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Rodrigues, V., Blomkvist, J. & Holmlid, S. (2018). Perceived Action Potential: A strong concept in development. In: Anna Meroni, Ana María Ospina Medina and Beatrice Villari (Ed.), ServDes2018. Service Design Proof of Concept, Proceedings of the ServDes.2018 Conference, 18-20 June, Milano, Italy: . Paper presented at ServDes2018. Service Design Proof of Concept, Proceedings of the ServDes.2018 Conference, 18-20 June, Milano, Italy (pp. 1162-1174). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 150
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceived Action Potential: A strong concept in development
2018 (English)In: ServDes2018. Service Design Proof of Concept, Proceedings of the ServDes.2018 Conference, 18-20 June, Milano, Italy / [ed] Anna Meroni, Ana María Ospina Medina and Beatrice Villari, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018, Vol. 150, p. 1162-1174Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Service encompasses multiple interaction processes among many different actors. Comprehending the subtleties of what drives actors resource integration activities could therefore be valuable when designing for service. However, these nuances are not necessarily always captured in early representations such as prototypes of service due to variation in individual interpretation of situations. This paper draws on strong concepts from interaction design as a generative intermediate-level form of knowledge, to conceptualise perceived action potential (PAP) as a strong concept through the use of illustrative examples. PAP refers to the subjective interpretation of an individualï¿œs (own) scope of action in new or unforeseen situations. This paper elucidates the implications of PAP for service design and suggests future research opportunities. In introducing strong concepts to service design, it also translates how strong concepts might be identified and subsequently constructed in service design research in order to aid practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018
Series
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 150
Keywords
service design, strong concepts, perceived action potential, value co-creation, resource integration
National Category
Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152005 (URN)9789176852378 (ISBN)
Conference
ServDes2018. Service Design Proof of Concept, Proceedings of the ServDes.2018 Conference, 18-20 June, Milano, Italy
Available from: 2018-10-15 Created: 2018-10-15 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Overkamp, T., Blomkvist, J., Rodrigues, V., Arvola, M. & Holmlid, S. (2018). Resource integration as a perspective on value in interaction design. In: : . Paper presented at British HCI 2018. BCS Learning and Development Ltd.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource integration as a perspective on value in interaction design
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Service-dominant logic (SDL) is a theoretical framework that has impacted the development of service design. Resource integration, a core concept in SDL, provides a distinctive perspective that changes the perception of value in situations of interaction. In this paper, we explore the implications of applying the resource integration view on interaction in the context of an illustrative design project. We argue that considering the resources of each actor in a design situation elevates the discussion towards a more strategic level of service and value creation. Through the example, we draw implications of utilising this perspective in specifying, positioning and shaping interactions in the system to provide value for different actors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BCS Learning and Development Ltd., 2018
Keywords
interaction design, service design, resource integration, service-dominant logic, service logic
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149602 (URN)
Conference
British HCI 2018
Available from: 2018-07-09 Created: 2018-07-09 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Blomkvist, J., Persson, J. & Åberg, J. (2015). Communication through Boundary Objects in Distributed Agile Teams. In: : . Paper presented at CHI '15 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1875-1884). New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 33
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communication through Boundary Objects in Distributed Agile Teams
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Personal communication between User-Centered Design (UCD) specialists and developers is important for communicating user needs and design solutions in agile development. In distributed projects where opportunities for personal communication are limited, the design documentation is an important surrogate. This study has investigated the perceived effectiveness of boundary objects in a distributed agile team, and their role in communicating target user needs. Six in-depth interviews with UCD specialists showed that the boundary objects rarely communicate underlying needs of the users but rather focus on interaction with the system that is being developed. The used boundary objects also do not work as stand-alone deliverables; they need to be explained and elaborated. Making the boundary objects comprehensive enough to be stand-alone is seen as too time consuming and not worth the effort. For agile projects with distributed teams, this creates hand-over and follow-up problems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118676 (URN)10.1145/2702123.2702366 (DOI)000412395501108 ()978-1-4503-3145-6 (ISBN)
Conference
CHI '15 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Available from: 2015-06-03 Created: 2015-06-03 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
Holmlid, S. & Blomkvist, J. (2015). Service Archetypes; a Methodological Consideration. In: Daniela Sangiorgi,David Hands, Emma Murphy (Ed.), ServDes 2014: Service Futures. Paper presented at Service Design and Innovation Conference 2014 (pp. 418-422). Linköping, Sweden: Linköping University Electronic Press, Article ID 043.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Service Archetypes; a Methodological Consideration
2015 (English)In: ServDes 2014: Service Futures / [ed] Daniela Sangiorgi,David Hands, Emma Murphy, Linköping, Sweden: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015, p. 418-422, article id 043Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In practice based research, especially when working with non-research organisations, sometimes researchers face challenges related to the willingness of participants to openly share experiences outside the realms of the project. As a consequence there are methodological challenges with showing results, and working with knowledge verification. In this paper we suggest that some of these obstacles might be dealt with by using service archetypes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping, Sweden: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015
Series
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 099
National Category
Design Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118706 (URN)9789175192802 (ISBN)
Conference
Service Design and Innovation Conference 2014
Available from: 2015-06-03 Created: 2015-06-03 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Blomkvist, J. (2015). Understanding the Results ofConventional Qualitative ContentAnalysis for Design Research. In: EAD 2015: The Value of Design Research. Paper presented at 11th International European Academy of Design Conference. Paris, France, 11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the Results ofConventional Qualitative ContentAnalysis for Design Research
2015 (English)In: EAD 2015: The Value of Design Research, Paris, France, 2015, Vol. 11Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study we look closer at content analysis as a tool in design research and question some of the, more or less explicit, assumptions about what can be achieved by such analyses. To do so, we applied a qualitative content analysis (QCA) on six interviews with service design practitioners.

