtdet. I svaren uttrycktes lite sociala konflikter men att de tekniska systemen gav upphov tillmycket arbete och diskussioner. I några fall verkar systemen varit feldimensionerade från startoch något som behövts hanteras lång tid framöver. Just de tekniska systemens prestanda är någotsom är av stor betydelse för huruvida boende trivs i by eller ej. Det går att sammanfatta det somatt byarna startade som en rörelse där det fanns en vilja att göra något annat och vara mersjälvständig.

Resultaten från de två studierna visar bland annat vikten av kommunikation med och inkluderingav boende. Människor är också villiga att anpassa sig till nya situationer så länge det intepåverkar komforten allt för mycket eller om det är för en god sak. Det finns dock stor kunskapbland alla dessa gemenskaper som borde tas tillvara på i andra sammanhang.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. p. 77
Series
LIU-IEI-R ; 204
Keywords
Energy Independence, Renewable Energy, Self-Sufficiency, Eco Villages
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106904 (URN)LIU-IEI-RR--14/00204—SE (ISRN)
Available from: 2014-05-23 Created: 2014-05-23 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Krook, J. & Baas, L. (2013). Getting serious about mining the technosphere: a review of recent landfill mining and urban mining research. Journal of Cleaner Production, 55, 1-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Getting serious about mining the technosphere: a review of recent landfill mining and urban mining research
2013 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 1-9Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study reviews the articles in a special volume of Journal of Cleaner Production on urban mining and landfill mining, identifying what is seen as relevant for exploring the feasibility of such approaches and which societal changes and research areas are essential for their further dissemination. In doing so, we put the articles in relation to previous research and a modified resilience model displaying dimensions of relevance for socio-ecological transitions, i.e., Metabolic flows, Governance andamp; knowledge, Business dynamics and Infrastructure andamp; markets. The main contributions of the articles in the special volume are in regards to metabolic issues (e.g. characterization of technospheric material stocks and societal impacts of landfill mining) and business dimensions (e.g. economics, organizational issues and management tools). Two articles also provide original contributions by conceptualizing these emerging approaches and defining what makes them different from existing recycling strategies and practices. We conclude that urban mining and landfill mining show high potential but that state-of-the-art is theoretical, implying a need for applied approaches to develop applicable methods and technology and to assess performance of such activities in practice. However, realization of these approaches faces interdisciplinary and long-term challenges, which apart from technology and facts also needs to address non-technical conditions in terms of governance, market dynamics and organizational structures and cultures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Metal stocks, Technosphere, Hibernation, Recycling, Societal transition
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97231 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.04.043 (DOI)000322802300001 ()
Available from: 2013-09-06 Created: 2013-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06
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