The topic of the interviews was service prototyping, inquiring the practitioners about their approaches and conceptions, but starting with some more general questions about their work process in the later stages of service design. The interviews were conducted over telephone (2) and Skype (4), most of the time not using video. So a large part of communication that can usually be accessed in physical interactions between people could not be used to enhance understanding of the material.

Qualitative content analysis is used to create an abstract version of a larger data set. QCA is often understood as negotiating the weaknesses associated with qualitative approaches (Mayring, 2000). We discuss this understanding of QCA by looking at an instance where a conventional QCA was used. Conventional QCA is used when existing theory is limited (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005), and researchers are looking to understand a phenomenon by immersing themselves in data and letting categories emerge. This has also been called inductive category development (Mayring, 2000). Little is known about service prototyping practices, making this an appropriate approach.

A paper by (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004) was used to decide what the approach should look like. In this study the analysis was divided into stages:

-        Identifying meaning units

-        Condensing the meaning units

-        Coding

-        Constructing Sub-categories

-        Applying the Sub-categories to categories

-        Generalising categories into themes

In our approach we avoided using preconceived categories (Kondracki, Wellman, & Amundson, 2002) and instead let them emerge from the data, keeping an open attitude to the content. We see this approach as way to go from a straightforward condensation of manifest content, and then, in creating categories and themes, a shift is made to underlying meaning and thus towards the latent content of the material.

Using this example we show the many subjective choices involved in data collection, choosing unit of analysis (and thereby excluding material), dividing the material into meaning units, and in how to understand the collected data. Unlike the idea that the result of such an approach is somehow more objective or “scientific” than other types of qualitative analysis, we argue that the strength of QCA lies in transparency of data and analysis. The bottom-up approach does not ensure that the result is a consequence of the material, but rather that choices have been made visible. The analysis becomes a rationale for the decisions made during analysis that can be accessed by external researchers. This opens up the analysis for critique but should still be seen as the consequence of subjective choices, perspectives and understanding.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Paris, France: , 2015
National Category
Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118704 (URN)
Conference
11th International European Academy of Design Conference
Available from: 2015-06-03 Created: 2015-06-03 Last updated: 2015-06-17
Blomkvist, J. (2015). Ways of Seeing Service: Surrogates for a Design Material. In: NorDes 2015: Design Ecologies. Paper presented at Design Ecologies. Challenging anthropocentrism in the design of sustainable futures, Konstfack – University College of Arts, Crafts and Design. Stockholm, Sweden June 7–10, 2015 Stockholm, Sweden Sunday 7 – Wednesday 10 June (pp. 1-4). , 6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ways of Seeing Service: Surrogates for a Design Material
2015 (English)In: NorDes 2015: Design Ecologies, 2015, Vol. 6, p. 1-4Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Current trends in service design research include case studies and similar approaches that aspire to reveal what the practice of service design looks like. The understanding of how service design is performed can serve as a base for future research into more specific research endeavours. One area where knowledge is said to be lacking is service prototyping, part of which knowledge this paper attempts to contribute. The main data source for the paper is findings from in-depth interviews with six practicing service designers from some of the more well-known design agencies. The informants consider service prototyping to be a very important part of their work that allows them to learn and communicate about design ideas. The practitioners’ account of how they work with prototypes indicates that service prototyping has different meanings and that the practice of prototyping is very diverse. The interviews also uncover a number of areas that, according to the designers, might prove extra challenging for service prototyping to be successful. This research shows that there is much potential in the not yet fully formed practice of service prototyping.

Series
NorDes Digital Archive, ISSN 1604-9705 ; 6
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118672 (URN)
Conference
Design Ecologies. Challenging anthropocentrism in the design of sustainable futures, Konstfack – University College of Arts, Crafts and Design. Stockholm, Sweden June 7–10, 2015 Stockholm, Sweden Sunday 7 – Wednesday 10 June
Available from: 2015-06-03 Created: 2015-06-03 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Blomkvist, J. & Segelström, F. (2014). Benefits of External Representations in Service Design: a Distributed Cognition Perspective. Design journal, 17(3), 331-346
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Benefits of External Representations in Service Design: a Distributed Cognition Perspective
2014 (English)In: Design journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 331-346Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A defining characteristic of service design is the use of external representations, which support designers in making intangible aspects of services accessible and shareable. Both current and future states are externally represented, using different service design techniques, for the purposes of articulating insights, learning, communicating, collaborating, and maintaining empathy for customers. The purposes of, and techniques for, making external representations were compared with benefits of using external representations to think, suggested by the theory of distributed cognition. The analysis indicated that the service design techniques could be divided into two groups; definite and ongoing. The analysis also revealed that none of the included techniques explicitly supported designers in making multiple simultaneous representations of services. The research contributes knowledge about how the externalisations relate to benefits of making external representations, and about how to choose and use different service design techniques based on theories of distributed and situated cognition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014
Keywords
External Representations, Service Design, Cognitive Science, Distributed Cognition
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105945 (URN)10.2752/175630614X13982745782849 (DOI)000340697900003 ()
Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Blomkvist, J., Åberg, J. & Holmlid, S. (2014). Formative Evaluation of IT-based Services: A Case Study of a Meal Planning Service. Interacting with computers, 26(6), 540-556
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formative Evaluation of IT-based Services: A Case Study of a Meal Planning Service
2014 (English)In: Interacting with computers, ISSN 0953-5438, E-ISSN 1873-7951, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 540-556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To evaluate and develop a service supported by an IT (information technology) system the intentionto use the future service should be in focus. The technology acceptance model (TAM) and the theoryof planned behaviour (TPB) can both provide knowledge about users’ intention to use a service,making them good models to base formative decisions on. Unlike TAM, TPB is concerned withspecific information related to the service context, and provide knowledge about what makes ITuseable.We used an adapted version of the TPB as the foundation for a formative service evaluationtechnique called F-SET.We applied the F-SET to a case where two subsequent versions of a serviceprototype were evaluated. The first prototype was a description of the service supported by Hi-Fidesign sketches showing what a web-based meal planning tool could look like. The second prototypeconsisted of both service processes and the web-based meal planning tool.To find relevant factors thatinfluence future use of such a service, a survey of 28 informants was conducted with the first prototype.The second prototype involved five families who used the service for two weeks.The feedback providedby the families, based on the factors identified in the pre-test, influenced the future direction of theservice development. Feedback from the informants was distributed between the service and the ITsystem, and the most common factors that influence the intention to use the service were time, price,usefulness and availability. Feedback included both positive and negative comments, as well as bugsand suggestions for improvements.We discuss potential improvements and what kind of informationto expect from the different constructs of the TPB.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2014
Keywords
web services, electronic commerce, software prototyping, HCI design and evaluation methods, empirical studies in HCI
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105489 (URN)10.1093/iwc/iwt052 (DOI)000344604900003 ()
Funder
VINNOVA, 2010-02683
Available from: 2014-03-25 Created: 2014-03-25 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Blomkvist, J. & Arvola, M. (2014). Pausing or not?: Examining the Service Walkthrough Technique. In: Daniel Fitton, Matt Horton, Janet C Read, Gavin Sim (Ed.), Proceedings of the 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference on HCI 2014: Sand, Sea & Sky - Holiday HCI. Paper presented at The 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2014), Southport, UK, 9 - 12 September 2014 (pp. 171-176). London, UK: British Computer Society (BCS)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pausing or not?: Examining the Service Walkthrough Technique
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference on HCI 2014: Sand, Sea & Sky - Holiday HCI / [ed] Daniel Fitton, Matt Horton, Janet C Read, Gavin Sim, London, UK: British Computer Society (BCS), 2014, p. 171-176Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The scope of service design calls for holistic design techniques that represent multiple service moments. One such technique is the service walkthrough that can be used to prototype and formatively evaluate services. A service walkthrough is an enactment of several consecutive service moments. This paper informs decisions about how to set up service walkthroughs by looking at two kinds of walkthroughs in a case study: with pauses for discussion and feedback after each service moment, and without pauses where the entire service journey is walked through before comments and feedback are collected. The case study did not show any differences in the content of the feedback, but more feedback was given in the walkthroughs with pauses. The feedback in the paused walkthroughs was also more detailed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, UK: British Computer Society (BCS), 2014
Series
Electronic Workshops in Computing (eWiC), ISSN 1477-9358
Keywords
Case Study, Content Analysis, Evaluation, Prototyping, Service Walkthrough
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105947 (URN)10.14236/ewic/hci2014.18 (DOI)
Conference
The 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2014), Southport, UK, 9 - 12 September 2014
Note

At the time of thesis defense the article was in status Manuscript

Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Blomkvist, J. (2014). Representing Future Situations of Service: Prototyping in Service Design. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Representing Future Situations of Service: Prototyping in Service Design
2014 (English)Data set
Alternative title[sv]
Representationer av Framtida Tjänster : Prototypande i Tjänstedesign
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes prototyping in service design through the theoretical lens of situated cognition. The research questions are what a service prototype is, what the benefits of service prototyping are, and how prototypes aid in the process of designing services. Four papers are included. Paper one suggests that service prototyping should be considered from the perspectives of purpose, fidelity, audience, position in the process, technique, representation, validity and author. The second paper compares research about how humans use external representations to think, with reasons for using prototypes in service design and service design techniques. The third paper compares two versions of a service prototyping technique called service walkthrough; showing that walkthroughs with pauses provided both more comments in total and more detailed feedback. The fourth paper also contributes to our understanding of how prototypes aid in designing services, by connecting the surrogate situation with the future situation of service. The paper shows how the formative service evaluation technique (F-SET) uses the theory of planned behaviour to add knowledge to service prototype evaluations about the intention to use a service in the future. Taken together the research provides a deeper understanding of what prototypes are, and their roles in service prototyping. This understanding is further deepened by a discussion about service as a design material, suggesting that from a design perspective, a service consists of service concept, process and system. The service prototype acts as a surrogate for the future situation of service. The thesis describes what the benefits of using surrogates are, and shows how prototypes enhance the ability to gain knowledge about future situations. This leads to an understanding of prototyping as a way of thinking in design.

Abstract [sv]

Den här avhandlingen använder situerad kognition som lins för at beskriva prototypande i tjänstedesign. Genom den här beskrivningen undersöker avhandlingen vad en tjänsteprototyp är, vad fördelarna med att använda prototyper är samt hur prototypande kan användas för att designa tjänster. Fyra artiklar ingår i avhandlingen. Den första artikeln föreslår att tjänsteprototypande ska betraktas från perspektiven syfte, detaljgrad, publik, position i processen, teknik, representation, validitet och författare. Avhandlingens andra artikel jämför forskning om fördelarna med att använda externa representationer för tänkande, med anledningar för att externalisera i tjänstedesign, och tekniker för att göra externa representationer. Den tredje artikeln jämför två variationer av prototypningstekniken tjänstegenomgång, och visar att genomgångar med pauser ger mer kommentarer och mer detaljerad feedback. Den sista artikeln bidrar också till förståelsen av hur prototyper stöder design av tjänster, genom att den kopplar surrogatsituationen och den framtida tjänstesituationen. Artikeln visar hur en teknik kallad formative service evaluation technique använder theory of planned behaviour för att bidra med kunskap om att evaluera tjänster med avseende på intention att använda tjänsten i framtiden. Tillsammans bidrar forskningen till en djupare förståelse av vad prototyper är och deras roller i tjänsteprototypning. Denna förståelse fördjupas ytterligare genom en diskussion av tjänster som designmaterial och avhandlingen föreslår att arbetet att representera och designa tjänster innefattar både design av och för tjänster. Tjänsteprototyper fungerar som surrogat för den framtida tjänstesituationen. Avhandlingen beskriver föredelarna med att använda surrogat och visar hur prototyper stödjer möjligheten att skapa kunskap om framtida tjänstesituationer. Detta leder till att prototypande ses som ett sätt att tänka i design.

Place, publisher, year
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014
Keywords
service design, situated cognition, prototyping, representations, tjänstedesign, situerad kognition, prototypande, representationer
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144407 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-19 Created: 2018-01-19 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3547-6792

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